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the sentence quoted above. "De lui," he says, meaning the Council of Trent, "date une époque nouvelle pour l'Église Catholique." Both these writers, it will be observed, use the term "Catholic" as if belonging exclusively to the Roman Catholic Church. In this we shall not imitate them. But if it be true to any considerable extent, as they assert, that modern Romanism dates from the Council of Trent, then the preliminaries of that Council, and the events which led to it, the history of the debates and of the chief actors in it, must be of the utmost interest and importance to all who would understand the ecclesiastical history of the present day.
Herr Gothein occupies the early portion of his work with a vivid narrative of the attempts at inward reformation in Spain and Italy, provoked and set on foot in order to answer to the reformation of Luther in Germany. After a slight sketch of the movement in Spain, our author deals much more fully with that in Italy. He maintains that the principles of the Italian Renaissance and of the Humanists were not nearly so pagan, nor so hostile, to religion as is generally supposed. The Renaissance on the whole was favourable to Rome. He quotes with approval this sentence from one of the biographers of Miami: "When the Lutheran heresy stirred up doubts as to the merit of works, God raised up a Miami to show in him the power of an almost extinct charity." This intense self-devotion to works of charity was the true answer of the inner reformers of the Church of Rome to the proclamation of justification by faith alone put forth by
Luther. Some of the most interesting pages of this volume are those in which are drawn for us a picture of this internal reform, the men who wrought it, the methods they employed, and the results of their work.
In reading these descriptions we cannot fail to be struck with the likeness and the parallel between some of the recent movements in the Church of England and that of this reformation of the Roman Catholic Church in Italy. We find the like methods employed in both cases, the like stress laid on the same points, to remedy similar needs. We discover with surprise that not only the means employed by the Tractarians and the High Church party, but also those used by the early Evangelical revivalists, nay, some of those of the Salvation Army, were freely employed by these Roman Catholic reformers in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Street preaching, Sunday - schools, prison visiting, and reforms like those of John Howard and Mrs. Fry, work in hospitals, refuges, penitentiaries, care for the deaf and dumb, " slumming" in all its forms-these all marked the movement in one place or another. There was no too painful shrinking from what might seem bad taste to the cultivated; on the contrary, a tinge of melodrama and of theatrical action was sometimes given to the movement, especially by the Jesuits. The men engaged were men like Contarini, Sadoleti, Gaetan and Caraffa (the founders of the Theatins), Giberti, Miami, Filippo Neri of the Oratory, and many others who were known first as "going out into the streets and lanes of the city" before they
were called to found religious Orders, to be cardinals and candidates for the Papacy, or to rule their Church as Popes. In Italy, contrary to what took place in the North, it was the Protestant reformers whose work presented a weak esoteric character, an almost feminine delicacy of spirit and shrinking from reality; their speculations were too subtle to be seized by the populace, or to affect them largely. This is the characteristic of the circles-one might almost use the French word salons-which gathered round Olympia Morata, Renée of Ferrara, Vittoria Colonna, Ochino, the Valdes of Naples, and others. We might almost include in them men like Cardinal Pole, or Morone, at one period of his life, whose influence was confined to a limited but select company. It was the stronger men on the side of the Papacy who used rougher but more effective tools, who sought contact with the people instead of fearing it. It was they who laid the foundation of the Counter-Reformation, and of all that there was of good in the work of the Council of Trent.
Let us consider this a little more in detail. Giberti declared that all parish priests were bound to teach children religion on Sunday. He prepared a short catechism in imitation of Luther's, and intended to be a counterpoise to it. He established fifteen Sunday-schools in Verona, and went so far as to keep children in them all day long. He employed lay teachers freely in these schools, " for," said he, "the harvest is great, but the labourers are few"; and from this work proceeded, on the one side, orphan homes, hospitals, reformatories for lost
women, on the other side, theological schools for training the clergy, and finally the diocesan seminary, the most powerful weapon in the modern Church of Rome. Miami followed almost the same lines in Venice and Milan, but with still greater devotion to works of charity. Filippo Neri, the founder of the Oratory, appears at first with less of the character of the conventional saint, except in his poverty. When not engaged in religious study, he loved to collect the street boys of Florence, and to prove himself the merriest comrade, the greatest buffoon of all. But all the while he was aiming at their conversion, and led so many hardened sinners to repentance, and then to embrace a monastic life, that Ignatius Loyola used to call him "the hand-bell, which summoned men to the cloister, but never went in itself." He held all the peculiar doctrines of the Church of Rome in their crudest and most materialistic forms. His personal asceticism and humility went to the verge of cynicism, and loss of self-respect. He was, as it were, the G. W. Ward of the movement in comparison with Dr. Pusey of the Tractarians. Ignatius Loyola early saw the importance of street preaching, and eagerly took it up. He began his own work with this, and would never suffer any blame to be attached to it. It was practised with especial diligence and success at the time of the Carnival. There was daily practice and continual examination in the art of popular preaching in the Jesuit Colleges. Confession was advocated as the best means of obtaining influence over individuals, and of gaining real power, instead of merely the
appearance of it. Thus, while Ignatius discouraged his followers generally from accepting bishoprics, or other high posts in the Church, he trained them carefully to be confessors and directors of princes and the great. Therein he saw that real power lay. For a similar reason he soon took up the cause of higher education, in which the
1 Ignatius Loyola and Francisco Xavier were both Basques. In the lives of both we can see the influence of Basque manners and customs.
The genealogy of the family of Loyola is given in the Euskal-erria of San Sebastian, tomo xlvi, año de 1902, Nos. 774, 775, 776, in a series of articles: Ensayo de un Padron Historico de Guipuzcoa segun el orden de sus familias pobladores, by Don J. Carlos de Guerra. The genealogy begins in 1180 with the Señors of Oñaz, the third of whom married Iñes de Loyola. These families continued to intermarry, and the sixth señor built the castle (torre or casa fuerte) of Loyola towards the end of the fourteenth century. It was partially dismantled in 1457. Iñigo, or Ignatius, Loyola was the seventh child of a family of twelve of Beltran Yañez de Oñaz y Loyola (1x). One of his brothers became rector of one of the churches of Azpeitia. The others were all soldiers. His elder brother, Martin Garcia (XI.), entailed the estate and ennobled the family. One of his sons, Martin Garcia, joined the company of Jesus in 1551; with this exception none of the descendants took orders, and none of the daughters became nuns, but a cousin became serora of the Church of Azpeitia in 1595. In 1553 the heiress, Doña Lorenza de Oñaz y Loyola, married Juan de Borja (Borgia), second son of St. Francisco de Borja, Duke of Gandia, Viceroy of Catalonia, and afterwards General of the Order of Jesuits. A son, Martin Garcia, married in Chili a noble Indian lady, their daughter was made Marchioness of Oropesa, and in 1681 the childless Marquis and Marchioness of Oropesa (XIV.) gave the house and estate of Loyola to the Queen-mother of Spain, Maria Anna of Austria, to found the Royal College of the Company at Azpeitia. Cf. also: Averiguaciones de las Antiguedades de Cantabria, por el P. Gabriel de Henao, S.J. Vols. v. vi. vii., 2nd edit. 7 vols. Lopez, Toledo, 1894, and Nobiliario de los Palacios. de la Provincia de Guipuzcoa, por D. Domingo de Lizaso, tomo I, cap. ii. folio San Sebastian, 1901.