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and I submit myself, with all my heart, through love towards Thee. I wish everything, I accept everything, I make the sacrifice of everything to Thee, and I unite this sacrifice to that of my divine Saviour. I ask Thee, in His name, and by His infinite merits, for patience in my afflictions, and for a perfect submission to everything which Thou willest or permittest. Amen."
Priest (in Spanish): "Let us consecrate ourselves to the most holy Virgin."
(In Latin): "We flee to thy protection, holy Mother of God. Despise not our prayers in our need, but ever deliver us from all perils, O glorious and blessed Virgin.
Pr. "After child-birth, Virgin, thou hast remained inviolate.
R. "Mother of God, intercede for us."
Then follows again the prayer: "O God, who gavest mankind, etc.," and the service concludes, as it began, with" Blessed and praised for ever be the most Holy and most divine Sacrament of the Altar."
There is, of course, much in this service which no English Churchman could use, nor do I for a moment urge either its adoption or any imitation of it. It may, however, furnish a few hints and suggestions towards framing some suitable service for the last night of the year, a want that is deeply felt in our own Church. It has the merit of being partly in the vernacular, and of being for the most part really congregational; not a service between the clergy and the choir alone.
1 Query In conjunction with a Celebration of the Holy Communion ?--ED. Anglican Church Magazine.
THE EUCHARISTIC CONGRESSES IN THE CHURCH OF ROME
AMONG the manifold activities which the Churches are displaying in our days, perhaps the most conspicuous are the various congresses, conferences, meetings for special purposes, diocesan, provincial, national, and of still wider extent. In our own Church, Diocesan Meetings, Church Congresses, and Lambeth Conferences are characteristic of this latter half of the nineteenth century. Events of this kind are common in the Roman Church, and she has added to them forms of action peculiar to herself. We have no congresses which fill exactly the place of the Congrès Eucharistiques of Rome; still less has anything like the revival of Pilgrimages yet been attempted among us. At first the Congrès Eucharistiques, of which seven have been already held at intervals of two or three years, were concerned more with the inner action of the Church than with its influence on the
1 Études Préparatoires au Congrès Eucharistique à Jérusalem en 1893. (8, Rue François 1er, Paris, 1893.)
Some Notes of Travel, by a (late) Missionary Bishop. (Nutt, 1890.)
Churches outside. But the eighth Congrès Eucharistique, which is to be held in the present year in Jerusalem, has a wider significance. It is hoped that it will greatly tend to the union of at least some of the Eastern Churches with the Church of Rome:
"The Eucharistic Meetings at Jerusalem, in 1893, seem destined to have a far wider result than the annual Eucharistic Congresses which have been held hitherto . . . for the discussions which will take place there may well, with the help of God, be a point of departure for the union of East and West on the ground of the Eucharist." 1
With a view to this, the Congress has been taken under the especial protection of Pope Leo XIII., and a cardinal, with the rank of legate, has been appointed to preside, and to represent the Holy See at Jerusalem.
The more general revival of Pilgrimages was occasioned, first, by the alleged apparitions of the B. V. M. at La Salette, and at Lourdes, with the accompanying miracles. They have now become so common that it would be difficult to find in France any very professedly devout family, one at least of whose members has not made some pilgrimage. From the year 1882 there have been yearly pilgrimages to Jerusalem. These have been chiefly promoted by the Père d'Alzon, and by the Assumptionist Fathers of Paris, who possess more than one steam vessel for the service of pilgrims to the East. This, of 1893, is the 1 Études Préparatoires, p. 275.
thirteenth, and by reason of its conjunction with the Eucharistic Congress it has attracted great attention, and has been the object of many preliminary publications in French religious papers and reviews-e.g. in the Revue de la Terre Sainte, in the Echos de Notre-Dame de France, and elsewhere. A volume of 320 pages, entitled Études Préparatoires au Pélerinage Eucharistique en Terre Sainte et à Jérusalem en Avril et en Mai, 1893, has been put forth by these Fathers. The Preface contains the various Briefs of approval of Pope Leo XIII. in favour of the Pilgrimage and Congress; a catena of "Glorious titles of the Apostle St. Peter in Greek Hymnography," cited as the witness which the liturgical books of the Greeks give to the primacy of the Holy See, then follow some extracts from the Office of St. Leo the Great in the Greek Church, concluding thus:
"Let us pray that the East may recognize, by these traits of resemblance, not only the Patriarch of the West, but the Shepherd of the sheep as well as of the lambs, the Supreme Pontiff, whose word is that of Peter, whose teachings are those of Christ."1
The Études Préparatoires which follow this preface are full of interest. They form a series of papers on nearly all the points of divergence, or of likeness, between the Roman and the Oriental liturgies. The tone is conciliatory, almost to the verge of flattery. The resemblances are pushed even to a claim of identity of doctrine, especially as regards transubstantiation: the differ1 Etudes Préparatoires, p. xxxii.
ences are made the least of, and free toleration of them is fully proclaimed. But the effect of these studies is greatly marred by the disjointed and fragmentary manner in which they are presented. The subjects are discussed in different numbers, and do not follow in any consecutive order; while the essays and sermon are broken up in a provoking way, and lose thereby much of their force.
But brief and scattered as the several little treatises may be, broken up and detached as they are, they are still worth careful perusal. They open with a paper on "The historical fitness of a general assembly on Eucharistic work at Jerusalem," giving an account of the chief attempts at reconciliation and reunion made by the popes, of the toleration which they have extended to the Greek and Eastern Churches, and a plea for holding the present Congress. Then follows a short enumeration of the Eastern liturgies, of their language, of their doctrine, of the special terms and ornaments connected with them. Many of the points thus summarily mentioned are made. the subject of fuller treatment afterwards. Thus we have separate papers on eucharistic vessels and vestments; on the word Aerovpyía; on the Agape; on the Diptychs of the Church of Jerusalem; on the Eulogiæ; the èñíîèŋσɩs, or Invocation of the Holy Ghost; a very interesting one on the Azyme, the unleavened bread used in the Eucharist; and two on the word avтíTUTоV, the first in French, the second in Latin-De vi theologica hujus vocis ἀντίτυπον. To these may be added one on "Communion in both kinds," and