The Elementary Principles of Scientific Agriculture

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Simpkin, Marshall & Company; Longmans & Company; Hamilton, Adams & Company Manchester: John Heywood, Deansgate; Birmingham: Scholastic Trading Company, High Street; Glasgow and Edinburgh: Menzies & Company; Glasgow: Holmes; Aberdeen: Lewis Smith & Son. And all Booksellers., 1882 - 199 pagina's
 

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Pagina 42 - ... 4. Farmyard manure, even in quite a fresh state, contains phosphate of lime, which is much more soluble than has hitherto been suspected. 5. The urine of the horse, cow, and pig, does not contain any appreciable quantity of phosphate of lime, whilst the drainings of dungheaps contain considerable quantities of this valuable fertilizer. The drainings of dungheaps, partly for this reason, are more valuable than the urine of our domestic animals, and therefore ought to be prevented by all available...
Pagina 44 - ... 20. If rain is excluded from dung-heaps, or little rain falls at a time, the loss in ammonia is trifling, and no saline matters of course are removed ; but, if much rain falls, especially if it descends in heavy showers upon the dungheap, a serious loss in ammonia, soluble organic matters, phosphate of lime, and salts of potash is incurred, and the manure becomes rapidly deteriorated in value, whilst at the same time it is diminished in weight.
Pagina 163 - ... of different foods for feeding purposes, it may be stated in general terms, as the conclusion drawn from hundreds of feeding experiments with different descriptions of food, made at Rothamsted, that, weight for weight, there is very much less difference in the feeding-value than in the manure-value of foods which are included in what may be called the same class. For instance, it will make comparatively little difference, so far as the increase in...
Pagina 111 - ... soluble matters then liable to be washed out, but the bruised state of the plants, admitting at least a partial diffusion of the various constituents through the lacerated cell-walls, induces fermentation, which, if not checked at once, causes further loss. During the fermentation soluble albumen and sugar are destroyed — two of the most valuable elements of nutrition. In showery weather, grass recently cut should, for this reason, not be turned over more than is absolutely necessary, and under...
Pagina 184 - Ayrshire cow generally gives a larger return of milk for the food consumed, than one of any other breed. The absolute quantity may not be so great, but it is obtained at a less cost ; and this is the point upon which the question of profit depends. The Jersey cow is remarkable for the richness of her milk; so much so, that two or three of this breed, kept in large dairies, very perceptibly Improve the quality of the butter and cheese.
Pagina 37 - ... brave the winter frosts, an early and perfect ripening, such as would be induced by a defect of nitrogen relatively to carbon, whilst it might be coincident with a more rapid bulb formation, would by no means be a desideratum. We believe, however, that in the ordinary course of farming, the special supply of nitrogen to the turnip crop, by means of artificial manures, is seldom if ever necessary ; for there is no ample source of available carbon which does not provide at the same time a considerable...
Pagina 44 - In this case fresh dung cannot be properly fermented under cover, except water or liquid manure is pumped over the heap from time to time. Where much straw is used in the manufacture of dung, and no provision is made to supply the manure in the pit at any time with the requisite amount of moisture, it may not be advisable to put up a roof over the dung-pit. On the other hand, on farms where there is deficiency of straw, so that the moisture of the excrements of our domestic animals is barely absorbed...
Pagina 125 - These he employs for the double purpose of holding and detaching the grass, the latter action being assisted by a twitch of the head. The ox, on the contrary, uses the tongue to collect his food ; that organ being so directed as to encircle a small tuft of grass, which is placed by it between the incisors and an elastic pad opposite to them in the upper jaw ; between these the herbage is pressed and partly cut, its complete severance being effected by tearing. The sheep gathers its food in a similar...
Pagina 44 - If the animals have been supplied with plenty of litter, fresh dung contains an insufficient quantity of water to induce an active fermentation. In this case, fresh dung cannot be properly fermented under cover, except water or liquid manure is pumped over the heap from time to time. Where much straw is used in the manufacture of dung and no provision is made to supply the manure in the pit at any time with the requisite amount of moisture, it may not be advisable to put up a roof over the dung-pit....
Pagina 68 - It neutralizes acid substances which are naturally formed in the soil, and decomposes or renders harmless other noxious compounds which are not unfrequently within reach of the roots of plants.

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