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Kansas vs. Ziebold, 123 U. S. 623; J. B. Thayer, 782. McCulloch vs. Maryland, 4 Wheaton, 316; 4 Curtis, 415; J. B. Thayer, Cases, 271, 1340.- Slaughter House Cases, 16 Wallace, 36; J. B. Thayer, Cases, 516.- Plumley vs. Commonwealth, 15 Supreme Court Reporter, 154; J. B. Thayer, Cases, 2173.-J. B. Thayer, Cases, 693n.

CONSTITUTIONAL DISCUSSIONS. J. Story, Commentaries, 1073 and note, 1954; T. M. Cooley, Constitutional Law, 65, 66, 69-74, 75, 238-248, 320-324; Constitutional Limitations, 704-746; H. Von Holst, Constitutional Law, 142; J. N. Pomeroy, Constitutional Law, §§ 4, 256g, 329–385; J. I. C. Hare, American Constitutional Law, 273, 274, 454-457, 466, 477, 479, 488, 530, 536, 539, 616-621, 700, 761-778, 780-781, 909, 911, 929, 968, 1120, 1141, 1146; J. Ordronaux, Constitutional Legislation, 469-470; S. F. Miller, Lectures on Constitutional Law, 481, 576, 659; J. Tiffany, A Treatise on Government, 60; J. Kent, Commentaries, II, § 340, n. 2; J. J. Lalor, Cyclopaedia of Political Science, III, 212-216; C. S. Patterson, The Original Package" Case in Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, I, 192–202.

66

HISTORICAL DISCUSSIONS.

SPECIMEN QUESTIONS. May Massachusetts exclude foreign immigrants on the ground that they may become a charge to the State? May Indiana prohibit the sale of beef not slaughtered within that State? - May New York forbid the use of imported tobacco? — May Texas impose a tax on Boston commercial travellers?

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VI.

SPECIAL REPORTS.

§ 71. Purpose of the exercise. In courses in which there is a great demand upon the libraries, it is not feasible to require all students to delve for themselves in a large collection of books, in preparation for the lectures. This necessary part of the historical training is therefore to be sought in the special reports. In preparing them, students are expected to find out for themselves things not stated in any of the general books. The system will introduce them to the most valuable authorities; it will make them familiar with the sources of information on American history; it is intended to develop their powers of analysis and statement, and to interest them in the unsettled questions of our history.

To each student, from time to time, will therefore be assigned a very limited special topic, on which he is expected to make a condensed report, based upon original authorities. The result ordinarily need not be stated in literary form, but may be more like a brief, with exact reference to the authorities used on all significant points. The work of preparation is to be done under the personal direction, and to the satisfaction, of an assistant specially assigned for the purpose, acting under the instructor's guidance.

In the special directions below will be found suggestions on reports on the following subjects: bibliography (§ 77); legislation, (80); constitutional questions, (§ 83); statistical questions, (§ 86); geographical questions, (§ 89); slavery questions, (§ 91); and biographical questions, (§ 93). These are intended to be used in connection chiefly with the narrative courses. The reports on government (§ 95), are to be prepared in connection with descriptive

courses.

In assigning reports particular pains will be taken to see that no two students have the same subjects; and as far possible topics will be chosen, especially in government, which have not before been worked out. There are many interesting points in American history and government which have never been examined by any scholar, and there is, therefore, an opportunity for some distinctly original work.

In assigning reports, as much attention as possible will be paid to the preference of the student, as indicated in his application on entering the course. But if any student finds in the lists printed below, or elsewhere, a particular subject which he wishes to have assigned to him, he may hand in a written request to that effect. It is impossible to assign subjects all of equal difficulty and importance. Sometimes the question set may prove extremely barren. In such cases a reassignment will be made.

§ 72. Summer School reports. In the summer school course four special reports will be expected upon the following subjects:

1. A bibliography of a public man: § 77.

2. A legislative history of an Act of Congress: § 80.

3. A constitutional inquiry: § 83.

4. A statistical inquiry: § 86.

The subjects will be given out at the beginning of the course and may be prepared at any convenient intervals during the six weeks; or they may all be prepared in the last two weeks of the course. Students are urged to pay special attention to this course, as training them for teaching in the future.

§ 73. Teachers' Course reports. In the teachers' course the subjects will be the following:

1. The bibliography of a public man: § 77.

2. The historical geography of a state: § 89.

3. The attitude of some public man upon an important public question: § 93.

4. The workings of some national institution: §§ 103-105. § 74. History reports. In the course in United States history (History 13) five reports will be required from each student, two in the first half-year aud three in the second half-year; but students who attain a high grade of excellence on the first four reports, thus showing that they have acquired the system, may be excused from the fifth report.

The topics will be given out at least a month before reports are due. It is expected that students will put upon the special report work from one-third to one-quarter of the whole time spent upon the course; and no student will receive a pass mark in the course who has not gained at least a passing grade on this part of the work.

All reports will be due at 5 P.M. of the day set - or, if it fall on Sunday, of the following day. Unless a previous arrangement has been made with the instructor or assistant, no overdue reports will

be received, except with the Recorder's stamp, showing that the delay is excused at the College office.

The subjects will be as follows:

1. Due November 1: The bibliography of a public man: $$ 76-79.

2. Due January 3: The legislative history of an Act of Congress §§ 80-82.

3. Due April 1: A constitutional inquiry: §§ 83-85.

4. Due May 1: A study of some phase of slavery: §§ 91, 92.

5. Due June 15: A statistical inquiry: §§ 86-88.

§ 75. Government reports. In the College course on government (Government 12), the special reports constitute a more considerable part of the year's work, inasmuch as the reading is more difficult to arrange. Eight special reports will, therefore, be called for, four in each half-year. As the students are more advanced and the topics more numerous and more closely related with the subject matter of the course, it is expected that great attention will be paid to the special reports; but students are warned against trying to write elaborate and exhaustive theses upon these subjects. The topics will be as follows:

1. Due November 1: Some phase of American political methods: §§ 97-100.

2. Due January 3: The actual workings of some part of

the state government: § 101.

3. Due February 15: The actual workings of some part of the local government: § 102.

4. Due December 1: The actual workings of some part of the national government: §§ 103-105.

5. Due March 15: The actual workings of some territorial function: § 106.

6. Due April 15: The actual workings of some financial function: $ 107..

7. Due May 15: Some phase of the workings of the com

mercial system: § 108.

8. Due June 15: Some phase of the workings of the war power, treaty power, or police powers: §§ 109-111. Overdue reports will be received only with the Recorder's stamp, showing that the delay has been excused at the College office.

§ 76. General directions for special reports in history. For the convenience of the instructor in handling the reports, and for the training of students in methodical habits of work, and in order to

accustom them to arrange their material for others' use, the following general directions will be found important. Students will be held responsible for following them out carefully. Particular directions and suggestions for each report will be found below:

1. ASSIGNMENT. So far as possible the preference of the student for a particular line of investigation will be consulted; for this purpose students are required when they enter any of the courses to fill out a blank form with an account of their previous study, and a list of preferred topics. Any student may exchange topics with another or may take up a new subject, by the consent of the assistant, record to be made of every such change.

2. AUTHORITIES. Unless otherwise specified, students will be held responsible only for such information as may be had from the following collections:

(a) The card catalogue and encyclopaedias and dictionaries, in the Delivery Room of the Harvard College Library.

(b) The bibliographies and other aids, in the Reading Room. (c) The reserved books in Colonial and United States history; and the general books on government, in the Reading Room.

(d) Congressional documents and the records of the debates of Congress, in the Reading Room.

(e) The Evans Reference Library in United States history, in University 14.

The usual arrangement of the books is alphabetically by authors, beginning at the range farthest to the left, running up that range, from the bottom to the top, then passing to the bottom of the next range to the right, and so on.

3. ASSISTANCE. It is a principle of the whole work that the actual search for the books must be done by students themselves. No assistance or guidance will be tolerated in this exercise. Whenever, after a faithful attempt, students are not able to bring to light sufficient information on their subject, or meet contradictions or difficulties which they do not know how to explain, they are expected to apply to the assistant. The library officials must not be appealed to to furnish material, or to show students how to use catalogues and other aids. The assistant will cheerfully help those who need his aid. It is not desired that a student should be discouraged at the outset for want of guidance; nor that he should avoid the lesson which the exercise is meant to teach the independent use of books and aids.

4. CONFERENCE. All students are required to report to the assistant when they begin work upon their topic, and at least once

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