The chief original authorities are Plutarch's Lives and Appian's De bellis civilibus, both written two hunhundred years after the events. There are scattered passages in Cicero, which are gathered in Orelli's Onomasticon, II. 531.

Long traces the later opinion, that the Gracchi were pestilent demagogues to Cicero. Sallust incidentally charges them with immoderation, though sympathizing with their party. Livy's books for this period are lost; but what is known as his Epitome has been filled out in Freinsheim's Supplement to Livy from all available sources.

The question of the trustworthiness of these original authorities is examined in Dr. Robert Schmidt's Kritik der quellen zur geschichte der gracchischen unruhen, 1874; F. D. Gerlach, Die geschichtschreiber der Römer, 1855; H. Peter, Die quellen Plutarchs, 1865, pp. 93-100; Niebuhr, Lectures on Roman history (Schmitz's translation), lecture ix.; Arnold, Lectures on Roman history, New York edition, p. 59, The Gracchi have been the subject of various monographs. T. Lau, Die Gracchen und ihre zeit, 1854. with an examination of authorities; K. W. Nitzsch, Die Gracchen und ihre vorgänger, 1847; D. H. Hegewisch, Geschichte der gracchischen unruhen, 1801; F. D. Gerlach, Tiberius und Caius Gracchus, 1843; Ahrens, Die drei volkstribunen, 1836, covers Tiberius only; A. H. L. Heeren, Geschichte der bürgerlichen unruhen der Gracchen, 1824, in his Vermischte hist. schriften, III.; Saint-Réal, Conjuration des Gracques.

The only available monograph in English is Beesly's Gracchi in the Epochs of ancient history series, which is a compact narrative, sympathetic in tone, particularly towards Tiberius, weighing the conflicting views of Mommsen and Long.

The later reaction from the old condemnatory view began with Niebuhr's distinction between public and private property in the laws proposed. Niebuhr, Lectures, Schmitz's translation, lecture 89. The later view of Mommsen, Römische geschichte, book iv., ch. 2 and 3, Dickson's English translation, is accounted cynical by admirers of the Gracchi; and a historian like Mommsen, who theorizes without restraint, is weighed properly with Long, Decline of the Roman republic, 1864, who places his facts carefully, and writes with an almost utter absence of inference. Long calls the Gracchi turbulent and ambitious, but well-intentioned. An appreciative but critical view of Mommsen's general treatment of Roman history is given in E. A. Freeman's Historical essays, II.

Arnold's Later Roman commonwealth, ch. 2 and 3, is made up of articles that were first printed in the Encyclopædia metropolitana, and the tendency of his views is democratic.

Other general histories are as follows:

Merivale, Fall of the Roman republic, and his one volume General history of Rome, ch. 28-29, the latter giving the condensed results of his more extended works. Merivale also wrote the article in the Encyclopædia britannica. Eliot's History of liberty, II. 113, characterizing Tiberius as the leader of reform and Caius of revolution. Schmitz's History of Rome. Ph. Smith's Ancient history, III. 31, uses compactly the labors of Mommsen, Long, and others. Napoleon III., in his Histoire de Jules César, ch. 6, Eng. lish translation, treats the subject with favoring views. H. C. Reiff, Geschichte der römischen bürgerkriege, 1825. W. Drumann, Geschichte Roms in seinem übergange von der republik zur monarchie, 1834-44, vol. vi., gives his authorities. Carl Peter, Geschichte Roms, 2d ed., 1866, II. Michelet, Histoire romaine: république, and the English translation by Hazlitt. Duruy, Histoire des Romains, II., ch. 19 and 20. Ampère, L'histoire romaine à Rome, iv., ch. 15, summing up the characters of the Gracchi, p. 323. Vertot, Histoire des révolutions romaines. The condensed account in Smith's Greek and Roman biography, II., 290, is generally favorable in tone.

The condition of the people and of the laws, as illustrating the movements of the Gracchi, is set forth as follows:

Geo. Rawlinson, Manual of ancient history, 5th period, book 5, compendious, and giving intended laws succinctly. Long, Decline of the Roman republic, ch. 2, on the agrarian laws; ch. 20, on the two parties, Optimates and Populares; ch. 10, on the condition of the state. L. H. Morgan, Ancient society, on Roman political government. T. E. May, Democracy in Europe, I., ch. 5, gives a running commentary, as illustrating the course of the government by the people. Macé, Des lois agraires chez les Romains. K. Bücher, Die aufstände der unfreien arbeiter, 1874. W. Drumann, Die arbeiter und communisten, 1860.

Expression of the popular feeling, as regards the characters of the Gracchi, can be derived from the plays of which they have been made the subjects, lists or accounts of which can be found in Larousse's Grand dictionnaire, viii., 1418, and in the Boston public library Fiction list, p. 118.

- The University Library has recently received 329 volumes and 106 pamphlets, mostly relating to the classics, philology, and natural history, as a bequest from Dr. Charles Pickering, of Boston (H. U., 1823). About one fourth of these were assigned to the departmental libraries. The remainder of Dr. Pickering's library (117 vol. and 40 pamphlets) was given to Smith College, Northampton, and to the Medical Library, Boston.

Scudder's Catalogue of scientific serials (Library of Harvard University, special publications, I.) makes an octavo volume of 380 pp. It was issued in August last, and has been well received. The subscriptions to it, however, have not yet covered the cost of publication. Copies may be had at the library, bound in red cloth, for $4.00; in sheets, printed on one side only, $5.00



Occasionally titles are given of other than recent accessions for the purpose of rectifying the old cataloguing or of drawing attention, with explanatory notes, to important books.


Accessions to the several departmental libraries are indicated by heavy-faced letters after the titles, as follows:

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M., pseudon. Catalogue des livres rares et
précieux de M. * Paris. 1785. 8°. IV. 726

Priced in MS.
Under the is written "De theirs," or "De theiss."
Abbott, Benjamin Vaughan. Dictionary of
terms and phrases used in American or English
jurisprudence. 2 vol. Boston. 1879. 1.8° LS.

Abbott, Edwin Abbott. Latin prose through
English idiom. Rules and exercises on Latin prose
composition. With additions by E. R. Humphreys.
Boston. 1876. 24°.
II. 1001

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[Ageno, Francesco]. I casi della guerra per l'indipendenza d'America. [Edited by] Giuseppe Colucci. 2 vol. in 3. Genova. 1879. sm. 8°. 6355.25

From the libraries of Count Vladyslav Bielínski and Zygmunt
Czarnecki with the book-plate of the latter.
MS. marginal notes.

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Anson, Sir William Reynell, 3d bart. Principles of the English law of contract. Oxford. 1879. sm. 80. (Clarendon press series.) LS. Antoine, Franz. Die coniferen nach Lambert, Loudon und anderen. Wien. 1840. fo. Col. plates. BG. Imperfect: - pp. 89-104 and plates 34-43 are wanting. Aradas, Alessandro, and Benoit, L. Conchiliologia vivente marina della Sicilia e delle isole che la circondano. Catania. 1870. 4o. MZ.

I 20.

Agrippa, Heinrich Cornelius, of Nettesheim. De
Archbold, John Frederick The law and prac-
Occvl-ta Philoso- | phia Libri [ Tres. | [Cologne.
tice in bankruptcy. 10th ed. By J. Flather. London,
Colophon:- An- no M.D.XXXIII. | Mense
etc. 1844. 120.
Iulio. | sm. fo. Port. and diagrs.
III. 477
Pleading and evidence in criminal cases.
By John Jervis.
There are a few
19th ed. By William Bruce.
London. 1878.
Archiv für die holländischen beiträge zur natur-
und- heilkunde. Herausgegeben von F. C. Donders
und W. Berlin. Bd. i.-iii. Utrecht. 1858-64.
Archiv for mathematik og naturvidenskab. Ud-
givet af Sophus Lie, Worm Müller og G. A. Sars.
VI. 605
re-ze bind. Kristiania. 1876-78. 80.


Of this very rare work three different editions were published
in the year 1533; according to Clément this is the first.
Brunet, i. 114; Clément's Bibl. curieuse hist. et crit., i. 91-93 ;
Panzer, vi. 426, xi. 404, 405.

Alix, (Pierre Henri) Edmond. Essai sur l'appa-
reil locomoteur des oiseaux. Paris. 1874. 8°. MZ.
Allen, Alfred H. An introduction to the prac-
tice of commercial organic analysis. Vol. i.
don. 1879. 80.

V. 392

Allen, Zachariah. Solar light and heat the source and the supply. Gravitation: with explanations of planetary and molecular forces. New York, etc. 1879. 80.

V. 414

Sequel to the author's "Philosophy of the mechanics of nature," etc. published in 1851.


Archiv für psychiatrie und nervenkrankheiten. Redigirt von C. Westphal. ix. bd. Berlin. 1879 ['78-79]. 80.

To be continued.

Arndt, Ernst Moritz. Life and adventures. Compiled from the German. Preface by J. R. Seeley. London. 1879. sm. 8°.

"Consisting mainly of a translation of Arndt's autobiography, abridged in many places, and occasionally enlarged by quotations from his letters and other writings.". See prefatory


Arnold, Isaac N. The life of Benedict Arnold; his patriotism and his treason. Chicago. 1880 [1879]. 80. 7334.59


pour l'encouragement des études grecques en France. Annuaire. Ie-12e année, 1867-78. Paris. 1867-78. 8°.

To be continued.


but the science has advanced so rapidly that it is essential to follow its annual progress since Bancroft in the Reports of the Peabody museum and of the Smithsonian institution, and in the transactions of many of the natural history and other scientific societies. The advanced student will find in Bancroft and in these later sources the index to many monographs on special points. In the present bulletin, will be found a new book, Short's North Americans of antiquity, which surveys the whole field of American archæology, more fully than has heretofore been done, and makes use of the most recent discoveries.

Baldwin, John Loraine, editor. The laws of short whist. And a treatise on the game by J[ames] C[lay]. Ist American ed. New York. 1877 [cop. VII. 865 1866]. 24°. Balfour, Arthur James. A defence of philosophic doubt, being an essay on the foundations of belief. 11393.31 MZ. London. 1879. 8°.

Association française pour l'avancement des sciences. Comptes-rendus. ie-ve session 187276. Paris. 1873-77. 80. MZ.

Atkinson, Joseph. The history of Newark, New Jersey. Newark. 1878. 1. 80.

Atkinson, William Biddle. A biographical dictionary of contemporary American physicians and surgeons. 2d ed. Philadelphia. 1880 [1879]. 1. 8°. A53.8 Atwater, W. O. Report on farm experiments with fertilizers. [Hartford.] 1878. 8°.


Autenrieth, Georg (Gottlieb Philipp). A Homeric dictionary. From the German. By R. P. Keep. New York. 1878 [cop. 1876]. 16o. II. 876 Azarias, Brother, originally P. F. MULLANY. The development of English literature: the old English period. New York. 1879. 120. IV. 675

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Bacon, Francis, baron Verulam, viscount St. Alban's. The elements of the common lavves of England. London. 1630. sm. 4o.

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Bagehot, W. Literary studies. Edited by R. H. Hutton. 2d ed. 2 vol. London. 1879. 8o. IV.699 Contents:i. The first Edinburgh reviewers. (1855.)Hartley Coleridge. (1852.) Percy Bysshe Shelley. (1856) - Shakespeare the man. (1853.) John Milton. (1859.)Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. (1862.) William Cowper. (1855.) Letters on the French coup d'état of 1851. (1852) Cæsarism as it existed in 1865. - Memoir of Hon. James Wilson. (1860.)-ii. Edward Gibbon. (1856.)-Bishop Butler. (1854.) Sterne and Thackeray. (1864.)- The Waverley novels. (1858.) Charles Dickens. (1858.)-Thomas Babington Macaulay. (1856) Béranger. (1857.)- Mr. Clough's poems. (1862.1-Henry Crabbe Robinson. (1869.)-Wordsworth, Tennyson, and Browning; or, Pure, ornate, and grotesque art in English poetry. (1864.)-The ignorance of man. (1862.) On the emotion of conviction. (1871)-The metaphysical basis of toleration. (1874.) The public worship regulation bill. (1874-)

The above articles appeared originally at the annexed dates in the National, Fortnightly and Contemporary reviews.

Bailey, Alfred. The succession to the English crown. London. 1879. sm. 8o. 1437.27

Baird, Henry Martyn. History of the rise of the Huguenots of France. 2 vol. New York. 1879.


III. 505 Balbiani, G. Leçons sur la génération des vertébrés. Paris. 1879. 80. MZ.

Baldwin, John Dennison. Ancient America, in notes on American archæology. New York. 1878 [cop. 1871]. 120.


This book is a popular summary of existing knowledge (1871) of American archæological remains, which date back of the Spanish discovery, but it is confined to traces of the mound builders, and of the group of races usually styled Mexican and Peruvian. A later and more elaborate survey is made by H. H. Bancroft in the 4th volume of his Native races of the Pacific states, 1875, but he includes the more northern peoples along the Pacific coast, and he is by no means so full upon the mound builders and Peruvians, as upon the other races. Upon these last his treatment is cyclopædic, and he draws upon all existing sources of information, with full references on special points. In this particular, Bancroft is of first importance to the student, who will soon learn, however, to discard such portion of his references, as stand for wild and unscholarly treatment of the subject. Baldwin and Bancroft are the best keys to this knowledge, the one for the general reader, the other for the student;

Barber, John Warner. European historical collections; comprising England, Scotland, with Holland, Belgium, and part of France. New Haven, 6475.17 Conn. 1855. 8°. The

Barnard, Frederick Augustus Porter.
metric system of weights and measures. 3d ed.
Boston, American metric bureau. 1879. 80. VII. 880
Also edition of 1872.

Barrande, Joachim. Système silurien du centre de la Bohême. ie pt. Recherches paléontologiques. Vol. i.-iii., v. Prague, etc. 1852-79. 4°

44.137, also MZ. Contents:-i. Trilobites. 1 vol. 1852, and 1 vol. of plates. Supplément. Trilobites, crustacés divers et poissons. 1 vol. 1872, and 1 vol. of plates ii. Mollusques. Céphalopodes. 5 pt 1867-77, and 4 vol. of plates, 1865-70. Supplément et série tardive. I vol. 1877, and 1 vol. of plates. iii. Mollusques. Ptéropodes. 1 vol. 1867. v. Mollusques. Brachio podes. Trois chapitres de texte et planches 1-71. 1 vol. 1879, and 1 vol. of plates (72-153).

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Bell, Thomas. A history of British quadrupeds, including the cetacea. 2d ed. Revised by the author, assisted by Robert F. Tomes and Edward Richard Alston. London. 1874. 8°.


Art in

The college library has the edition of 1837. Benjamin, Samuel Green Wheeler. America. A critical and historical sketch. New York. 1880 [1879]. 4o. Illustrated. II. 1000

Bergenroth, G. A., and Gayangos, Pascual DE, editors. Calendar of letters, despatches, and state papers, relating to the negotiations between England and Spain, preserved in the archives at Simancas, and elsewhere. Vol. i.-iii.; iv. pt. 1. London, etc. 1862-79. 1. 8°. 4494.3

Berkeley, G., Bp. Selections, with an introduction and notes by A. C. Fraser. 2d ed. Oxford. 1879. sm. 8°. (Clarendon press series.) III. 542 Also edition of 1874.

The principles of human knowledge; with a brief introduction. By Collyns Simon. London. 1878. sm. 80. III. 503 Berlioz, (L.) H. Selections from his letters, and æsthetic, humorous, and satirical writings. Translated by W. F. Apthorp. New York. 1879. 120. (The AMATEUR series.) II. 867; II. 1014

Berthelot, Pierre Eugène Marcellin. Essai de mécanique chimique fondée sur la thermochimie. 2 tom. Paris. 1879. 1. 8°.

Berthelot, S. Oiseaux voyageurs et poissons de passage. 2 tom. Paris. 1875-76. 80.

1. 80.


Besant, Walter. Gaspard de Coligny (marquis de Chatillon). New York. 1879. 160. (The NEW Plutarch.) 3533.21 Bessels, Emil. Die amerikanische nordpol-expedition. Leipzig. 1879. 80. MZ. Bible. Chinese. [The Bible translated into Chinese] 5 vol. [Shanghai, etc. 1863.] 80 and VII. 895 Eng. The Holy Bible; translated literally from the original tongues [by Julia E. Smith]. Hartford, Conn. 1876. 1. 80. III. 488 Bigelow, Melville Madison. Elements of equity. Boston. 1879. 16o. LS. Bird, James. Historical researches on the origin and principles of the Bauddha and Jaina religions. Bombay. 1847. fo. 53 plates. III. 552 Bisticci, Vespasiano DA. Vite di uomini illustri del secolo XV. Stampate la prima volta da Angelo Mai e nuovamente da Adolfo Bartoli. Firenze. 1859. sm. 8°. VII. 721 Blackstone, Sir W. Commentaries on the laws of England. 5th ed. 4 vol. Oxford. 1773. 8°. LS. The same. With notes by J. F. Archbold. 4 vol. London. 1811. 1. 80. LS. The college library has the editions of 1768-69, 1771-72, 1807 (two different eds.) and 1857.

Blanford, W. T. Observations on the geology and zoology of Abyssinia. London. 1870. 80. MZ. Bohun, William. Institutio legalis: or, An introduction to the study and practice of the laws of England. 4th ed. [London] 1732. 80. LS. Boisduval d'Echauffour, Jean Alphonse, and Le Conte, John. Histoire générale et iconographie des lépidoptères et des chenilles de l'Amérique septentrionale. Tom. i. Paris. 1833. 80. MZ.

Boston, Mass.- Public library. Catalogue of the Spanish library and of the Portuguese books bequeathed by George Ticknor, with the collection of Spanish and Portuguese literature in the general library. By James Lyman Whitney. Boston. 1879. 1. 80.


Bowne, Borden Parker. Studies in theism. New York, etc. 1879. 16o. III. 499

[Braghirolli, Willelmo, editor]. Lettere inedite di artisti del secolo xv. cavate dall' archivio Gonzaga. Mantova. 1878. 80. VII. 724 Brakelmann, F. W. Julius. Giovan Francesco Straparola da Caravaggio. — Inaugural-dissertation. Göttingen. 1867. 80. IV. 735

Breslau, Germ. - Königliche universität — Sternwarte. Mittheilungen über die hier bisher gewonnenen resultate für die geographischen und klimatologischen ortsverhältnisse. Herausgegeben von J. G. Galle. Breslau. 1879. 4°. AO.

Schlesische gesellschaft für vaterländische cultur. Uebersicht der arbeiten und veränderungen im jahre 1826-49. Breslau. 1826-50. 4o. MZ. Continued under the title:Jahresbericht. xxviii.-lv. Breslau. 1851-77.

4o and 80.


Bright, John. Public addresses. Edited by J. E. T. Rogers. London. 1879. 80. I. 384 British museum. Catalogue of the birds in the museum. Vol. iv. By R. B. Sharpe. London. 1879. 80. 47.51 Description of new species of hymenoptera in the museum, by Frederick Smith. London. 1879. 80. MZ. Illustrations of typical specimens of lepidoptera heterocera in the museum. Pt. ii. By A. G. Butler. London. 1878. 4o. 47.16

[Brome, Richard, editor]. Covent garden drolery, or A colection, of all the choice songs, poems, prologues, and epilogues, (sung and spoken at courts and theaters) never in print before. Written by the refined'st witts of the age. And collected by R.B. servant to His Majesty. London, printed for James Magnes. 1672. sm. 80. 25267.19

With a few MS. corrections on pp. 7 and 42.-See Griffith's Bibl. anglo-poet., 55; Hazlitt's Hand-book, 168; Bohn's Lowndes, 280, 674.

Brooks, P. The influence of Jesus. New York. 1879. 16o. (The Bohlen lectures, 1879.) III. 487 Browning, Robert. Poetical works. 6 vol. London. 1878, '77-79, '75. 16o. IV. 687 Brück, Moses. Rabinische ceremonialgebräuche in ihrer entstehung und geschichtlichen entwickelung. Breslau. 1837. 80. II. 890

Brünn, Austria — K. k. mährisch-schlesische gesellschaft zur beförderung des ackerbaues, etc. Mittheilungen. 51er-58er jahrg. Brünn. 1871-78. BI.


Bryant, W. C., and Gay, S. H. A popular history of the United States. Vol. iii. New York. 1879. 1. 80. 5354.5 Buckley, Henry Burton. The law and practice under the companies acts, 1862, 1867, 1870, & 1877, and the life assurance companies acts, 1870 to 1872. 3d ed. London. 1879. 8°. LS. Buckton, Catherine M. Town and window gardening, including the structure, habits, and uses of plants. London. 1879. sm. 8o. BG. Büchner, (Friedrich Karl Christian) Ludwig. Liebe und liebesleben in der thierwelt. Berlin. 1879. 80. MZ.

Bugge, (Elseus) Sophus. Altitalische studien. Herausgegeben von der gesellschaft der wissenschaften zu Christiania. Christiania. 1878. 8°. II.878 Contents: 1. Die oskische execrationsinschrift der vibia. 2. Das weihgedicht von Corfinium.

Bullettino malacologico italiano. Vol. i-vii. MZ. Pisa. 1868-75. 8°.

This publication was afterwards conducted by the Società malacologica italiana of Pisa, which see.

Bump, Orlando F. Composition at common law; with forms. St. Louis. 1879. 1. 80. LS

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