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exercised great care in bringing all these round among the streets and sqnares to the north
had few charms for the mathethe subsequent volumes will necessarily be matician and the minister :composed of more exciting material ; and, judging from the present, and from other
Friday, May 15.— The India House-Deptcircumstances, we infer that the completed Theatre, where we heard the comic opera of The
ford—the Docks-We proceeded to Drury Lane work will form a biographical narrative of Duenna, 'High Life Below Stairs,' and the pangreat utility and extreme interest.
tomimic ballet · Don Juan.' I am not fond of operas, We experience great difficulty in persuading because I have no taste for that music the merit of people that the world is not becoming worse ; which appears to me to lie entirely in the execuand we are confident that it is getting better. tion. The squalling exertion of the performers is Mr. Chalmers, when first in London, would painful to me, and not a word of the song can be not have opposed the free and full delivery, Lane Theatre, that in many parts of the house the
collected. Indeed, such is the extent of Drury of letters and Newspapers on "Sunday. ”
most audible and distinct enunciation must be lost While traveling to Newcastle, as he took the upon the hearers. The house was quite full, more post-office gig, the sculler and the boat, he decorous than the circus, and exceeds anything I would not have refused the railway. A great have seen in the splendor of its boxes, and rich, change has occurred in society on these expensive scenery. None of the performers apmatters.
peared to me first-rate. The pantomime I did not In London, he attended some political meet
enter into. We returned to Walworth in the
morning.” ings, and was displeased with the cookery :
And if the public had generally the hon“ Saturday, May 23d. Repaired to the Albany, and dined with Mr. Sheridan and 150 of esty of this critic, we are not sure that the his admirers. The dinner was wretched-too opera would meet the encouragement it relittle of it and the worst conducted I ever saw. ceives; for nine-tenths of the audience know Great tumult and confusion among the company nothing of foreign languages when sung, and I was disappointed in all the speeches, and much are not naturally fond of foreign music. The shocked with the extreme incorrectness of feeling central pages of this volume, and by far the discovered by several of the company."
greater part of it, are occupied with correspon
dence and extracts of a most instructive and In addition to John Campbell, he met useful character. Better reading scarcely another Fife man, equally famous in his own could be conceived. Anything more striking department :
than the gradual uprising and purification of
this great mind has not recently been pubThursday, May 21st.-Called on Wilkie; | lished, and we remember no other work that took Russell square in my road, and think it the is so obviously the history of a mind in its finest in London. Mr. Wilkie is a man of genius and excellent sense, with all the simplicity which passage from listlessness to anxiety, and from accompanies talent, and firmness to resist corrup
earnest seeking for, to the practical enjoytions and flattery. After leaving him, I took a ment of, cheerful and confident piety.
JENNY LIND.—Since this lady left Eng. , the warmest affection for this country, where land, she has enjoyed the repose she has so she has a nation's admiration, and many demuch needed, amid the beautiful scenery of voted friends. The death of the lamented Switzerland and the Tyrol, her health having Bishop of Norwich was almost as great a been previously re-established by the baths trial to the fair songstress as the death of her at Ems. Her voice is more powerful and friend Mendelssohn had been; in one of her flexible than ever. Russia and England are latest letters, she entreated the friend to both wooing her return to the exercise of her whom she wrote to place a chaplet of ivy, profession, and the King of Sweden has sent which she enclosed,
the a special mess
essenger to entreat her presence Stanley, “ as her tears !” This simple offerin her native city, when she was able to un- ing is in accordance with one of the customs dertake the journey. It will be a matter of of her country. Miss Lind is now at Lubeck, deep regret if she does not visit England but will soon proceed thence to Berlin.next season; she is well known to cherish' Art Journal.
grave of Dr. From the New Monthly Magazine.
THE ARCTIC VOYAGES:
Without doubt the most wondrous of all as a miracle of misdirected energy and entervoyages made for geographical purposes prise. It seems as if the most adventurous since the discovery of the New World, have nation in the world had grown tired of all been the expeditions in search of a north-west commonplace explorations, or had deemed passage. They are wondrous for the zeal, that nothing remained to be done on this the endurance, and the perseverance with small planet of ours—that large populations which they have been carried out. They did not remain to be detected on the Nileare still more wondrous for the misplaced that an interior highland country, with the and perverted direction in which such resources of a territory so favored, did not acqualities, and the material necessary to give tually lie within the grasp almost of an outthem effect, have been brought to bear. It stretched hand upon the tropical coasts of Afis like a boy who first climbs a hillock, and rica—that the interior of the great continent of then a tree, and then a cliff. His ardent | Australasia was not still a blank—that the spirit is never satisfied but with new tri- Isthmus of Panama did not still remain to be umphs. The youth climbs the same tree for cut through—and that, in disgust at nothing a nest, or a cliff for some cave, or other ob- more remaining to be done, it betook ject in view. Maturer age is supposed to itself to the hopeless task of battling with the weigh still more astutely the quid pro quo, perpetual frost of the Arctic regions, and and the probable return for sacrifice of time, opening a passage through its ice-locked seas. money, material, and life. It is easy to un- From the time of Queen Elizabeth, when derstand the spirit of adventure and love of the idea of a north-west passage first found enterprise that carries one or more individu- favor in this country, to the present day, als across pathless forests, or over arid des- there have been upward of thirty attempts erts, into mountain fastnesses or savage lands; made by British ships to effect this difficult but it is difficult to imagine a government or object. This alone ought to satisfy all reaa nation seized with the same impulse, or sonable minds—such as have faith in the communicating it to the crews of so many skill and courage of English navigators-of doomed ships. It is impossible not to feel a the inutility of renewed struggles. One of service ennobled by first opening to naviga- j the very first attempts made was of most tion and commerce the great rivers and olden ominous import. The gallant Sir Hugh thoroughfares of the earth ; penetrating into Willoughby took his departure from Radunknown lands by the fevered delta of un- cliffe, on his fatal voyage to discover a northexplored streams, surveying and mapping east passage, on the 20th of May, 1553. coasts torn and rift into islands like those of He sailed with great pomp by Greenwich, Southern America, so dangerous to seamen ; where the court then resided. Mutual honor circumnavigating the globe ; discovering ors were paid on both sides. The council new lands ; bringing civilization into contact and courtiers appeared at the windows, and with remote populations; and bearing “glad the people covered the shores. The young tidings” on wings of canvas—for all these king, Edward VI., alone lost the noble and things there is a feeling and sympathy ; but novel sight ; for he then lay on his deathwho has ever entertained a serious hope of bed : so that the principal object of the paworking a passage through the ices of the rade was disappointed. Arctic region, or of opening even a summer Sir Hugh led the expedition, in the Bona way to China by the Polar Seas ?
Esperanza, of 120 tons. There was also a The efforts made, not to grapple with the second ship, called the Edward Bonavendifficulties of the case, but to beat Nature in lura ; and a third smaller vessel, called the her sternest aspect,—to sweep away the ice- Bona Confidentia, of ninety tons, commandfloe, and to shoulder out the berg from their ed by Captain Durfoorth. The Bonaventura own realms,—will, indeed, ever be narrated | parted company, during a storm, on their
way out; the two other vessels with their many ignorant and malicious people had a unfortunate crews were found frozen to death very mean opinion of what he had done, bein the harbor of Arzina Reca, in Lapland. cause his voyages had not answered the exAs no one survived to tell the history of their pense ; but he persuaded himself that so sufferings, it is impossible to say whether wise and honorable a statesman would think they wanted fuel or whether scurvy was the in a manner different from the vulgar, and cause of their melancholy end. It is, how- esteem his services capable of producing ever, a remarkable circumstance that they great advantages to the nation, even supposhad an abundance of provisions. The tradi- ing that no such passage as he expected tion of their fate informs us that they were should be found, in support of which he laid frozen to death, and that in this state they were down five points, the first of which was to found the following year by some Russians. the following effect :It is impossible to conceive a more melan- “That it would redound very much to the choly doom. They were well provided with honor of the queen and her subjects if the everything which the science of the time people in these northern regions were concould suggest to guard them against the verted to the Christian faith, in which pious accidents of the sea ; and their ships were work many of those busy and fiery spirits entire, and in harbor. Under all these might be profitably employed, that by their circumstances, the deplorable end of Sir factious stirrings at home served only to creHugh Willoughby has been handed down to ate confusion in church and state.” 'It is imposterity among the most lamentable and possible not to admit that this is a very wise melancholy which the nautical annals of the suggestion ; nothing could be more approworld record.
priate for “ fiery spirits” than regions of icy Gaspard Cortesius, or Cortereal, and his coldness, or for those employed in " factious
“ brother Michael, had before perished in the stirrings” than a “ land of desolation." same research. So the Venetian, Sebastian Notwithstanding the failure of all who had Cabot, employed by Henry VII., had been attempted to reach 77 deg. 45 min. north cast back, by an impenetrable barrier of ice, latitude, or to push through the icy barrier in 1506. John Varascenus sailed in 1524, which obstructed a further progress, the under the auspices of Francis I., King of Dutch, who in the sixteenth century were the France, and he and his crew are reported to most enterprising maritime people in Europe, have been devoured by the savages. Sebas- sent out several expeditions in the vain hope of tian Gomesius, a Spaniard, took the same trading by the north-east with China. They, route in 1525, and all the honor he acquired however, like their predecessors, found the was to bring away some Esquimaux. In ice too pertinacious even for Dutch persever1576, the bold navigator, Sir Martin Fro- Although these expeditions took a bisher, discovered, as has been only lately direction opposite to the one generally atshown, Hudson's Strait ; and between War- tempted by the English, that of 1596, which wick Island and that great land, which, was piloted by Wm. Barentz, derives great strange to say, has not yet received a name, interest at the present moment, from the tria strait which still bears his name. In 1585, als and sufferings of the crew when frozen John Davis made the equally important dis-in at Nova Zembla, and the possible similar covery of the opening into Baffin's Bay, which position of our brave countrymen. The suplikewise bears his name. Davis sailed again ply of bears and foxes appeared to be suffiin 1586, and again reached what he graphi- cient to support a crew that had even little cally calls " The Land of Desolation," but else to depend upon. The bears, it is true, was driven back by stress of weather. Not disappeared when the sun went below the withstanding that the west country and horizon, but the foxes fortunately remained London merchants grew tired of the expense in plenty. A single bear furnished a hunof these frequent expeditions, Davis was so dred weight of grease for their lamp. It is sanguine of success that he got up a third, needless, however, to say that their sufferin which, as in the preceding, he discovered ings were great. On the sixth of December more coasts and islands, but failed in the they found the cold so intense, they had no main object. The veteran navigator appears expectation of surviving it. They could to have been somewhat of a controversialist scarcely keep up the circulation by any rein political theology, as well as a bold ex- sources at their command. It pleased the plorer, for, in a letter addressed to Mr. Sec- Almighty, however, to relieve them from retary Walsingham, on his return from his this forlorn state, and the greater number third voyage, he tells him that he found that I returned in safety to their country.
A first expedition, fitted out in 1606, by passage being accomplished. To determine what was then called the “ Muscovy Com- | this fact, Captain, afterward Sir, Thomas Butpany,” was brought to an abrupt termina- ton, was dispatched the ensuing year (1612); tion by the murder of Captain Knight, his and this officer, who seems to have been acbrother, and one of the crew, by the natives tive as well as resolute, soon made his way of Labrador. A second expedition was fitted through the straits, and, pushing directly out by the same company the ensuing year, across the sea that opened to the westward, and the command was given to the distin- came in view of the southern point of Southguished navigator Hudson, who subsequently ampton Island, and nothing else breaking the discovered that immense ba” which will carry apparent continuity of the ocean, he was his name and unfortunate end to the latest cherishing the most sanguine hopes of suctimes. Hudson succeeded in his first expe- cess when land was announced, and there dition in pushing north as far as latitude appeared before him an immense range of 81, deg., and he returned home, after coast- coast stretching north and south, and baring Spitzbergen, with the conviction, which ring all further progress. After wintering in modern experience has not impugned, that a Hudson's Bay, Sir Thomas steered the next further navigation was completely barred out summer through the broad bay which sepaby the ice in that direction. In 1608 the rates Southampton Island from the continent, same bold navigator sailed in search of a since called Roe's Welcome, but finding that north-east passage, at that time as favorite the channel became narrower and narrower, a chimera with the maritime countries of he gave up the attempt. Thus it was, that Europe as the north-west passage has since gradually after the discovery of Davis's been. Hudson pushed on in the parallels of Straits, Baffin's Bay, and Hudson's Bay, the 74 deg. and 75 deg., till he made the coast coast of America was found to keep trending of Nova Zembla, which he did in a more to the north ward ; and to the main contisoutherly latitude (72 deg. 25 min.); but nent was found to succeed a vast archipelago finding a farther course impracticable, he re- of ice-clad islands. Whenever a new bay turned with the conviction that there was no was discovered, it turned out to be an inlet, hope of a north-east passage-a decision or a land and ice-locked gulf ; when a new which has not as yet been proved to be in channel was explored, it led only to new correct. Yet that which appertains to a lands interminable in their succession, and north-east obtains equally with regard to a whose intricacy is a thousand-fold increased north-west passage. There is no passage to by the difficulty in determining where land endthe westward, that is, south of North Cape, ed and ice and snow succeeded. Thus it has except the straits of the Fury and Ilecla, and been that, by undaunted courage and wonthat only leads into an inlet trending further drous perseverance, a great icy archipelago to the north. The perpetuation of ice is not, has been eliminated from out of what was however, it may be observed here, a mere supposed to be the Polar Seas; and the question of latitude. Nova Zembla, for exam- narrowness of the channels by which this ple, which lies between the parallels of 68° and archipelago, which is closed in by Greenland 770 N., is far more desert and inclement than and its ices on the one hand, and the contiSpitzbergen, which is so much farther to the N. nent of America on the other, can alone be It is a land of frost and ice, a howling waste, reached, constitutes the truly great and fora region of utter desolation, where intense midable obstacle that presents itself to the cold holds the sceptre over a lifeless domain. permanent opening of a north-west passage.
In 1610, Hudson set sail in the Dis- A narrow sea, however strong the current, covery on his last voyage. He perished in must be always more exposed to an accumuthe very
heart of his noblest discovery, nei-lation of ice than an open sea, still more so ther by storm nor by iceberg, but the victim when that channel is one of a few outlets to of treachery ; and the mystery of his fate perpetually frozen coasts and seas; and causes bis name to be pronounced, even now, hence it is that passages, circumstanced as with pity, while his skill and courage make Barrow's Straits and those of the Fury and the man an object of our admiration, even in Hecla are, can never be available for anythese times, when a northern navigation and thing beyond a brief summer's navigation. wintering are not considered such extraordi- The fåte that awaited the next expedition nary perils by the navigator.
sent out to discover a north-west passage, Notwithstanding the calamitous issue of without being in any way disastrous, was this voyage, the discovery thereby made of a fully as instructive as any that preceded or great sea in the west excited new hopes of a I followed it. A Captain Gibbons, said to be
an officer of reputation, set forth boldly with | The history of the first case—one of the two vessels, in 1614, to effect that which so most extraordinary instances of preservation many had already failed in accomplishing. on record—is highly instructive, and especialNo sooner, however, was he off the coast of La-ly interesting in its bearing upon the possible brador than he allowed himself to get entan- fate of the crews of the Erebus and Terror. gled in the ice and frozen into a bay, where In the year 1631 another expedition was he remained all summer, and from which he fitted out under Captains Fox and James. was no sooner extricated than he very wisely Captain Fox explored the seas that bathe took his way back as fast as he could. The Southampton Island to the cast and west, spot where this Polar exhibition met with so and he called the eastern channel after himignoble a termination was designated at the self, whereas it ought more properly be time as “ Gibbons his Hole.”
called Bylot's, having, as before seen, been The Merchant Adventurers, undismayed first navigated by that officer. As to James, by this signal failure, sent out another expe- entangled in the southern extremity of Huddition the ensuing summer. Entering Hud- son's Bay, he spent a winter under the most son's Bay at a higher latitude, this expedi- extreme suffering from cold, and returned
up broad expanse, next summer to called Fox's Channel; but foiled by the The Hudson's Bay Company having obcoast of Southampton Island, which seemed tained chartered possessions in the territories to preclude any prospect of an opening to adjacent to that bay in 1668, they were the westward, the commander, Bylot, re- bound by that charter to make strenuous exturned home, to be sent out again the follow- ertions for the discovery of a north-western ing year in the company of Baffin, with or- passage ; but it was not till 1719 that they ders to push northward by Davis's Straits. fitted out an expedition under Knight and This new direction given to the exploration Barlow. These officers not returning, a veswas so far successful, in a geographical sel was sent out next season under Captain point of view, as to have led to the discovery Scroggs, but without being able to learn any of Baffin's Bay, and the exploration of a tidings of them; and it was not till FIFTY considerable portion of the coast of Western YEARS afterward that the wrecks of their Greenland, as well as of the opposite shores. armament were found on Marble Island.
In 1619, Jans Munk, sent out on a voyage In 1741, an expedition under Captain of discovery by Christian IV. of Denmark, Middleton explored the coast westward of reached Hudson's Bay, and was frozen with Roe's Welcome, and after being disappointed his crew in Chesterfield Inlet, and which at Repulse Bay of a passage westward, he might, with more propriety, be denominated was finally repelled at Frozen Straits. CapMunk's. Although the expedition fell in attains Moor and Smith followed in 1746 this point with abundance of game, bears, upon the same tract, without adding to the foxes, hares, partridges, ducks, and other discoveries of their predecessor. In 1776 wild fowl, famine and disease carried off num- the armed brig Lion was sent under Lieutebers before the winter was over. By the nant Pickersgill, with the view of co-operanext spring, indeed, only Munk and two of ting with Captain Cook, who, it was hoped, his crew remained alive among the dead might make his way froin Behring's Straits bodies of forty-nine comrades, who lay un- into the Atlantic, but it only reached a latiburied around! The three survivors succeeded tude of 68 deg. The same vessel was sent in reaching home after dreadful hardships out again the next year under Lieutenant and sufferings; but the fate of that expedi- Young, but with little better success, having tion, and the horrible scene enacted in that reached a latitude of 72 deg. fatal inlet, has never been equaled in even The land journeys of Hearne and Mackenthe fearful catalogue of calamity which the zie to the northern extremity of America asannals of the early northern navigation pre- sisted in keeping alive curiosity. The former sent to the pitying reader. In 1630, eight succeeded in reaching the mouth of the CopBritish seamen wrecked on the coast of Spitz- permine River and the shores of the Northbergen, and left without any resources but ern Sea, and the latter also reached the those wbich were supplied by their own in- same sea in nearly the same latitude, and genuity, survived to be restored to their about 20 deg. to the westward of the mouth friends and country the ensuing summer ; of Hearne's River. It appeared almost cerwhile in 1633, seven Dutch sailors left in tain from these discoveries, as has since been Mayen's Island, provided with a hut and determined by Franklin, Richardson, Simpson, most things they required, perished of cold. and others, that an ocean extended from VOL. XIX. NO. III.