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Civilization. “Tearing up the surface of struggling forward, dazzled and darkened Europe as grape-shot do the sea!" Is this by turns, but still struggling forward into all that can be said of them ?—this all that that future and through it we plunge, and Ruskin can see with his prophet soul in rush to win for humanity a fresh resting
place for centuries yet to come.” " The iron bands, the iron bands,
The proposition that the “ use and function The proxies of men's clasping hands, of man is to be witness of the glory of God, and That bind together distant lands,"
to advance that glory by his reasonable obedi
ence and resultant happiness," can only hold that make the rough places smooth, and good of man as a civilized being, not of man in bring the ends of the earth together? Does the savage or partly savage state: for there he, in truth, prefer to see the grape-shot are savages of pseudo-civilization, as well as ploughing up, not the sea, but Europe ? Not of the forest. And though there be men,
Let but enough shot be rolled into and women too, who love the “Hybla heathrails, and there shall be an end of war. Yet er more for its sweet hives than for its purthis he deems no desirable conclusion. He ple hues,” who think “the meat is more than fears that we shall be plunged into inglorious the life, the raiment than the body; who reengineer, will be more mischievous than the fodder; who love the corn they grind and thrower down thereof, the military, engineer. the fruit they crush better than the garden Not so we, John Ruskin! We have seen of the angels on the slopes of Eden,”—yet shot fired in anger and men slain thereby, they also are men and women, and the Chrisand we have witnessed the peaceful engi- tian soul shall not cast them out of the tabneering works of these latter days, and out ernacle. Men with bodies and without minds, of our very hearts can we pronounce that the
of men with minds. And shall latter the most exciting, the most satisfy. we complain that men with bodies should ing. Our “rest shall not become the rest of seek bodily pleasure; shall we believe that stones,” “grass”, shall not "cover us” yet those pleasures, as well as the higher pleasawhile, nor “ lichens feed on us," nor shall ures, are not of God's ordinance ? Why we be“ ploughed down into dust." No, no! were the acts of preserving and continuing we will harness our fire-steeds and saddle the species made sources of physical pleasand bridle them, and ride over the whole ure, save to increase man's existence and world's surface on the mission of “peace up- progress on earth? That which was given on earth and good will toward men. Our
as a reward cannot be regarded as low or work shall be incessant while there is a foe debasing. Were a human being without to struggle against, an ignorance to root out, passions or appetites, he were scarcely a hua commerce to commence. Why should the
man being. Doubtless, “sight, thought, and artist look down with contempt on his work- admiration" are the highest of our attributes, ing brother, that brother without whose help and it is debasing in those capable of them, he had never become an artist? “We, to be unduly swayed by sensual gratifications. say the Saxon men, “have cut through the But, with the huge mass of mankind, born forest and let in sunlight upon you, that you without these high attributes, the case is may paint your pictures with light and shad- different-denial of such coarser pleasures ow; we built your houses to shelter your as they are fitted for would induce insanity artist-work from the weather. We built the in many cases, evil passions in most. Sight, ships that bore ye to and from distant lands. thought, and admiration are the attributes We maintain rule and order, and furnish the of cultivated men; but woe for these men means whereby ye build and endow church- were the assumption acted on, that no other es. We have at times pulled down and de- pleasures should be permitted. There are stroyed churches in religious zeal, but we human beings whose nerves are as cables, or have also maintained peace, and preserved as tightened parchments on drum-heads, that others. We work for Catholic, and Protes- yield no vibration without beating thereon; tant, and Puseyite, and Dissenter; and while others there are, whose finely-strung fibres we uphold the remnants of the mediæval vibrate to every breath of air-quick to pleastime, we call on you to remember that such
ure and as quick to pain. Men must live to things are but histories, and that progress is eat who cannot live to think; the honey of forward, not backward. The past is lesser Hybla may be sweet on their palates without than the present, the future greater
. Into offending those who have eyes only for the that future, blinded it may be with the blaze, heather's purple hue; the spirit of the grape
may excite their blood without disturbing the forget the good that lies under—that Provisense of hearing in those who delight in har- dence is working out its purposes by the mony of “sweet noise,” and Dutch form may agency of unclean things. Miss Barrett, * satisfy their coarser sense of woman's beau- too, can ask with a sneer, anent our “resoty, and leave unsoiled the hallowed imagina- nant steam eagles," tions of those who dream only of the Madonna's purity. God meant all his creatures to "If we work our souls as nobly as our iron :" be happy—and commerce itself would grow to be a crime—being mainly based on the We will endeavor to answer, to show that supply of sensual necessities—were the po- " the great sagene of the iron roads, is drawsition established, that the gratification of the ing the ancient power and strength of Engsenses is a degradation. No, no! beautiful land together; its various life, its rocky arms senses, refined, not weakened by art, are the and rural heart," for no “parrow finite calprecursors of mental excellence, of divine culating metropolis of manufactures,” but for spirit. The Persian worships the sun as the the highest work of the civilization of univerexternal symbol of all beauty of light and sal man; for his rescue from the thraldom of heat. It is a sensual worship, but it is “the misery, and poverty, and ignorance, that man, outward and visible sign of an inward and universal man, may become the lord of all spiritual grace.” And after all, sight is but the earth, and not a miserable quarrelsome a slight removal from hearing and taste. assemblage of clans, ravaging each other's The senses five are but varieties of one sense, possessions like ferocious beasts. We delibtouch-physical action on the various nerves erately throw down our gauntlet to the vituby whose agency our bodies are so constitu- perators of railways, and will deal with their ted as to form fitting abiding places for our charges in succession, if, indeed, upon searchminds. Take a fine human being of the ing, we can find any specific charges. highest physical attributes, and with a mind First-It is asserted that railways are proportioned to them then destroy in suc- ugly. We admit it—while they are new. But cession his various nerves of sight, of scent, so are all new constructions ; new buildings of taste, of hearing, of touch—and the brain, of stone or brick are garish and ugly; so are the root of these nerves, the deposit, the
new earthen banks till nature has clad them storehouse of ideas, the fountain of thought, in green. New sandstone cuttings, new chalk will dry up and wither; and mind will be no cuttings are ugly. But this is only till they are more. Take away sight, hearing, and touch, overgrown with trees, and plants, and lichens, and even speech will gradually cease. Bet- and herbage, and evergreens; the railway ter, then, is it to have sensual appetites, indi- ravine, with its sweeping curve, is beautiful as cating the possession of nerves that may be a natural ravine. The South Western Railrefined, than to be devoid of senses. Better way, in some portions, is especially beautiful.. is the Sybarite couch, than the
“ The heath, the heath -- the upland heath, war. Better even the alderman's feast than
With the pine ridge on the height; the abhorred squalor of Skibbereen. Better And all below the purple wreath, the soulless orgie than the sea-fight. Better, Gleaming in rich sunlight; far better, the reclining festival, the flower- And the sweeping curve of the glancing rail, wreathed wine-cup, the witching dancing
In the line of the dell below, girl of the Greek, or Roman, or modern Asi
Where the landships all, without oar or sail, atic, than the ascetic sternness of the monk,
Move onward in goodly row. the self-glorifying privation of the Simon
O'er the gladdened earth's surface are whirled, Stylites. Better the epicurean, keeping his By the iron steeds' stride, o'er the forest so wide, nerves in pleasurable sensation, when without From the wilderness winning a world.” injury to others, than the miserable stoic,
Turf the railway embankments, and plant gratifying his miserable vanity, without bene- the cuttings, and nature will soon make them fit to any one, and destroying his own frame beautiful enough. The road-bridges above by physical privation. It requires a strong moral sense to look at jects, if not in building, by planting them
them may always be rendered sightly obthe new things acting before us, surrounded out, and covering them with ivy and other as they are by iniquities, and yet to discern
climbers. The stations, we agree, should clearly the good that is in them. We see
not be architectural. In great towns they Hudsons, and Capel Courts, and Stock Ex- should be simply business-like; in short, changes, with all manner of unclean things floating on the surface of railways, and we
* Now Mrs. Browning. VOL XIX, NO. I.
plain buildings, emblematic of speed and cessant nuisance of dust and mud, at very movement. The other stations should be all slow paces. This work, and an infinitely inrural, and the station-keepers should be en- creased amount, is now performed by steam, couraged to plant them with roses and at an infinite reduction of cost; we mean honeysuckles, and every variety of plant that actual cost, not charges to passengers, but, helps to make English cottages beautiful. practical daily cost saying nothing of Miserable have been the railway attempts at invested capital. The mud and dust, and architecture; and to our taste the Great above all, the enormous cruelty to aniWestern station at Paddington, with its no mals, have been abolished, while the speed pretension and evident utility, all coming by has been doubled and trebled. The goods accident, is infinitely preferable to either the and passengers carried, mean -- freely transwould-be Gothic of Bristol or the monstrous | lated -- increased civilization to the world. abortion of Euston square, where the orig. The cruelty abolished, means refinement of inal stone gateway, leading to nowhere, chris- the English nation, a result no Christian tened the Debtors' Door (because it was built can contemplate without satisfaction. Were of borrowed capital at interest), now stands there no other results, these alone should at the corner of a court-yard, opening into a close the lips of the vituperators of railways. huge hall of stucco mock granite, with a But the objectors will reply - Think of ceiling of carved cross-beams. An oval or the iniquities and immoralities which they circular erection, we forget which, something have caused. like the Trafalgar washing-basins, but with- Not so, we reply. There were Law's out water, stands in the centre, to put the Mississippi scheme and hundreds of other money changers in. These abortions have schemes long before the advent of railways. altogether cost the railway proprietors up. God has made nothing in vain, and even iniward of £110,000, so that about fifteen quities and immoralities have a part to play pounds per diem must be taken out of the in creation. Even Hudsons have their utilipockets of travellers to pay for them. ties; and those equally culpable, his co-di
These things are not progress, but obsta- rectors and co-shareholders, whose cupidity cles to progress-waste of the means which was the true origin of his malpractices. If should help on progress.
But, were the a railway be required, it is quite clear that it planning of railway erections left to the taste must take some time to make, say three to of a Ruskin, measureless is the silent instruc- four years, and during that time the money tion they might be the means of conveying laid out can yield no interest. When done, to the general community. Thoroughly to if it pays more than an average rate of profit, appreciate a wide field of utility herein — of it cannot last, because competition will be at true utility — the railways running through work, anxious to get a share in the surplus the heart of Ireland should be traversed, profit. If honest men propose to make a where squalid huts, ruder than any Indian railway — to go without interest while makwigwam, require that the owners of property ing, and to obtain a moderate interest when should be shamed into a perception of the made, without the power of selling shares decencies of civilized life, and a taste for in- and realizing their capital meanwhile — the expensive rural beauty. But the vitupera- public will have nothing to say to it. But let tors of railways should, in truth, regard them the projector propose an impracticable ten per as great undertakings, of a class analogous cent., the shares are taken up immediately, to that of cutting roads through a new coun- and the railway is commenced; the Hudson try. Contrivance is at work chiefly how to tribe are such juggling projectors, and pay get a result of transit, and it is for future themselves for their trouble, leaving their times to convert mechanical structures and gulls to suffer, where they can. Shares and contrivances into pleasure-giving artistry. money change hands in a gambling process, Happy are the proprietors whose arrange where every one expects to get profit withments in buildings have been of the most out work done, and the public gets the railtemporary kind.
way. It is sought to exact high prices, to Thirty years back, it used to cost more pay for the interest upon wasted capital, but money to transfer a load of goods from the this is not practicable. The shares fall to backbone of England to any seaport, than the value which represents the real and not from that seaport to India. And all the the wasted capital, and they pay an average transit, both of goods and passengers, was
This only is performed by horses, with an amount of cru- the witchcraft which the Hudson tribe use, elty few people are aware of, and with an in- I taking care to buy their shares very cheap, or get them for nothing, and to sell them at | The Celts are not an ocean-roving people. an increased price.
interest on the former only.
The Gallic cock is an emblem of Gallic In tracing the progress of mankind we ran inefficiency on the wide waters of ocean. over his four chief physical wants, regarding This grand evil - the want of constant him as a stationary being. But he requires friendly intercourse between the nations of more than this — the power of locomotion is the earth, has kept up wars sometimes by a necessity to him. In many cases it hap- contrivance of the rulers, sometimes by mupens that a man is born in a climate uncon- tual antipathies. This great evil will be utgenial to him. If he stays in it, he dies, or | terly removed and rooted out by railways. suffers incessant illness, that makes him a There was a time when every English shire pain to himself and others. He therefore and county had terms of vituperation to berequires the facility of getting away to a stow on its neighbors — when Scotland, congenial climate, and of occasionally return Ireland, and Wales were at war with Eng. ing to his friends. As interchange increases land, till conquered. It was making roads between nations, more of this will exist; for through the Highlands that rooted out the human affections are not to be checked by rebellions. peculiarities of race, and thus, probably, it “ Had you seen but this road was designed by nature from the beginning.
Before it was made, With limited means of transit, therefore,
You'd lift up your hands much misery must ensue. With cheap tran
Aud bless General Wade." sit this misery will cease. Many a Spaniard What England was, Europe still is. There and Italian, in natural qualities, is born in were roads, but only for the wealthy few England and Germany ; many a German and till the late advent of some few railways. Englishman in Spain and Italy. Misfitted to But the wealthy few do not destroy national their climates, they are useless to themselves antipathies. It is the traveling of the many and the world ; fitted to their climates, they that must accomplish such a result. By the become producers after their several fash- advent and extension of railways, the whole ions. AÎl such interchanges tend to draw of Europe, the whole of the world, will asclose the bonds between nations, and ulti- similate to the condition of England, with mately to merge them into a cosmopolitan the variation of climate. Little have they world, wherein war shall cease. Wars be- yet done, for they are but in their infancy. tween nations are, we believe, a result of They have been sought for by individuals as their not knowing each other, or, at least, of a money-getting speculation, not by communot knowing each other intimately enough. nities as civilizers. When they shall really At present, the uses of railways are but par- be developed, it will be within the reach of tially developed. England, by virtue of its the poorest of mankind to travel, and look huge water-roads over the ocean, has become on other lands. civilized faster than other nations. Men of Little do artists dream of the high purall European nations have visted the “work- poses to be wrought out by the agency of shop of the world,” where their ancestors railways, unless, indeed, they deem that high came for war purposes, and left their race art and nature's bounties and wonders should behind them to mingle with the natives of be reserved wholly for the few, while the the soil. And the English race — essenti- 'many toil to give them leisure. Would ye ally a mixed race, wherein the blood of build temples — oh, ye men of art! — temCelts, Phænicians, Picts, Scots, Romans, ples to God? Would ye build these temDanes, Saxons, Normans and Dutchmen ples only for the rich ? No; the true artist and probably the best of each was united builds for mankind. Where, then, would ye to produce the universal man. They went place your temples ? In the squalid haunts forth into all lands to America, to India, where men congregate, in the cities that have to Africa - leaving permanent colonies in all grown up in the days of barbarism ? No, where the climate was favorable, and con- no; the high places of the land, the wild stantly renewing colonists where the cli- heaths and pine-groves made by God, ere mate was unfavorable. This mingling of man was where the lark sings — and not races was the result of the ocean-road and the dens where the mouse cheeps and the rat shipping, combined with the plentiful blood burrows – are the true sites for your temof the fair-haired ocean rovers so largely in- ples, where the hand of the spoiler shall not fused in the race. Ireland lacked this blood, come to build them round with dens of inand her population has remained stationary. iquity, where a corrupt priesthood panders France the same. Spain and Italy the same. to human vices. And how shall the people
go to worship at God's altars thus placed in terial after material presenting themselves, as the
pure and holy air, how--but by the rail- men became fitted for and needed them. ways ye run down and scorn ? Again, ar- The question next follows, of his mental tists, would ye build temples to the drama, progress. to the muses - where would ye place them, We hold that race is self-developing on save on the railway line ? The days have earth, as in all other organized creations or gone by when it was a need for men to build germs, just as certain plants thrive in cerclose cities; and the time is coming when, tain latitudes and elevations, and others do as of old, the tree will again shadow the not; and as plants removed by man to condwelling. Time and space have been van- genial regions thrive while others die, as the quished, and the residences of regenerate hot-house plant of one country becomes the man have yet to be constructed. Turn open air plant of another : and thus, do whither we will — do what we will in art, what we will, the race of Englishmen will artistry, mechanism, agriculture, exercise, remain Englishmen, unless transported to health, knowledge, or, if it must be, war other circumstances, which will not permit in all things, henceforth, the iron way is the the peculiarly English qualities to develop way of our worldly salvation, of our men- themselves. They are “racy of the soil.” ta) progress,
of our soul's rescue from de- And were the whole race swept away togradation. Look on us, ye men of high as- morrow, and this island of long memories pirations, as your veritable brethren, — we, peopled with weaklings, not long would it
, the hewers of wood and drawers of water; so remain. The best blood of the North the mountain-borers, the valley-fillers, the would again descend, as in the olden timehill-upheavers, the modern centaurs; beget- " the children of the pine”—and the world's ters of the fire-steeds of the land and the battle would begin anew. Backward would coursers of the ocean; holding the physical roll the Celt, onward would press the Norseworld in our hands at the command of God, man; sharp keels would cut and cover the who has bidden us to make the rough places northern seas; and in a few hundred years, smooth, that his people may dwell together again would England be peopled by Engin unity. Work ye, then, at your god-like lishmen—"racy of the soil,” rough and art ; let the temple rise, the sculpture grow, rude; with “ blood fetched from fathers of the picture start into life ; let the poet sing war-proof ;" with “horse to ride and weapon and the sage speak, the prophet inspire men to wear;" but the coal still to dig and the with his own spirit; but with all that forget iron to smelt; and the long course of internot that it was the hard hands of your de rupted industry to work into order and spised brethren, the physical workers, with method. The hard, large band would grow sweating brows and burning hearts, that first to its fitting work, and the artist's fingers
this world from the wilderness, would pine; the Celt would be a savage, and gave ye the vantage ground to stand on. and the Saxon a boor. Whom God hath Rough nurses have we been to nourish the joined together let no man put asunder ; germ of baby art; but lo! it lives, moves, and the wars ended, Celt and Saxon interand has being. We reverence ye for your mixed, and substantial dwellings erected to beauty. Scorn ye not our strength that has make an artificial climate, English refinement shielded that beauty from harm
becomes possible. Who shall now tell us
of what blood were Shakspeare, and Bacon, 66 Into the future, far as buman eye can see,
and Milton—not what names their fathers See the vision of the world, and all the wonder and mothers were known by, but whence that will be.”
and how came that rare combination of “Out of the strong comes forth sweetness, brains and nerves, strong bearts and intelout of the eater comes forth meat."
lectual heads, that made them the world's We have endeavored to trace the pro- wonder? Was it the red-haired Dane, of gress of man from the savage state through the large features and ogre mouth, bis physical gradations, the result of his
“ That toss'd the sprawling infant on his spear;" reason and his circumstances, till we have shown what we believe to be practicable in or the fierce Celt, who made human sacriperfecting the supply of his four cardinal fices in his Druid temple ; or the swart wants-food, fuel, clothing, and lodging. Phænician, bastard brother to the money
— We have endeavored to show that nature loving Jew; or the blue-eyed Saxon or provided all these things from the begin- Norwegian, loving the ale-cup; or the ring. Circumstance after circumstance, ma- ! hard, crafty Norman baron, with the church