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Evidence of sequence in the use of metal-Remains of the Paleolithic Age
-Relics of the Neolithic Age—Tombs of the kings-Cromlechs, dolmens,
standing-stones—Superstitious notions concerning them—Classification of
barrows-Chambered and unchambered varieties—Picts' houses in Scot.
land, and Clocháns in Ireland—Contents of the tombs, Physical charac-
teristics of the people who built them—Commencement of the Bronze
Age-Evidences of an invasion of men of Finnish type—Their peaceful re-
lations with the earlier occupants of the country-Contents of their bar-
rows–Implements—Ornaments-Agriculture and general civilization,
Their incorporation with the Celtic people, and probable influence on the
Celtic languages of Britain.

The Celtic languages—Their living forms in Scotland, Ireland, Wales,

Man, and Brittavy-Dead forms: Pictish, Cornish, Welsh of Stratclyde,

Gaulish, Thracian, Galatian, and Celtiberian-Literature of the surviving

Celtic dialects-Scotch, Irish, Welsh, and Manx versions of St. Luke, chap.

vii, v. 11-17–Difference between the British dialects and the Brezonec

of Brittany-The difference but slight in Cæsar's time, and even as late as
the twelfth centurySimilarity of the Welsh and Gaulish languages--Like-
ness between the older forms of Welsh and Irish-Welsh and Irish prob-
ably at first one nation-Their separation and contact with other peoples
leads to a difference of form in their languages.

Religion of the British tribes—Its influence on the literature of ro-

mance-Theories about Druidism—The Welsh Triads—Their date and

authority–Legend of Hugh the Mighty-Mythological poems of the Welsh

bards-Religion of the Gauls—Its nature—The greater gods—Local deities

and inferior gods-Origin of Druidism-Insular and Continental Druids-

Doctrines of the British Druids—Their ceremonies and human sacrifices-

Relics of the old creed still found among the country people, in heroic

poems, and in nursery tales—Metempsychosis, Sacred animals—Prohibi-

tion of certain kinds of food-Connected with claims of descent from

animals—Totemism-Extent of this superstition in ancient and modern

times.

A general idea of the country and its people at the time of the first Ro

man invasion essential to a correct understanding of the vicissitudes which

subsequently befell the British nations...

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Character of the Roman conquest—The century of peace after Cæsar's
invasion—Increase of commerce with Gaul-Fresh settlements of Gauls
in Britain—The Atrebates—The Belgæ– The Parisii—Temporary pros-
perity of the native states-Silver coinage ; precious ores; exports-Ro-
man greed-End of the peace—The capture of Camulodunum—The Tri-
umph of Claudius - Massacre of the captives — Enrolment of British

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regiments— Tyrannical administration-Revolt of the Iceni-Victory of
Paullinus—The province constituted - Agricola's beneficial government-
Extent of the Roman conquest after his retirement, The Caledonian
tribes - The Picts and Scots—Their hostile enterprises-Hadrian sum-
moned to Britain - His headquarters at Eburacum, the site of modern
York—Roman camps the origin of many English towns—Their sites and
system of fortification-Hadrian's wall—Description of its remains—The
expedition of Severus-Death of the emperor at York—The revolt of Ca.
rausius–Growing influence and final defeat of the Franks in Britain-
Diocletian's scheme of government-Reigns of Constantius and Constan-
tine the Great-Division of Roman Britain into five provinces—Effect of
the new constitution—Increase of taxation and extreme wretchedness of
the natives—Establishment of Christianity in Britain-Gradual decay of
Paganism-Pantheistic religions—State of the frontiers-Renewed attacks
of the Picts and Scots—The Franks and Saxons— Victories of Theodosius

— The revolt of Maximus-His successful campaign against the Picts and
Scots—He raises a large army of Britons and Gauls, crosses over to the
Continent, and establishes himself at Trêves as Emperor of the West-
His drain upon the native population a cause of weakness to the country
-Believed to have been the proximate cause of the English conquest-
Combined attacks of Scots, Picts, and Saxons—Repulsed by Stilicho-
Usurpation of Constantine-The treason of Gerontius—The cities of Brit.
ain repel a German invasion—They refuse to return to their former subjec-
tion-Honorius releases them from further allegiance—The independence
of Britain.

Effects of four hundred years of Roman occupation upon the native
Celtic language - Agricola endeavors to introduce Roman civilization
among the native chiefs-Roman schools in Britain inferior to those in
Gaul—British students frequenting the Gaulish law schools—No Latin
author of distinction among the Britons-Latin indispensable to the native
business people—In official transactions, imperative-Ancient British coins
are stamped with Roman capitals, British monumental inscriptions in
Latin-Latin words traceable in the Cambrian dialect-Few words in
modern English of Latin origin referable to the early British period...... 34

CHAPTER III.

THE ENGLISH CONQUEST.

Troubles of the independent Britons—They organize under their an-
cient chiefs of tribes—The Chief of chiefs--The office a source of internal
dissension-Fresh invasions of Picts and Scots—The Saxon pirates—The
Halleluia victory-Engagement of foreign soldiers as auxiliaries in the
British service-Beginnings of the English conquest-British and Saxon
accounts compared-Early Welsh poems-Nennius ; Gildas ; Bede-The
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle-Character of the authorities–Jutes-Doubtful

origin of the name-The legend of Hengist and Horsa—The Saxon
invasions—Britain full of German settlements-Its wealth and commerce
attract the continental pirates—The whole of British coasts open to their
enterprises-Count of the Saxon frontier-His powers and jurisdiction
- The North German coast from the Scheldt to the Elbe-Holland as
it was and as it is— The Batavi in Cæsar's time-Their bravery and faith
as Roman allies—The Franks—Not known to either Cæsar or Tacitus-
First heard of in A. D. 241–Originally found along the upper Rhine-
They gradually spread westward to the sea—Their naval expeditions
against Britain and down the coast of Gaul—Their physical appearance,
their institutions, and equipments in war-Their weapons found in Kent
and elsewhere in England—The Friesians—They occupy originally the
entire coast from the Scheldt to Denmark-Friesians and Hollanders
essentially the same people—In the third century they form a confederacy
with the Chauci and yield the southern part of Holland to the Franks-
The Saxons-First mentioned by Ptolemy-The name derived from their
national weapon-Their warlike character—They often act in concert with
the Friesians and the Franks— Their early raids into Gaul and Britain-
The Saxons at home and the Saxons in England—The aggressive power
of the former destroyed by Charlemagne—The Angles-Only incidentally
mentioned by Tacitus—Ptolemy places them on the middle Elbe among
the Hermunduri-Believed by some to have been a branch of the Her-
munduri— They spread along the lower Elbe into Holstein—Ida's expedi-
tion—The Angles in the interior join the Varini, and, conjointly with
them, take the name of Thuringi— The name of Angles not derived from
the Angulus in Sleswick-Theories as to other invading tribes—Their
general character described by Orosius, Zosimus, Ammianus Marcellinus,
Sidonius Apollinaris, and others—Their extraordinary daring and savage
cruelty—Their moral qualities and national sense of honor— Their sur-
roundings in their continental homes contrasted with those of people live
ing in milder climes—The influence of climate on civilization and on lan-
guage—The Gothic stock of languages-Specimen of Mæso-Gothic- The
Teutonic branch and its subdivisions—The Scandinavian branch and its
subdivisions-German, Dutch, Danish, and Swedish compared-Britain
invaded by the Low-Dutch speaking people-Time of the first invasion
uncertain—The invasion slow and gradual— Participation of foreign resi-
dents-Condition of the Britons under Saxon rule-The sack of Anderida
-Fate of the Roman towns-Social and political relations of the Saxon
tribes in England— Their advance in agriculture-Their institutions and
form of government—The freemen and the serfs—Various degrees of serf-
dom-Saxon slaves in the slave-mart at Rome-They attract the attention
of Pope Gregory the Great-He conceives the idea of educating some as
missionaries to Britain—They fail to answer his expectation-He intrusts
the mission to Augustin-He provides him with letters to the Frankish
kings, Theodoric and Theodebert, assist him on his journey to Britain-
Curious reference in these letters to the Saxons in Britain as subjects of the

a

The Danes-Known by various naines—Their origin and continental
homes—Their national character-Their skalds and bards—Their con-
firmed idolatry and hatred of the converted Saxons accounted for—Their
numerous kings and petty kingdoms reduced to three separate monarchies

- The Vikingr-Their piratical associations-Early Danish expeditions
against England - Danish invasion of Cornwall supported by the Britons-
Repulse of the Danes—They effect a settlement in the northeast of Eng-
land-Another expedition lands in East Anglia—They march on York, and
occupy the whole country around it—Northumberland ceases to be an Eng-
lish kingdom, and becomes a rallying point of the Danes - After three
years' preparation they move southward with overwhelming forces—Fearful
destruction of churches, monasteries, books, manuscripts, and everything
connected with Christian worship-Their national fanaticism is directed
especially against the clergy-Many native English relapse into idolatry-
East Anglia becomes a Danish kingdom—The English population reduced
to a state of semi-servitude - Nearly all England overrun by the Danes
Wessex alone remains an English kingdom—The Danes pass the Thames
-Æthelred, King of Wessex, dies of wounds received in battle — His
brother Alfred succeeds him-The latter repels the Danes, and maintains
the boundary line of the Thames-His excessive rigor alienates his sub-
jects-He deserts the people who had deserted him—The Danes enter
Wessex-Many inhabitants take refuge in Gaul or in Ireland— Those who

PAGB

remain pay tribute, and labor for the Danes — Alfred, known to a few
friends only, keeps up a guerilla warfare against the Danes—The unknown
chief is joined by many partisans,He makes himself known, and strongly
reinforced, he drives out the Danes—Their King Guthrum and his captains
receive baptism, as by treaty, and withdraw to East Anglia-All parts of
England, not occupied by the Danes, form henceforth one single state-
Bad faith of the Danes—They join new expeditions against the southern
English-Their constant wars and incessant depredations fatal to civ-
ilization.

Deterioration of the vernacular English-Lack of culture among the

English people in Alfred's time-His endeavor to rescue his dominions

from illiteracy and ignorance He invites the most learned men from

abroad to come as teachers to England-The studies that were cultivated

in those ages-Alcuin and his methods-Dialectic differences in early Eng-

lish-Like differences still existing in cognate idioms-Friesian and Dutch

compared with modern English-The written Anglo-Saxon a conglomerate

of various dialects—Its grammar, vocabulary, and literature—The scholars

of the eighth and ninth century write mainly for the learned— Their writing

only in Latin is detrimental to the progress of the vernacular language

Anglo-Saxon versions of the Gospel-Eighth and tenth century specimens

of Anglo-Saxon scriptural language-A Northumberland gloss of the same

passage—Danish influence on early English-Traceable especially in the

dialects of northern England-Common names of Scandinavian origin-

Proper names, descriptive of Scandinavian localities—Proper names, de-

scriptive of Anglo-Saxon localities—Identity of local and patronymic names

in England, Holland, Friesland, Westphalia, Belgium, and Northern

France, showing identity of origin and race—The extent of Danish occu-

pation best ascertained from geographical nomenclature—The presence of

the Danes prejudicial to the development of national character-Low con-

dition of the nation at the time of the Norman conquest

143

Origin of the Normans-King Harald Harfager prohibits piracy in
his states-Hrolf, the son of a favorite chief, disregards the law and is
banished-He is joined by other Norwegian exiles and emigrants—They
organize at the Hebrides, and form a piratical association-They effect a
landing in England, and winter in the island-After plundering Flanders,
they sail up the Seine, and ravage the surrounding country-Rouen capit-
ulates—The Normans make it their headquarters, and establish themselves
all over Neustria — Rollo, first duke of Normandy-His character as a
leader-The eighth century Danes and tenth century Normans compared
The Normans in Gaul become a French-speaking people—The Scandi-
navian idiom kept up longest at Bayeux-The Normans before and after

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