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ing; and their beauty shall consume in the grave from their dwelling. But God will redeem my soul from the power of the grave; for he shall receive me. Psalm 88: 3. For my soul is full of troubles, and my life draweth nigh unto the grave.
Psalm 89: 48. What man is he that liveth, and shall not see death? shall he deliver his soul from the hand of the grave?
Psalm 141: 7. Our bones are scattered at the grave's mouth, as when one who cutteth and cleaveth wood upon the earth.
Prov. 1: 12. Let us swallow them up alive, as the grave; and whole, as those that go down into the pit.
Prov. 30: 16. The grave; and the barren womb; the earth that is not filled with water; and the fire, that saith not, It is enough.
Eccl. 9 10. Whatsoever thy hand findeth to do, do it with thy might; for there is no work, nor device, nor knowledge, nor wisdom, in the grave whither thou goest.
Cant. 8 6. Set me as a seal upon thine heart, as a seal upon thine arm for love is strong as death: jealousy is cruel as the grave: the coals thereof are coals of fire, which hath a most vehement flame.
Isaiah 14: 11. Thy pomp is brought down to the grave, and the noise of thy viols; the worm is spread under thee, and the worms cover thee.
Isa. 38: 10. I said, in the cutting off of my days, I shall go to the gates of the grave: I am deprived of the residue of my years.
Verse 18. For the grave cannot praise thee; death cannot celebrate thee; they that go down into the pit cannot hope for thy truth.
Hosea 14 14. I will ransom them from the power of the grave; I will redeem them from death: O death, I will be thy plagues; O grave, I will be thy destruction: repentance shall be hid from mine eyes.
All the passages in the OLD TESTAMENT wherein the word SHEOL occurs, and is rendered PIT in the common English Version.
Num. 16: 30. But if the Lord make a new thing, and the earth open her mouth, and swallow them up, with all that appertain unto them, and they go down quick into the pit, then ye shall understand that these men have provoked the Lord.
Num. 16: 33. They, and all that appertained to them, went down alive into the pit, and the earth closed upon them: and they perished from among the congregation.
Job 17: 16. They shall go down to the bars of the pit, when our rest together is in the dust.
All the places in the NEW TESTAMENT where the Greek word HADES occurs, and is rendered HELL, and GRAVE, in the common English version.
Matthew 11: 23. And thou, Capernaum, which art exalted unto heaven, shalt be brought down to hell: for if the mighty works, which have been
done in thee, had been done in Sodom, it would have remained until this day. Matt. 16 18. And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter: and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it.
Luke 10: 15. And thou, Capernaum, which art exalted to heaven, shalt be thrust down to hell.
Luke 16 23. And in hell he lifted up his eyes, being in torments, and seeth Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom.
Acts 2: 27, 31. Because thou wilt not leave my soul in hell, neither wilt thou suffer thine Holy One to see corruption. He, seeing this before, spake of the resurrection of Christ, that his soul was not left in hell, neither his flesh did see corruption.
1 Cor. 15: 55. O death, where is thy sting? O grave, where is thy victory?
Rev. 1 18. I am he that liveth, and was dead; and, behold, I am alive forevermore, Amen; and have the keys of hell and of death.
Rev. 6 8. And I looked, and behold, a pale horse; and his name that sat on him was Death, and hell followed with him; and power was given unto them over the fourth part of the earth, to kill with sword, and with hunger, and with death, and with the beasts of the earth.
Rev. 20: 13. And the sea gave up the dead which were in it; and death and hell delivered up the dead which were in them: and they were judged every man according to their works.
Verse 14. And death and hell were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death.
All the passages in the NEW TESTAMENT wherein the word GEHENNA occurs, in all of which it is rendered HELL in the common English Version.
Matthew 5: 22. But I say unto you, That whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment: and whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council: but who soever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell-fire.
Verse 29. And if thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast i from thee for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should per ish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell.
Verse 30. And if thy right hand offend thee, cut it off, and cast it from thee for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell.
Matt. 10 28. And fear not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul; but rather fear him which is able to destroy both soul and body in hell.
Matt. 18 9. And if thine eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast it from thee it is better for thee to enter into life with one eye, rather than having two eyes to be cast into hell-fire.
Matt. 23 15. Woe unto you, Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites for ye compass sea and land to make one proselyte; and when he is made, ye make him twofold more the child of hell than yourselves.
Verse 33. Ye serpents, ye generation of vipers! how can ye escape the damnation of hell?
Mark 9 43. And if thy hand offend thee, cut it off: it is better for thee to enter into life maimed, than having two hands to go into hell, into the fire that never shall be quenched.
Verse 45. And if thy foot offend thee, cut it off: it is better for thee to enter halt into life, than having two feet to be cast into hell, into the fire that never shall be quenched.
Verse 47. And if thine eye offend thee, pluck it out: it is better for thee to enter into the kingdom of God with one eye, than having two eyes to be cast into hell-fire.
Luke 12: 5. But I will forewarn you whom you shall fear: Fear him which, after he hath killed, hath power to cast into hell; yea, I say unto you, fear him.
James 3 6. And the tongue is a fire, a world of iniquity: so is the tongue among our members, that it defileth the whole body, and setteth on fire the course of nature; and it is set on fire of hell.
The only passage in the BIBLE wherein allusion is made to TARTAROS, ·rendered HELL in the common English Version.
2 Peter 2: 4. For if God spared not the angels that sinned, but cast them down to hell, and delivered them into chains of darkness, to be reserved unto judgment.
Statement of facts, showing that the sacred writers did not use the words SHEOL, HADES, TARTAROS, and GEHENNA, to signify a place of ENDLESS MISERY.
SHEOL. This word occurs sixty-four times in the Bible, and is rendered thirty-two times hell, twenty-nine times grave, and three times pit. That it does not signify a place of endless misery is evident from the following facts.
1. The connection of those passages where it is rendered hell shows that no reference is had to a future state of existence. Therefore, there is no proof that this hell is in any other world than the one in which we live. The first time it is rendered hell, and of course the first time the word hell occurs in the Bible, is in Deut. 32: 22. By examining the hell there spoken of, it will be seen that it was the "lowest hell," and that it was to "consume the
earth with her increase, and set on fire the foundations of the mountains." Here fire is evidently used as a figure of punish ment. The nature of this punishment may be learned from verso twenty-four. "They shall be burnt with hunger, and devoured with burning heat, and with bitter destruction: I will also send the teeth of beasts upon them, with poison of serpents of the dust." All this was of course to take place here on the earth. The next time it is rendered hell is in 2 Sam. 22: 6, where David says, "The sorrows of hell compassed me about," &c. The nature of this hell may be learned from verse seven. "In my distress I called upon the Lord, and cried to my God." Again, in Ps. 18: 5, David says, "The sorrows of hell compassed me about; the snares of death prevented me." Verse 6, "In my distress I called upon the Lord," &c. In Ezek. 32: 27, hell plainly signifies the literal grave. "And they shall not lie with the mighty that are fallen of the uncircumcised, which are gone down to hell with their weapons of war; and they have laid their swords under their heads." If the reader will examine every passage where the word sheol occurs, and is rendered hell, with the connection in which they are found, he will see no reason for supposing this hell to be in another world.
2. Both David and Jonah are represented as being in hell, and David is not only represented as being in hell, but as being in the lowest hell; and yet both of these individuals were alive, and on the earth. Jonah 2: 2, "Out of the belly of hell cried I, and thou heardest my voice." Certainly, Jonah could not cry out of the belly of hell unless he was in hell. By consulting verse one, it will be seen that this hell was the fish's belly. Ps. 116: 3, "The sorrows of death compassed me, and the pains of hell gat hold upon me." To learn the nature of this hell, see the next words. "I found trouble and sorrow." Ps. 86: 12, 13, "I will praise thee, O Lord my God, with all my heart; and I will glorify thy name forevermore. For great is thy mercy towards me; and thou hast delivered my soul from the lowest hell." We learn from this that it is not necessary to go into another world to find the lowest hell. Unless it can be shown that there is a hell lower than the lowest, it is in vain to talk about any other hell than that which exists in this world. It is sometimes said that "from hell there is
no redemption." But we here read of a man who was redeemed from the lowest hell.
3. God is represented as being in hell. Ps. 139: 8, "If I make my bed in hell, behold, thou (God) art there." Hell here signifies the invisible state of the dead; or perhaps the literal grave. The obvious meaning of the psalmist is, that death could not carry him beyond the reach of God's presence.
4. David and Jonah are not only represented as having been in hell and as having been delivered from it, but the soul of David is spoken of as having been delivered from hell. Ps. 30: 3, "O Lord, thou hast brought up my soul from the grave" (sheol). By soul, here, David evidently means himself, his own person; and by sheol, the literal grave, or invisible state of the dead. See the next words: "Thou hast kept me alive, that I should not go down to the pit."
5. God is represented as bringing men up from sheol. 1 Sam. 2: 6, "He (God) bringeth down to the grave (sheol), and bringeth up." By those who believe in a place of endless misery, called hell, in a future world, it is thought that when once a person gets to hell his doom is sealed forever, and that there is no prospect of his ever coming up. But, if sheol in the text just quoted means a place of endless misery, this opinion must be given up.
6. God is not only represented as bringing men up from sheol, but the Psalmist expresses satisfaction in the prospect of the redemption of his soul from sheol. Ps. 49: 15, "But God will redeem my soul from the power of the grave" (sheol). Now, if the word soul here means the immortal part of man, and the word sheol a place of misery after death, then it needs no proof that the Psalmist expected that the soul would go to this hell, and afterwards be delivered from it.
7. The patriarch Jacob expressed himself as if he expected to go to sheol. See Gen. 37: 35, 42: 38, and 44: 31. But does any man believe that this good old man expected to go to a place of either limited or endless misery after death? Certainly not. But, if sheol signifies a place of misery after death, Jacob certainly expected to go there.
8. To suppose that sheol signifies a place of endless misery after death, is to suppose that David, so far from being a man "after God's own heart," was a perfect monster in cruelty. In 1 Kings