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course betweeh the two kingdoms. He said he flattered himself he should be honoured with their indulgent attention, of which he should fully stand in need, while he endeavoured to state to them the important propositions on which he conceived an advantageous and honourable system of intercourse might be established between Great Britain and Ireland. In a business of such moment, he knew that it was equally unnecessary for him to desire the attention of gentlemen, as to entreat that they would enter into the consideration of the subject without prejudice, and with the earnestness which its political magnitude required. There was not a man in the House, of whatever party or description, however attached or connected, who would not agree that the settling of the commercial intercourse of the two countries, on a firm, liberal, and permanent basis, by which an end might for ever be put to jealousies and clamour; by which all future pretexts to discontent might be removed, and by which the surest foundations of future strength and opulence. might be laid, was one of the greatest topics which could be agitated in parliament, and one of the most desirable objects that they could accomplish. They would meet with one disposition as to the end, however they might differ about the means: and he only prayed that gentlemen would enter into the discussion of the subject without prepossession from what they might have heard, and without giving ear to the insinuations which had been so industriously circulated through the metropolis, and distributed, perhaps, to every corner of the country. These insinuations applied to particular subjects of the discussion, and were founded on misconception of those great and necessary data in our relative situation, upon which, without bending our view to partial aspects, we must ultimately decide this great question. If gentlemen had adopted ideas from cases half stated, or from cases misrepresented by those who had made up their minds, without knowing whether the state of the question made it necessary that the line should be pursued which had been adopted, it would be more difficult for him to clear the way to the true consideration of the question than it otherwise would have been,

It was incident to every proposition, that, until it should be fully exposed, those who might have the interest or inclination to raise clamour by partial statements of it, had the advantage in the conflict for a time: but when the whole could be fairly elucidated, truth would always, as it ought, have its prevalence over misrepresentation, and the delusion, though extensive, would be but momentary.

With regard to the important question, he conceived it to be simply this: What ought to be the principles on which the relative commercial interests of the two kingdoms should be settled in the system of intercourse to be established between them? In answering this question he had no difficulty in saying, that the system should be founded on principles of expediency and justice; and he was confident in saying, that, in the mode in which the King's ministers had pursued the object, they had paid regard to those principles. It had been a subject of insinuation that the steps which they had taken were not conducive to the ultimate success of the measure, and that they had embraced notions which were hostile in every conception to the end in view. He would not go minutely into the detail of the propositions which had been read by the clerk at the table, and which he confessed were the basis of the system which he meant to submit to their wisdom, because he was aware that the committee were not ripe to decide on them, and would not be competent to the discussion, until they had examined all the accounts which were already, or which might hereafter be, laid on their table.

It was his wish that those examinations should be full and mi. nute ; that time should be given them for the discussion ; and that the whole should be fairly and fully investigated before they came to any determination. He did this in the confidence that, upon such mature consideration, they would find the general propositions to be founded on good sense and substantial policy. He was sensible that the smaller parts might require much curious and minute investigation; they would stand in need of correction, and perhaps of change. He trusted that he should have

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course betweeh the two kingdoms. He said he fattered himself he should be honoured with their indulgent attention, of which he should fully stand in need, while he endeavoured to state to them the important propositions on which he conceived an advantageous and honourable system of intercourse might be established between Great Britain and Ireland. In a business of such moment, he knew that it was equally unnecessary for him to desire the attention of gentlemen, as to entreat that they would enter into the consideration of the subject without prejudice, and with the earnestness which its political magnitude required. There was not a man in the House, of whatever party or description, however attached or connected, who would not agree that the settling of the commercial intercourse of the two countries, on a firm, liberal, and permanent basis, by which an end might for ever be put to jealousies and clamour ; by which all future pretexts to discontent might be removed, and by which the surest foundations of future strength and opulence might be laid, was one of the greatest topics which could be agitated in parliament, and one of the most desirable objects that they could accomplish. They would meet with one disposition as to the end, however they might differ about the means: and he only prayed that gentlemen would enter into the discussion of the subject without prepossession from what they might have heard, and without giving ear to the insinuations which had been so industriously circulated through the metropolis, and distributed, perhaps, to every corner of the country. These insinuations applied to particular subjects of the discussion, and were founded on misconception of those great and necessary data in our relative situation, upon which, without bending our view to partial aspects, we must ultimately decide this great question. If gentlemen had adopted ideas from cases half stated, or from cases misrepresented by those who had made up their minds, without knowing whether the state of the question made it necessary that the line should be pursued which had been adopted, it would be more difficult for him to clear the way to the true consideration of the question than it otherwise would have been. sending the produce of her own soil to foreign markets, and all correspondence with the colonies of Britain was prohibited to her,

that she could not derive their commodities but through the medium of Britain. This was the system which had prevailed, and this was the state of thraldom in which that country had been kept ever since the Revolution. Some relaxations of the system, indeed, took place at an early period of the present century. Somewhat more of the restrictive laws were abated in the reign of George II.; but it was not until a time nearer to our own day, and indeed within the last seven years, that the system had been completely reversed.

It was not to be expected but that when Ireland, by the more enlarged sentiments of the present age, had acquired an independent legislature, she would instantly export her produce and manufactures to all the markets of the world. She did so, and this was not all. England, without any compact or bargain, generously admitted her to a share in her colonies. She gave her liberty to import directly, and to re-export to all the world, except to Britain, the produce of her colonies. Thus much was done some years ago ; but to this moment no change had taken place in the intercourse between Great Britain and Ireland themselves. Some trivial points, indeed, had been changed; but no considerable change had taken place in our manufactures exported to Ireland, or in theirs imported to England. That, therefore, which had been done, was still viewed by the people of Ireland as insufficient; and clamours were excited, and suggestions published in Dublin and elsewhere, of putting duties on our produce and manufactures, under the name of protecting duties. · Having thus far relaxed from the system which had been maintained since the Revolution, having abandoned the commercial subserviency in which we had so long persevered, and having so wisely and justly put them into a state in which they might cultivate and profit from the gifts of nature, - having secured to them the advantages of their arts and industry, it was to be observed that we had abolished one system, and had

established another ; but we had left the intercourse between the two countries exactly where it was. There were, he said, but two possible systems for countries situated in relation to one another like Britain and Ireland. The one, of having the smaller completely subservient, and subordinate to the greater - to make the one, as it were, an instrument of advantage, and to make all her efforts operate in favour, and conduce merely to the interest of the other. This system we had tried in respect to Ireland. The other was a participation and community of benefits, and a system of equality and fairness, which, without tending to aggrandize the one or depress the other, should seek the aggregate interests of the empire. Such a situation of commercial equality, in which there was to be a community of benefits, demanded also a community of burdens; and it was this situation in which he was anxious to place the two countries. It was on that general basis that he was solicitous of moving the proposition which he held in his hand, to complete a system which had been left unfinished and defective.

Under these circumstances, to discover the best means of uniting the two countries by the firmest and most indissoluble bands, ministers had, during the recess, employed themselves in inquiries by which they might be able to meet parliament with a rational and well-founded system. That they might form the outline of such propositions, from the mutual ideas of both countries, and that they might join in the principles on which the basis of the intercourse was to be laid, they thought it their duty not to come into the parliament of Britain until they knew what additions to the relaxations which were lately made, would be likely to give entire satisfaction to the people of Ireland; what commercial regulations they would think essential to commercial equality; and what proportion of the expense of supporting the common interests Ireland would be content to bear, on being thus made a common sharer in the benefits. They were now prepared to meet parliament with the system, founded on the intelligence of the sense of the Irish legislature on the subject, and, he believed, of the Irish people.

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