of the Faculty of Theology of Paris, l'Abbé de Fontanil, was very Gallican, and swore by Mabillon. In the course of the discussion he stated a proposition on the power of the Popes in the Middle Ages which was tainted with Gallicanism. At once the witty candidate (the Béarnais are near neighbours of the Gascons) improvised a pretended text from Mabillon, which he opposed to the Dean. Mabillon had spoken: the case was decided: the Dean retracted."

In 1839 de Salinis was proposed as coadjutor to the Bishop of Troyes; but the Gallicans were still strong enough to ensure his rejection. Eight years afterwards, however, at the recommendation of the Pope, he was appointed Bishop of Amiens. At the Council of Soissons, in 1851, the Gallican party all but triumphed, and their defeat was due only to the eloquence and ability of Gerbet. In 1856 Mgr. de Salinis was made Archbishop of Auch. The state of the province is thus described: "Mgr. Chigi, the Papal Nuncio, advised him to accept the dignity. 'Accept, my Lord,' he said; 'you will give the last blow to Gallicanism."" "In fact, Gascony was still a thoroughly Gallican province and even somewhat Jansenist." "The clergy showed themselves very Gallican." Mgr. de Salinis died as he had lived-"A little Béarnais who did not love the Gallicans." His last words were: "The great devotion of these times is the devotion to the Pope."

It is both singular and instructive to notice how parallel has been the religious revival in the Church of Rome and in the Anglican Church. In both cases it has been carried on in the face of


hostile legislation, and without assistance from the State: although the hostility of the civil power has not been nearly so marked in England as in France. Yet we have seen the disestablishment of the Irish Church, the partial secularizing of the Universities and of elementary schools, the cry for the separation of Church and State, and other measures of similar character. Along with this, however, the ecclesiastical revival has gone on its own way, distinguished in both branches of Catholicism by new and finer church buildings, by almost a fever of restoration, by more numerous and more ornate services, by multiplied Communions. This last feature is quite as prominent in the Roman Catholic Church as in our own. In the earlier time some confessors would hardly allow their penitents an Easter Communion without special preparation. Now a monthly Communion is urged on all, especially on children, with greater frequency for those who desire it. Then again, diocesan, provincial, national synods, and congresses of many kinds have been multiplied in both Churches; but the advance in every direction has been more marked among the Roman Catholics than amongst ourselves. Different as the current interpretation of our Church services and of liturgical worship may be from what it was in the first thirty years of the century, we can hardly say that the Prayer-book itself, or that the Liturgy has been altered. But in the Church of Rome the peculiar Roman Rite has superseded almost every national and provincial Rite. We have had no obligatory addition to our creed, such

as the belief, now imposed on all Roman Catholics, in the dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin, and in the Infallibility of the Pope. The better observance of Fasts and Festivals and Saints' Days has been happily revived; but we have no such innovations as the dedication of whole months to the special culte of St. Joseph, of the Blessed Virgin, of the Sacred Heart, of the Rosary, and of Purgatory. We perhaps honour the Mother of our Lord more now than formerly, but we have introduced no such parody of the ever-blessed Trinity, as "Jesus, Mary, Joseph," and the use of the initials "J. M. J." at the head of prayers and of correspondence. There has been no such centralization of power and of opinion in the English Church as has been going on in the Church of Rome; rather the contrary. The moderating influence of our bishops, and of our great religious societies, is still felt. The parallel might be pushed further, and into many details. The Revival in both Churches has been real. In both the general tendency has been the same: in both there may be something to deplore. In the Church of England, at least, we may hope the better tendencies may yet predominate over those that are less beneficial.



IN reading the biographies of Spanish ecclesiastics, and in conversation with Spanish friends, one had often met the remark that such or such a person had gained some particular post of advancement, generally in the Cathedral Chapter, by oposicion, that is, by competitive examination. It was, moreover, the more important offices of the Chapter, with special duties attached to them, which were mentioned in this way. It had been often my intention, but I never found opportunity, to put together the desultory information which I had thus obtained, and to master the system in its details. This I had been unable to do, until quite recently there appeared in the Revue du Clergé Français two articles, the first in the number for December 1, 1900, the other in that of February 15, 1901. The author of these articles, entitled Le Régime du Concours dans les Diocèses d'Espagne, is Dom J. L. Pierdait, prior of the Benedictine Monastery of Silos, in the province of Burgos. The occupation of this ancient monastery by Benedictines from France has been fruitful in literary and historical labours, and the present essay is but a mere sample of the productions

which they have given to the world. The following pages are a condensed abridgement of Dom Pierdait's articles; the references have been compared with the originals, and on many points Dom Pierdait's experiences and information are closely corroborative of my own.

The appointment of parish priests after competitive examination is in accordance with the decrees of the Council of Trent, Sessio xxiv., cap. 18; and the observance of the decree has been urged on the Church by several popes, by Pius V. in 1566, by Clement XI. (1700-1720), by Benedict XIV. (1740-1758), and in Spain by the popes in successive Concordats, in 1737, in 1753, in 1851, and later. Clement XI. laid down the main lines which are still followed in Spain in the examinations for parochial benefices. These are as follows: I. The examination must be the same for all the candidates, the same questions given, the same text for sermon. 2. The programme must be dictated to all at the same moment. 3. To all must be given the same time for answering. 4. The candidates must be in the same room, and nobody must go in or out during the time of examination. 5. The candidates must write the answers with their own hand. 6. Questions of dogma and ethics must be answered in Latin, but the sermon must be composed in the language of the country.

Let us see how these examinations for parish priests are actually conducted in Spain.1 The

1 Article 26 of the Concordat of 1851 says: "All parish priests, without distinction of locality, class, or time, shall be appointed by open competition according to the dis

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