our Lord was crucified." Where was our Lord crucified, save in Jerusalem ?

The 18th chapter evidently alludes to Jerusalem In verse 8 it is said, “Therefore shall her plagues come in one day, death, and nourning, and famine; and she shall be utterly burned with fire: for strong is the Lord God who judgeth her." Dr. Clarke says this passage means, "They shall mourn because of the slaughter and the famine, the fruits of their fields being utterly destroyed or burned by their enemies." See Deut. 32: 22-25, “A fire is kindled in mine anger, and shall burn unto the lowest hell (sheol) and shall consume the earth with her increase, and set on fire the foundation of the mountains.

They shall be burned with hunger, and devoured with burning heat, and with bitter destruction. The sword without, and terror within, shall destroy both the young man and the virgin, the suckling also, with the man of gray hairs."

The above can be said of no other city. Rome pagan has never been thus treated; only some parts of her were burnt with fire. Rome papal has not been thus treated; but it is true of Jerusalem. In chap. 18: 24, it is said, “And in her was found the blood of prophets, and of saints, and of all that were slain upon the earth." To what place will the above language apply so properly as to Jeru salem? Christ says, "For it cannot be that a prophet perish ou of Jerusalem." Again, we hear him exclaiming to its devoted inhabitants, "O Jerusalem, Jerusalem! thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them that are sent unto thee!" Well might the Saviour declare unto them that upon them should come all the righteous blood shed upon the earth. We might multiply instances to show the internal evidence of the book itself that Jerusalem was the devoted city in question, and was standing when the book was written; which period, as before stated, was previous to the year 68. Jerusalem was destroyed about the year 70. Thus, as we have seen, the time, when the book was written, was at hand.

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The foregoing statements, we think, must be satisfactory to every candid mind. And should an objector say that Jerusalem was destroyed previous to the writing of the book, we reply, that John recorded things which had been, then were, and should be thereafter. See Rev. 1: 19, "Write the things which thou hast seen, and the things which are, and the things which shall be hereafter.”

Hence, whether it were before or after, the objector would have the same difficulty in showing that Jerusalem was not the scene and theatre of action referred to. We also notice that John saw "the dead stand before God." In the resurrection, people cannot be dead. They will then have been raised from death to life. "Neither can they die any more: for they are equal unto the angels, and are the children of God, being the children of the resurrection." See Matt. 22: 30; Luke 20: 36; and 1 Cor. 15: 42—44.

On the Greek terms krino, krima, krisis, &c., we remark, that these words nowhere signify endless misery, or damnation, in a future state of existence. We find no place in the Bible where their signification extends beyond this state of existence. Their strict signification appears to be simply this: First, a judgment; a resolution; a decision; a sentence; a condemnation; a penalty. See Krima. Second, separation; discrimination; choice; decision; judgment; the decision, or final issue; the crisis of a distemper. See Krisis. Or, third, to separate; to put asunder ; to discriminate; to cull; to select; to choose; hence to form a judgment, opinion or decision; to examine; to criticize; to judge; to decide a difference; to give a verdict; to pass sentence; to inquire; to confirm; to ratify, &c.—See Krino, Donnegan's Greek and English Lexicon. New work, pp. 778–9. It will be seen in Section III., this Chapter, that their renderings, though various, agree with the above definitions given. The same words that are rendered judge, judging, judgment, &c., are also rendered damned, condemnation, damnation, &c. Inasmuch, then, as the same words are rendered judgment and damnation, they cannot, intrinsically, signify a decision or judgment to endless misery in any case; for, if they necessarily imply it in the one, they also must, of necessity, imply it in the other; and we should then be under the necessity of reading the following passages thus: "Behold, the Lord cometh with ten thousand of his saints, to execute judgment (hrisin, endless misery) upon all." Now, we think, no one is willing to read the Scriptures in this manner, which would prove universal damnation, or damnation to all; yet, upon the premises laid down, we must of necessity do so; for it is the same word which occurs in Matt. 23: 33, "Ye serpents, ye generation of vipers! how can ye escape the damnation of hell?" Damnation, in this text, is supposed to imply endless misery. Again, we must

read 1 Peter 4: 17, thus: "For the time is come that judgment (krima, endless misery) must begin at the house of God." This same word, krima, is rendered at least eight times damnation in the New Testament, and is supposed to teach the doctrine of endless misery. But, if so, then woe to "the house of God"! For Peter says, “The time is come that krima must begin there." But that this word, or any other in the Bible, teaches endless misery, cannot be sustained. They do not of themselves naturally imply it, neither are they prefixed to any word or phrase in the Bible that does teach it. They simply show a decision in judgment; which is either condemnation on the one hand, or justification on the other, agreeably to the merit or demerit of those adjudged. For further illustrations on these words, see on the words damned, damnation, &c., in this work.

We have, in Section I., this Chapter, so arranged the scripture passages as to show, first, the manner in which God judges his creatures; second, the time when, and place where, God judges them; and, in the third place, we have noticed sundry passages which speak of judgment. We now ask the candid reader to honestly decide for himself whether the judgments of God are not all executed in the earth, and in no other place? Whether men must not reap in the same field where they sow, instead of sowing in one field and reaping in another? Whether "the judgment-seat (bematos) of Christ" is not in this world, rather than in another? (See Rom. 14: 10; 2 Cor. 5: 10.) And whether Christ's kingdom on earth does not confine his reign of judgment to the gospel period? And, when that shall close, whether there will be a place for judgment or a judge to decide? When this is carefully, candidly and honestly done, we have no fears as to the result.




All the passages in the NEW TESTAMENT which speak of the SECOND COMING OF CHRIST.

Matt. 10: 23. But when they persecute you (the apostles) in this city, flee ye into another for verily I say unto you, Ye shall not have gone over the cities of Israel till the Son of Man be come.


Matt. 16 27, 28. For the Son of Man shall come in the glory of his Father with his angels; and then he shall reward every man according to his works. Verily I say unto you, There be some standing here which shall not taste of death till they see the Son of Man coming in his kingdom.

Mark 8 38. Whosoever therefore shall be ashamed of me, and of my words, in this adulterous and sinful generation, of him also shall the Son of Man be ashamed, when he cometh in the glory of his Father, with the holy angels.

Mark 9: 1. And he said unto them, Verily I say unto you, that there be some of them that stand here which shall not taste of death till they have seen the kingdom of God come with power.

Luke 9: 26, 27. For whosoever shall be ashamed of me, and of my words, of him shall the Son of Man be ashamed, when he shall come in his own glory, and in his Father's, and of the holy angels. But I tell you of a truth, There be some standing here which shall not taste of death till they see the kingdom of God.

Matt. 24: 3. And as he (Christ) sat upon the mount of Olives, the disciples came unto him privately, saying, Tell us, when shall these things be. and what shall be the sign of thy coming, and of the end of the world' (End of aionos age, or dispensation.)

Mark 13 3, 4. And as he (Christ) sat upon the mount of Olives, over against the temple, Peter, and James, and John, and Andrew, asked him privately, Tell us, when shall these things be? and what shall be the sign when all these things shall be fulfilled? (His coming, and end of the age.)

Luke 21: 5-7. And as some spake of the temple, how it was adorned with goodly stones and gifts, he (Christ) said, As for these things which ye behold, the days will come in the which there shall not be left one stone

apon another that shall not be thrown down. And they (his disciples) asked him, saying, Master, but when shall these things be? and what sign will there be when these things shall come to pass? (The destruction of the temple, and end of the world, or age.)

Matt. 24: 29-35. Immediately after the tribulation of those days shall the sun be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken; and then shall appear the sign of the Son of Man in heaven; and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of Man coming in the clouds of heaven, with power and great glory. And he shall send his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other. Now learn a parable of the fig-tree; when his branch is yet tender, and putteth forth leaves, ye know that summer is nigh: so likewise ye, when ye shall see all these things, know that it is near, even at the doors. Verily I say unto you, This generation shall not pass till all these things be fulfilled. Heaven and earth shall pass away, but my words shall not pass away (The parallel passages in Mark 13: 28-31.)

Verse 39. And knew not until the flood came, and took them all away, so shall also the coming of the Son of Man be.

Verse 44. Therefore be ye also ready for in such an hour as ye think not, the Son of Man cometh.

Now learn a parable

Mark 13: 28–31. the fig-tree: When her branch is yet tender, and putteth forth leaves, ye know that summer is near so ye, in like manner, when ye shall see these things come to pass, know that it is nigh, even at the doors. Verily I say unto you, That this generation shall not pass till all these things be done. Heaven and earth shall pass away, but my words shall not pass away. Parallels in

Luke 21: 27-32. And then shall they see the Son of Man coming in a cloud, with power and great glory. And when these things begin to come to pass, then look up, and lift up your heads, for your redemption draweth nigh. And he spake to them a parable; Behold the fig-tree, and all the trees; when they now shoot forth, ye see, and know of your own selves, that summer is now nigh at hand. So likewise ye, when ye see these things come to pass, know ye that the kingdom of God is nigh at hand. Verily I say unto you, This generation shall not pass away till all be fulfilled. Heaven and earth shall pass away, but my words shall not pass


Matt. 25: 13. Watch, therefore; for ye know neither the day nor the hour wherein the Son of Man cometh.

Matt. 25: 31-34. When the Son of Man shall come in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then shall he sit upon the throne of his glory: and before him shall be gathered all nations; and he shall separate them one from another, as a shepherd divideth his sheep from the goats and he shall set the sheep on his right hand, but the goats on the left. Then shall the King say unto them on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world.

Verse 41. Then shall he say also unto them on his left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels.

Verse 46. And these shall go away into everlasting punishment: but the righteous into life eternal.

Luke 12: 40. Be ye, therefore, ready also; for the Son of Man cometh at an hour when ye think not.

Luke 17: 22-24. And he said unto the disciples, The days will come

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