24. Who were the people of the United States" in 1787? 25. Was North Carolina in or out of the Union in 1789? 26. Was the government of the United States sovereign in 1785?

§ 84c. Fundamental rights. [Cf. §§ 25b, 27b, 33j, 99.]

27. Is there a citizen of the United States who is not also a citizen of a State?

28. Can there be a citizen of a State who is not also a citizen of the United States?

29. Are aliens entitled to sue in the United States courts?

30. May Congress by statute forbid aliens to hold real estate in the United States?

31. May Congress by statute confiscate the property of aliens? 32. Are aliens liable to military service?

33. Can a Chinaman become a citizen of the United States?

34. Is the son of Chinese parents, born in the United States, a citizen of the United States?

35. Is the son of American parents, born in Germany, a citizen of the United States?

36. May naturalization be accomplished by State courts?

37. Is there any legal distinction between a naturalized and a native born citizen?

38. What persons are excluded from naturalization?

39. May Congress by statute withdraw a naturalization once granted? 40. Can a citizen of the United States divest himself of that citizen


41. May a citizen of the United States be banished?

42. May a criminal be sold to service for a term of years?

43. May a pauper be compelled against his will to return to the State

from which he came?

44. May private houses be searched by revenue officers, at night? 45. May a person be punished for speaking ill of Congress?

46. May a person be punished in time of war for telling the truth about the military situation of the country?

47. Can the United States protect a citizen against deprivation of his civil rights by a State?

48. Have the people of a territory a right to trial by jury?

§ 84d. The electoral system. [Cf. §§ 25b, 27d, 33c, 100.] 49. Is the right to be elected to office secured by the Constitution? 50. May Congress by statute district the States for Congressional elections?

51. May the United States in any way restrict the suffrage?

52. Is the belief that polygamy is a divine institution ground for disenfranchisement?

53. Would an educational qualification fixed by a State be a reason for diminishing its representation in Congress?

54. May Congress require the registration of voters at national elections?

55. May Congress require the Australian ballot system at national elections?

56. May Congress establish a system of minority representation in elections to Congress?

57. May Congress establish compulsory voting in national elections? 58. May a State fix any qualifications for members in the House of


59. May Congress make any new qualifications for membership in either House?

60. May Congress prescribe residence in the district from which a member is elected as a qualification for membership in the House?

61. May Congress by statute declare persons who have been engaged in war against the United States to be ineligible for membership in either House?

62. May Congress by statute establish qualifications for presidential electors?

63. May Congress prohibit the States from holding elections on the

day of election of members to the House?

64. May Congress by statute empower the federal courts to decide contested elections?

65. May Congress commit the decision in contested elections to State courts?

66. Did the Federal Convention expect presidential electors to vote according to their individual preference?

67. May Congress by statute place soldiers at the polls, in States where there is no disturbance of the peace?

68. How are vacancies in the electoral colleges filled, between the popular elections and the choice of the President?

§ 84e. Status of the States.

[Cf. §§ 25d, 27e, 33d, 62,


69. Who decides disputes between executive officials?

70. What is the effect of a decision of the Supreme Court upon per

sons not parties to the suit?

71. Does a man owe allegiance to his State?

72. Does the "supreme law" clause provide that a State cannot


73. Who finally decides as to the meaning of the phrases of the State


74. What duties do State governments perform for the national


75. May Congress by statute assign duties to State officials?

76. In case of concurrent powers between the national and State governments, which has precedence?

77. Who decides disputes between the States and the national gov


78. May Congress under any circumstances declare a State statute


79. May a suit be brought against a State by a citizen of the United


80. May a State be compelled to pay its debts?

81. What rights have States which cannot be infringed by the general


82. Is the Constitution a compact between the States and the general


83. What is the meaning of "interposition" as used in the Virginia Resolutions?

84. What is the meaning of "nullification as used in the Kentucky Resolutions?

85. Was nullification in 1833 66

a peaceful remedy"?

86. What remedy has the United States against nullification?

87. Is secession insurrection?

88. Is secession rebellion?

89. What are the constitutional remedies in case a State secedes? 90. What was the legal effect of secession upon the status in the Union of the seceding States?

§ 84f. National legislative department. [Cf. §§ 25f, 27g, 33f, 102.]

91. What powers has the Senate which are not possessed by the Houte?

92. What powers has the House which are not possessed by the Senate? 93. Is the Senate bound by parliamentary decisions of the VicePresident?

94. Could retiring Presidents constitutionally be made senators ex officio without votes?

95. May the Senate refuse to admit a senator elect, because it does not like him?

96. Is there a remedy if a State refuse to elect senators?

97. Does the Senate represent the States rather than the people? 98. Is a Senator bound to regard instructions by the legislature of his State?

99. Are territorial delegates members of the House of Representatives?

100. Has the House the sole right to initiate appropriation bills? 101. May Congress by statute refuse to admit Senators and Representatives elected from a particular State?

102. How far may the United States regulate elections to Congress? 103. Could a person not a member of the House be elected Speaker? 104. May the Speaker of the House be compelled to resign? 105. Has the Speaker of the House a right to count a quorum? 106. May the Speaker of the House vote as a member and again vote in a tie on the same question?

107. Are members of Congress legally bound to vote, if present? 108. May Congress inflict the penalty of imprisonment on its own members?

109. May Congress compel the testimony of witnesses?

110. May Congress inflict any punishment on persons not members of Congress?

111. How long does the privilege of freedom from arrest of a member of Congress last?

112. May Congress by law determine the time of expiration of Con


113. Could committees of Congress be required by statute to hold their sessions in public?

114. May the order of business of either House be fixed by statute? 115. Can a bill be carried through all its stages and become an act,

all in one day?

116. Could either House of Congress by rule limit the privileges of debate to chairman of committees ?

117. Is there any remedy if the Journals falsely state that a bill has been passed?

118. Can either House recall a bill after it is passed and sent to the other House?

119. Are petitioners entitled to have their petitions read in Congress? 120. Are Cabinet officials entitled to draft bills to be submitted to


121. Is a joint resolution legally different from an act?

122. May a President sign a bill after the adjournment of Congress? 123. If Congress adjourn for the holidays for ten days, do bills held unsigned by the President become a law without his signature?

124. May Congress by statute assign to the President duties not specified in the Constitution?

125. May Congress authorize the President to make regulations with the force of law?

126. May Congress under any circumstances forbid the President to exercise duties specified in the Constitution?

127. Is there any legal limitation on legislative "riders"?

128. May either House require the President to submit papers? 129. May the Houses by concurrent resolution require the President to submit papers?

130. May the House of Representatives refuse appropriations necessary to carry out a treaty?

131. May either House by a committee investigate the acts of the President?

132. Does a bill become an act at the moment the President affixes

his signature?

133. May Congress get rid of judges by repealing the laws creating the courts to which they are attached?

134. May Congress punish any person for contempt?

§ 84g. National executive department. [Cf. §§ 25f, 27h, 33g, 104.]

135. What is the remedy if a person under the legal age should be chosen president?

136. May Congress require heads of departments to be responsible directly to Congress?

137. Could Congress assign to the Interior Department the management of foreign relations?

138. Could the Vice-President be made a member of the Cabinet? 139. Are Cabinet officers bound to obey the directions of the President or else to resign?

140. Is the act of a Cabinet officer legally the act of the President? 141. What is a "department" in the meaning of the Constitution? 142. May the President be summoned as a witness?

143. What is the remedy if the President commit an unlawful act? 144. Can the President pardon a man before indictment?

145. May the President delegate his executive powers to subor


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