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virtue; the Body of Christ is found at the same time in as many places as the Sacrament is celebrated. Moreover, to increase the submission of human reason to this so great mystery, miracles come, so to say, to its help, for the glory of the Eucharist; they are recorded in history, or live in memory, and in more than one place there exist public and remarkable monuments of them.”
Again, of the advances made of late years in Eucharistic Adoration :
"This is why the works already existing ought to be developed day by day, or to be restored to life where they have perished; for example, Eucharistic Confraternities, supplications addressed to the Holy Sacrament exposed, solemn processions in its honour, pious genuflexions before the divine tabernacle, and other holy and salutary practices of the same kind, moreover, all things must be undertaken which prudence and piety suggest for the purpose."
We see by this that the ritual and practices of the Church of Rome are not definitely fixed. There is still advance going on. "In his tamen acquiescere, Venerabiles Fratres, neque Nobis licet neque vobis; etenim multo plura vel provehenda restant vel suscipienda." "Yet neither We nor you, Venerable Brothers, can stay here; for many more things remain to be carried forward or to be undertaken." Everything points to some fuller acknowledgment of the Presence of the Blessed Virgin in the Eucharist; and of a closer association of the cult of the Sacred Heart on an equality with that of the Holy Eucharist.
THE LATIN-AMERICAN COUNCIL AT ROME IN 18991
EVER since the publication of his Encyclical in July, 1892, on the fourth centenary of the discovery of America by Columbus, it had been the wish of Pope Leo XIII. to convoke a Council of the Archbishops and Bishops of Latin America. But there were difficulties in the way, both political and also as to the place where the Council could most conveniently be held. Latin America covers such a vast extent of territory, the conditions of travel and of communication between different parts are so varied and so difficult, that it was found to be easier for the bishops to meet in Europe than in any point of the Western Hemisphere. When once it was decided that Europe should be the place of meeting, there could be hardly any doubt that Rome would be the most convenient spot. All bishops are bound to a visit ad limina; every see has some business of appeal or consultations of the congregations and authorities at Rome which can be expedited or more
1 Acta et Decreta Concilii plenarii America Latina in Urbe celebrati Anno Domini MDCCCXCIX.-Appendix ad, etc. 2 vols. 8vo. (Romæ, Typis Vaticanis, 1900.)
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favourably settled by the presence of the bishops there. Rome, too, as regards the distant realms, is now a neutral non-political ground; there is no fear of Leo XIII. seeking to re-establish monarchy in any of the eighteen republics, or to favour any intervention from without, so that we cannot feel surprised at the voluntary choice of Rome by the American bishops as the place of meeting of their Council, or at the joyful acquiescence of Leo XIII. in their decision. Rome can give a prestige and authority to a Council which no other place can give, and through the Council, mutatis mutandis, Leo XIII. speaks to the whole world.
"There is not, as far as we are aware," says M. l'Abbé Boudinhon, "in the whole history of the Church, a single example of a Council held outside of the territory of the bishops assembled, and this is an additional proof in favour of the pontifical authority."
The Acts and Decrees of the Council have thus an authority which they would hardly have had if it had been held elsewhere. They give us an authentic declaration of what the doctrine and practice of the Roman Church are at the end of the nineteenth century. The very form and arrangement of these two volumes show that they are meant to do this.2 Volume I. consists of an
1 Le Concile plénier de l'Amérique Latine, a series of articles in Le Canoniste Contemporain from November 1901 to March 1902, p. 642, 1901. (P. Lethielleux, Paris.)
2 "Without doubt it was not (as in 1870) an œcumenical Council. This reunion of fifty-three bishops, representing the Episcopate of Latin America, has had nevertheless a very great significance, whether with regard to the number of Bishops