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leries. The ground-floor rooms should be mattresses or water beds. It is not gener apportioned to a dining and coffee-room, a ally understood that the object of a soft bed library and lecture-room, and a kitchen. is chiefly to fit the body, to prevent undue The central portion, to the height of the first strain on any portion of the bones or muscles. floor, should be covered in with glass pave- Feather beds do not well attain this object, ment, and applied to hot and cold baths, because the feathers not being pliant or and wash-houses. The cellars beneath, to moveable, are consequently compressed.
. , the stowage of provisions and fuel. The The water bed obviates this, and produces upper story should be the nursery for chil- equal pressure. Could the body be laid in dren, and the school-rooms. The interme- a plaster cast exactly fitting it, there would diate ranges of apartments would be sitting- be no sensation of hardness
. Plaster casts rooms and bed-rooms. On the north side and prints, multiplied by mechanical art, of the building, external to the kitchen, should abound. The large halls, and dining should be a building containing a steam- and lecture-rooms, might be furnished with engine and well, and small gas-works, with statues and paintings, if they could be afa lofty chimney running above it close to the forded. But all should wear a severe simexternal wall. The waste heat from the plicity, though the eye should never rest on gas-works would serve to heat economically an ugly or ungraceful object. the engine boiler, and to prepare heated air It may be objected that this mode of livto warm the building generally in the gal ing would not suit the tastes of English leries and halls, and particularly in the pri- people, who consider “every man's house vate rooms, being in the hollows of the his castle,” and prefer model cottages to floors at all times, and admitted into, or ex- model lodging-houses. This idea, we believe,
, cluded from the apartments, at the pleasure has chiefly arisen from the distaste conseof the inhabitants. Each bed-room and sit- quent on inco
and miserable lodgingting-room would be provided with a closet, houses. But there is no reason why this dust-shoot, and sink; and some of them system should not combine all the advanwould be arranged to throw three or four or tages of the clubs with all the privacy of more apartments in groups at pleasure. The domestic life, free from its drudgery. It is use of the engine would be, to grind and certain that, upon this system, the maximum chop for the kitchen, to clean boots and of comfort, with the minimum of labor, may shoes with circular brushes on a shaft, to be realized ; and it is only by the congregaclean knives and forks by the same process, tion of individuals that high civilization can to pump up hot and cold water into all the be attained. Let us consider the advantages. apartments, to furnish steam for the drying- First, the most thorough and absolute inclosets and cooking, and cleansing earthen- dependence of all personal attendance. In ware and utensils, and keep going a rising such a dwelling a man might conveniently and falling lift to the upper stories, to save obtain all that he would require for personal the labor of mounting stairs. Westward use, as simply as he could buy goods in a and southward of the building should be shop. There could be no dirt, with hard laid out a garden and pleasure-ground, kept slate surfaces for floors and walls. His hot cultivated by the manure and refuse, chemi- and cold water, and gas, all arranged to his cally treated, to neutralize the gases. The hand, and with the means of getting rid of garden would furnish plants to place in the waste water ; with couch and furniture so interior of the building, to consume any vi- simple as almost to be self-arranging ; and tiated air that might escape the ventilating with ready access to food at any time he processes. Open fire-places might be placed might require it; he would need no personal in the apartments on the ground floor, and attendance, save in case of illness.
He gas stoves in the others.
might go in and out at his own pleasure, These arrangements would suit the solitary without trouble to himself or others. Adas well as the gregariously disposed. The vantageous as all this would be to individual gas and hot water arrangements would serve men, infinitely greater would be the advanfor all the processes of private cookery, and tages to families. A large assemblage of the public kitchen would supply food for people could maintain their own physician on single men or families, to whom household the establishment; could engage their own drudgery were a nuisance.
lecturers and school teachers'; could have a The furniture should be chiefly metallic, public nursery ; could tend the sick; could to prevent risk of fire, and of forms simple, have their own gymnastic grounds : in short, yet graceful. The beds should be spring all the appliances which are now the exclusive privileges of the wealthy, In such an these badly arranged dwellings, mostly establishment the natural aptitudes of child hinge, and a change is fast arriving in the dren would be developed profitably to the character of domestic service. The position of community ; and painful misfits, rendering both men and women domestic servants, is so many intelligent persons a nuisance to that of painful privation. Taken as a mass, their friends and the community, would be good feeling is the highest of their enavoided. Social intercourse would be at- joyments; good lodging is uncommontainable without its present disadvantages, pleasant lodging a rare exception; social inand the members of such a community tercourse is practically denied. They are, would grow up attached to each other. in short, mostly treated as a species of white
We have contemplated such an establish- slaves; and, as a natural consequence, they ment as this for the use of working men will many of them lie and pilfer like black and their families—a species of communism slaves. Their higher feelings are rarely culfor the purpose of economizing expenditure, tivated; they are regarded as a necessary just as gas companies, and water companies, evil, and “envy, and hatred, and malice, and and canal and railway companies, are en- all uncharitableness," are begotten in them abled to accomplish, economically, things toward those whom they regard as cruel which are beyond the reach of individuals. taskmasters. It is said that there are upWhether out of this condition of things, long ward of a million of women servants in practiced and widely diffused, may ultimately England; and so commonly is their condigrow associations for the purposes of Pro- tion that of unjust treatment, that where induction amongst working men, is a fit pro- dividuals behave kindly to them, they are blem for contemplation. It is the probable apt to think them fools or designing persons. course of man's progress; but assuredly no It is impossible that this mass of injured fallacy can be greater than that of assuming human beings should long remain contented that men who have been forced into selfish in their condition. They have human feelthoughts and habits by bad training and ings, and they will have human ties. Doprivation, can be fitted for communist asso- mestic Servants' Associations will infallibly ciation. The class of men in the mass, fitted rise up to resist this great injustice; and infor such purposes, have yet to be born and fallibly they will commit other injustices in bred. Individuals may be found from whom redressing their own wrongs. In England pattern associations of an imperfect kind we have the example of employers' injustice; may be congregated; but it is only by a in the United States we have injustice on fine race of nature's gentlemen that the per- the part of the “helps.” But to the posifect result can be obtained. Meanwhile tion of the United States we are fast ap“coming events cast their shadows before ;" proaching. Service is distasteful, because, o'er all the earth nations are dreaming the practically, it is accompanied by loss of dream of man's coming equality, and the freedom. The word service is in itself a wonder-working process of social reforms. gracious word, as it is a gracious thing to It will not be in our time, but we may sow serve our fellows; but in our domestic serthe good seed which shall bear blossoms in vants' apprehension it has lost its original the future. Misapprehension will probably meaning, and has become distas teful serviretard it ; for people will dream that it is tude, or service rendered for hire. So surely proposed for them to live in public caravan- as the years roll on, higher wages and lessaries, the truth being that it is desired to sening performance will mark domestic serobtain for them, more perfectly than ever, vice, till the time comes round that the oblithe most complete privacy at their own op- gation is considered equal to serve and be tion—that privacy which is ever sought in served ; that mutual attachment from sugreat cities, by those who understand the periors to inferiors in the social scale, arising course of human action.
from the possession of different qualificaWe have contemplated such an establish- tions, will be a far stronger bond than that ment as erected for working men; and the of mere cash payment. Ere this comes to outlay of capital will not frighten those who pass, there will be heavy domestic leuds beknow how comparatively cheaper large tween the ill-instructed of both lasses, and houses are built than small ones. But it is by which the better instructed will suffer. a matter for the serious contemplation of Meanwhile, the only remedy for the middle the middle and wealthier classes, if they classes, loving their ease, will be to increase
, would retain their comforts around them. their mechanical appliances and labor-saving Upon domestic service, their comforts, in processes, to make themselves self-dependent
much to say.
as fast as their domestic servants become in- | lie open to the reproach of seeking to keep dependent. Both parties will gain by this others poor in order to appropriate to yourchange; and the new generation will grow self. If you preach poverty, at least pracup to improved dwellings as their natural tice your preaching. We ourselves believe state of existence, far in advance of that of poverty to be an evil ;-wealth, as the name their fathers and mothers. Precisely as the imports, in its high sense of weal, to be a Brougham carriage, with one horse and one good. From poverty—in other words, from man, has replaced the cumbrous old vehicle, ignorance-spring countless evils; from with its two men and two horses, and made wealth, rightly applied, innumerable goods. the rider more independent, so will the im- One of our most earnest modern writers, proved dwelling, with its diminished per- the author of " Modern Painters,” has writsonal wants, take the place of the old incon- ten in his work some sentences capable of venient house.
misapprehension on this point. We approach But where are we to find sites for these him with a reverential feeling, for his power improved dwellings and gardens for work- and love of truth, and we would fain hope ing men ? will be asked by a host of object- that we have misunderstood him. But we ors. Where do you find sites for your cannot let it pass unnoticed, for others may workhouses ? will be our reply. Are they read it wrongly also, if we have so done; not all going out of town, under the new and it were pity that such a mind should fail system? If you want garden land, go to to take hold of the mass, or be held as an the borders of the new working men's parks ascetic teacher of bygone times,—a stern in Manchester, or of the new Victoria-park, taskmaster of the present seeking to renew in London. Go to the railways, east, west, the temple-building of the past ages with the north, and south, and find sites along their sweat of modern brows; leaving the laborer borders. On this question we have yet in his unwholesome hovel, while the priest
inhabits a palace; teaching him to worship We have now run through the four minor God in temples made with hands, while he questions relating to Physical Man and his himself has but a wretched hut to cover him. progress-Food, Fuel, Clothing, and Lodg- As in Egypt, the pyramid for the priest, the ing; clearly indicating the steps by which cavern for the worshiper. We stop to exwe think it probable that he will eradicate tract :physical evil in conformity with the laws of
“ And yet people speak, in this working age, nature, who has provided a constant succession of new circumstances in accordance with and land, and food, and raiment, were alone use
when they speak from their hearts, as if houses, the growth of his knowledge and power, ful, and as if sight, thought, and admiration, were from the form of the ferocious wild animal all profitless; so that men insolently call themup to the likeness of an angel. And herein selves utilitarians, who would turn, if they had a great work will have been achieved, though their way, themselves and their race into vegetawe shall be met at this point by numerous
bles; men who think, as far as such can be said objectors, who hold so strongly to the pro- the raiment than the body; who look to the earth
to think, that the meat is more than the life, and gress of man's mind, that they forget his
as a stable, and to its fruit as fodder; vine-dressers body is a basis-a temple, wherein his mind and husbandmen, who love the corn they grind must dwell. Following up these objectors and the grapes they crush, better than the gardens to the extreme, we should arrive at asceti- of the angels upon the slopes of Eden; hewers cism ; we should pull down our baths and of wood and drawers of water, who think that wash-houses, for they are but a portion of the wood they hew, and the water they draw, are the labor bestowed upon our bodies. Fairly tains like the shadow of God, and than the great
better than the pine-forests that cover the mounmeeting these objectors, we should subject rivers that move like his eternity. And so comes them to a test. We would say to each one
upon us that woe of the preacher, that though God -What is your own personal limit of com- ‘hath made everything beautiful in his time, also fort and convenience; what kind of house he hath set the world in their hearts, so that no do
you inhabit; what food do you eat; what man can find out the work that God maketh from kind of clothing do you wear; what do you the beginning to the end.'
“ This Nebuchadnezzar curse, that sends us to possess of refinement or embellishment in works of art ? Cease, then, your objections grass like oxen, seems to follow but too closely
on the excess or continuance of national power to physical ease and comfort, till every hu- and peace. In the perplexities of nations, in their man being is at least as well provided as struggles for existence in their infancy, their imyourself with the things that God has given potence, or even their disorganization, they have
od ends. If you deny this, you will higher hopes and nobler passions. Out of the
suffering comes the serious mind; out of the sal- | know Him by whom we live, and that he is not vation, the grateful heart; out of the endurance, to be known by marring his fair works, and blotthe fortitude; out of the deliverance, the faith; ting out the evidence of his influences upon his but now, when they have learned to live under creatures, not amidst the hurry of crowds and providence of laws, and with decency and justice crash of innovations, but in solitary places, and of regard for each other, and when they have out of the glowing intelligences which he gave to done away with violent and external sources of men of old. He did not teach them bow to build suffering, worse evils seem arising out of the for glory and for beauty, he did not give them rest,-evils that vex less and mortify more, that the fearless, faithful, inherited energies that suck the blood though they do not 'shed it, and worked on and down from death to death generaossify the heart though they do not torture it. tion after generation, that we, foul and sensual And deep though the causes of thankfulness must as we are, might give the carved work of their be to every people at peace with others and at poured-out spirit to the axe and the hammer ; he unity in itself, there are causes of fear also—a has not cloven the earth with rivers, that their fear grea'er than of sword and sedition--that de- white wild waves might turn wheels and push pendence on God may be forgotten, because the paddles, nor turned it up under as it were fire, bread is given and the water sure; that gratitude that it might heat wells and cure diseases; he to Hiin may cease, because his constancy of pro- brings not up his quails by the east wind, only to tection has taken the semblance of a natural | let them fall in flesh about the camp of men; he law; that heavenly hope may grow faint amidst has not heaped the rocks of the mountain only the full fruition of the world, that seltishness may for the quarry, nor clothed the grass of the field take place of undemanded devotion, compassion only for the oven. be lost in vainglory, and love in dissimulation; All science, and all art, may be divided into that enervation may succeed to strength, apathy that which is subservient to life, and which is the to patience, and the noise of jesting words, and object of it. As subservient to life, or practical, foulness of dark thoughts, to the earnest purity their results are, in the common sense of the word, of the girded loins and the burning lamp. About useful. As the object of life or theoretic, they the river of human life there is a wintry wind, are, in the common sense, useless ; and yet the though a heavenly sunshine; the iris colors its step between practical and theoretic science, is agitation, the frost fixes upon its repose. Let us the step between the miner and the geologist, the beware that our rest become not the rest of stones, apothecary and the chemist; and the step between which, so long as they are torrent-tossed and practical and theoretic art, is that between the thunder-stricken, maintain their majesty, but bricklayer and the architect, between the plumber when the stream is silent, and the storm passed, and the artist; and this is a step allowed on all suffer the grass to cover them and the lichen to hands to be from less to greater, so that the sofeed on them, and are ploughed down into dust. called useless part of each profession, does by the And though I believe we have salt enough of authoritative and right instinct of mankind, assume ardent and holy mind amongst us to keep us in the superior and more noble place, even though some measure from this moral decay, yet the books be sometimes written, and that by writers signs of it must be watched with anxiety, in all of no ordinary mind, which assume that a chemmatter however trivial, in all directions however ist is rewarded for the years of toil which have distant. And at this time, when the iron roads traced the greater part of the combinations of are tearing up the surface of Europe, as grape- matter to their ultimate atoms, by discovering a shot do the sea; when their great sagene is cheap way of refining sugar, and date the emidrawing and twitching the ancient frame and nence of the philosopher, whose life has been strength of England together, contracting all its spent in the investigation of the laws of light, various life, its rocky arms, and rural heart, into from the time of his inventing an improvement in a narrow, finite, calculating metropolis of manu- spectacles. facture : ; when there is not a monument through- " But the common consent of men proves and out the cities of Europe, that speaks of old years accepts the proposition, that whatever part of any and mighty people, but is being swept away to pursuit ministers to the bodily comforis, and adbuild cares and gaming-houses; when the honor mits of material uses, is ignoble, and whatsoever of God is thought to consist in the poverty of his part is addressed to the mind only is noble; and temple—and the column is shortened, and the that geology does better in re-clothing dry bones, pinnacle shattered, the color denied to the case- and revealing lost creations, than in tracing veins ment, and the marble to the altar-while exche- of lead and beds of iron; astronomy better in quers are exhausted in luxury of boudoirs, and opening to us the houses of heaven, than in teachpride of reception-rooms; when we ravage with ing navigation; botany better in displaying strucout a pause all the loveliness of a creation which ture than in expressing juices; surgery better in God in giving pronounced good, and destroy with investigating organization, than in setting limbs ; out a thought all those labors which men have only it is ordained that for our encouragement, given their lives, and their sons' sons' lives to every step we make in the more exalted range complete, and have left for a legacy to all their of science adds something also to its practical apkind, a legacy of more than their hearts' blood, plicabilities ; that all the great phenomena of nafor it is of their souls' travail ; there is need, bil- ture, the knowledge of which is desired by the ter need, to bring back, if we may, into men's angels only, by us partly, as it reveals to farther minds, that to live is nothing, unless to live be to vision the being and the glory of Him in whom
they rejoice and we live, dispense yet such kind | bodies of men, women, and children: while influences and so much of material blessing as men ask for bread, and get stones to break in to be joyfully felt by all inferior creatures, and to be desired by them with such single desires as the
answer; while France, and Germany, and imperfection of their nature may admit; that the Italy, make revolutions, incited mainly thereto strong torrents which, in their own gladness, fill by the scarcity of food, let us not be accused the hills with hollow thunder, and the vales with of too much work; while eastward, and winding light, have yet their bounden charge of westward, barbarism still obtains, and men field to feed and barge to bear; that the fierce are as the “ beasts that perish,” let us not be flames to which the Alp owes its upheaval and turned aside from the work that is to work the volcano its terror, temper for us the metal vein out their civilization. Pine forests, John and quickening spring, and that for our incite Ruskin, are better than wood to burn, yet ment-I say not our reward—for knowledge is its own reward, herbs have their healing, stones that, too, is a part appointed to them. Well their preciousness, and stars their times. singeth the Transatlantic Englishman, Ralph
Waldo Emerson, of the pine, and thus transThis is speech as from the lips of a prophet, lates his speech :-grandly expressed and purposeful in its
“ The wild-eyed boy, who in the woods meaning. Yet, of a surety, has Ruskin lived
Chaunts his hymn to hill and floods, in the halls of the high and powerful only Whom the city's poisoning spleen to have gathered up this meaning at this age Made not pale, or fat, or lean; of the world. Of kindred feeling was Cole- Whom the rain and the wind purgeth, ridge, thinking of the proud ones of the earth,
Whom the dawn and day-star urgeth ;
In whose cheeks the rose-leaf blusheth, when he penned the lines—
In whose feet the lion rusheth.
Iron arms and iron mould, - Oh, lady! nursed in pomp and pleasure,
That know not fear, fatigue, or cold. Where learned you that heroic measure ?"
I give my rafters to his boat,
My billets to his boiler's throat. It is not so, John Ruskin; the workers of And I will swim the ancient sea this world, this our English world, are not To float my child to victory; mere hewers of wood and drawers of water. And grant to dwellers with the pine The contracted utilitarian abuse of doctrine Dominion o'er the palm and vine. that followed on the announcement of the
Westward I ope the forest gates,
The train along the railway skates; philosopher, passed away after but a short
It leaves the land behind, like ages past, lapse of time, and was no more. It is the The foreland flows to it in river fast; instinct of God that prompts the modern Missouri I have made a mart, worker in his course, as surely as it prompts I teach Iowa Saxon art." the preacher. The brave and heroic worker, faithful to his appointed task, even he whom All these uses the pine serves while man men call “ Navvy," the stern old Saxon stock, is in his infancy. When he shall grow up who, like his ancestry of the race of the into full and ripened manhood, with the
proVikingr, works out the mystic ways of Prov- gress of art the pine may remain in its native idence, that the bread of physical life shall | forest unharmed, “ to cover the mountains be placed in the mouths of himself and his like the shadows of God.” brethren ;-he perchance knows not, or heeds Years ago a party of engineers were walknot, the command, “ that man shall not live ing through the grounds of Woburn Abbey. by bread alone;" suffice it for him that man All were suddenly struck with the magnificannot live without bread.
cent form of a large pine-tree, and stood still “ Parson !” cried out a fen farmer to a man saying nothing, lost in admiration of its beauof God in black garments, "why don't ’e put ty as a tree. One of the number at length, souls into the congregation ?”—the laboring strong in his art or artistry, his second napeasantry. “ Souls ! replied the preacher, ture burst out into speech,
“What a splenturning an eye of indignation on the hard did water-wheel shaft that tree would make!" man—"Souls, without bodies! Find you Years have rolled away, and water-wheel the bodies with fitting wages, and I will un- shafts are now all made of iron. The pine-tree dertake to raise the souls. I cannot create may grow and flourish forever, undisturbed souls in starving bodies!"
by the engineer. Nature has taught him the No! no! not in our day must the re- uses of inorganic matter. proach be raised that we work too much, Not even from the lips of Ruskin can we while Dorsetshire laborers starve, and hun- patiently listen to the vituperation of railgry dogs in Skibbereen devour the unburied | ways--the modern Acts of the Apostles of