and reflects how beautiful she herself must be. The spiritual songs in the popular style, which are included among the works of Bernardes, are written in Spanish. The temporal songs, elegies, and sonnets of this poet, have the same soft and infantine character, and are therefore not inappropriately presented to the public as an appendix to his pictures of spiritual feeling.* A few elegies which he composed during his captivity among the Moors,t and some endechas in the old Em tanto como póde desejarvos

Sem culpa, quem reparte o seu desejo,

Todo devido a vós sem falar nada?

Tal vos vejo, Senhora, e tal me vejo,

Que sei de mi que naõ mereço amarvos,

Merecendo vós só de ser amada.

They are in this manner added to the new edition of the Rimas ao bom Jesus, already mentioned.

†The following is a passage from one of these elegies. Bernardes addresses the shades of the friends who fell by his side in the unfortunate battle:

Oh amigos, com quem m'aventurei,

Com quem fui sem ventura aventureiro,

Sempre, pois vos perdi, triste serei.

Sendo no fero assalto companheiro,

A vós pos-vos no Ceo o fim da guerra,

A mim em miseravel cativeiro.

Bem vedes qual o passo nesta serra,

Inda que nao he justo que vejais

Terra, que vos ne ou tam pouca terra;

Terra, que quanto nella choro mais,

Tanto mais com meu choro se endurece,
E menos move a dôr seus naturais.

Tudo, o que nella vejo, m'entristece,

Triste me deixa o Sol em transmontãdo,

Triste me torna a ver quando amanhece.

national style,* belong to this class. Bernardes has also left behind him eclogues, epistles, and numerous sonnets. His epistles shew the veneration he entertained for the critical judgment of Ferreira, whose cold style, however, certainly could not please him.† Many of his

Sempre com humor triste estou banhado

O pé deste soberbo alto rochedo,

Que minha dûr está accrescentando.

* For example, a moral composition of this kind, which commences thus:

Alma minha, oh alma

De ti esquecida

Porque das á vida

De ti mesma a palma ?

Ella te maltrata,

Tu tras ella corres:
Porque tanto morres

Pelo que te mata?

Quanto se deseja,

Quanto se procura,
Doulhe que se veja,

Que val, ou que dura?

Nao sei donde vem

Desconcerto tal,

Trocar certo bem

Por mui certo mal.

In one of these epistles he attributes all the poetic merit which his poetry may possess, to the instructions of Ferreira :— Se me naõ dera ao Mundo em tao ditosos

Annos, de mim que fora? que por ti
Espero de ter nome entre os famosos.

Por mim nunca subira, onde subi,
Meu nome com a vida s'acabára,
O Mundo naõ soubera se nasci.

sonnets are expressive of the homage with which he submitted his poetry to the judgment of Ferreira, as he did his faith to the doctrines of the church. The elegy in which he laments the death of Ferreira may, therefore, be numbered among his sincerest effusions of the heart.*


In his

In the same school of correct poetry with Andrade Caminha and Bernardes, arose the ingenious Jeronymo Cortereal, another of those chivalrous spirits of the sixteenth century, for whom every ordinary sphere of life was too limited. Ambitious of doing honour to his country and his distinguished family, he served in the Portuguese army against the infidels in Asia and Africa. He afterwards settled on his estate near Evora. residence, which was situated on a hill, and surrounded by rude precipices, and which commanded an extensive view of the surrounding country, he devoted himself to poetic composition; and sometimes, for the sake of variety, turned his attention to music and painting. This romantic abode of the muses charmed even the cold-hearted Philip II. of Spain, when he visited his

Confesso dever tudo aquella rara

Doutrina tua, que me quiz ser guia

Do celebrado monte a fonte clara.

E por te dever mais, se a luz do dia

Te parecer, que saiaõ meus escritos,

Na tua pena está sua valia.

* It is reprinted as a supplement to the new edition of Ferreira's


kingdom of Portugal. Cortereal, who on that occasion, rendered homage to the new sovereign in verse, had previously often been unfaithful to his native tongue. He is included in the number of those Spanish poets, who indefatigably but vainly vied with each other to convert historical art into epic art, and to produce a Spanish national epopee.* He related in Spanish verse and in a poem of fifteen cantos, the history of the battle of Lepanto, which has given occasion to so much Spanish poetry of every description. In the Portuguese language, he wrote two poems of a similar kind, which, at the time of their production were very much esteemed. The subject of one is the siege of the Portuguese garrison of Diu in India, which was valiantly defended by the Governor, Mascarenhas. In the other of these works Cortereal relates in the same style, the hapless story of Manoel de Souza and his wife, who on their return from India were shipwrecked on the coast of Africa, and who after wandering about for a considerable time, perished among the savages. To impart poetic decoration to prosaic events of this kind, borrowed from the history of the period, was the prevailing fashion of the day in Spain and Portugal; and to banish such narrations from the region of poetry, was an idea that never suggested itself to any poet, still less to the public.†

* See preceding vol. p. 406.

† Barbosa Machado gives a catalogue of the writings of Cortereal.




Unconnected with this classical school, which became extinct about the close of the sixteenth century, several Portuguese poets pursued their own course, nearly in the same manner as Camoens, though not with the same success. Jorge Ferreira de Vasconcellos, for example, a man of considerable acquirements, who held a distinguished post in Lisbon, rendered himself celebrated as the writer of several comedies which were much esteemed. He was also the author of a new romance of the Round Table.*

At a somewhat later period lived Estevam Rodriguez de Castro, a poet, and at the same time a learned physician, who was invited to Italy by the grand duke of Tuscany. He is the-author of various sonnets, odes and eclogues.

Fernando Rodriguez Lobo de Soropita, the publisher of the miscellaneous poems of Camoens, likewise belongs to this age. Besides his juridical works, he was the author of various pieces of humour in verse.

The present opportunity may be taken to mention the latin verses, which were at this period still current in Portugal, and by the composition of which, men of education, and even men in office of the first rank,

* Barbosa Machado enumerates the titles of the comedies of I have had no opportunity of perusing

Ferreira de Vasconcellos.

them myself.



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