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during the progress of their work, so that he may know what they are doing; and in addition they must submit to him their notes or completed report for his approval before handing in the report. These requirements are absolute; no report will be credited to a student unless it bear the assistant's minute of two conferences and approval.

5. METHODS. As one of the principal objects of the special report work is to train students in acquiring information on any subject, with the greatest economy of time, and the greatest clearness of result, every student is urged to think out a method for himself. A very convenient way is to take notes on loose sheets, each piece of paper being devoted to some branch of the general subject; the information gained from different books is thus assembled in a classified form, and when the sheets are arranged, the material for the condensed report is brought together in logical order. In all cases, exact references to volume and page must support all important statements. No reports will be accepted in which references are lacking or indefinite. Except in the bibliographical report (§ 77) every reference must be to a book or passage which the student has seen himself. If there are serious discrepancies between authorities, they should be pointed out. The effort will be made to assign only topics on which there is positive information; but if a diligent search in the books suggested brings nothing to light, the work will be as readily accepted as though something had been found. The specimen reports (§§ 79, 82, 85, 88) will suggest proper forms of reference. In giving authorities the author's name should precede the title.

6. FORM OF THE REPORT. All the reports are to be handed in on the sheets with printed headings, on which topics are handed out. Dates should be entered in the narrow outside column; subject matter only in the middle, broad, column; references in the inner column, next to the folding in the sheet. (See § 82.) On the back of the page the text should still come into the middle column. Additional sheets should be of the same size and ruling and should be attached by mucilage or sewing, not by fasteners or pins. Do not fold the papers. Since one of the objects of the exercise is to teach conciseness, the length of the report should not exceed the limits set by the topics.

7. ARRANGEMENT. The matter should be logically arranged, point by point, the heads indicated by catch-words in the date column, or by underlining. The amount of time spent should be noted.

Students are warned against trying to write theses instead

of brief reports. Special notice will be taken of neatness of arrangement, precision of the references, uniformity of abbreviations and classification in different parts of the same piece, and accurate analysis.

8. THE RETURN OF THE REPORT. Six hours of faithful work in each report is about the minimum; if no satisfactory result is then reached, the notes may be shown the assistant and his approval asked; or a new subject tried. No credit can be given for reports not handed in to the assistant by 5 o'clock of the day appointed, except by previous permission of the instructor, unless they bear the stamp of the Recorder of the College.

9. SPECIMEN REPORTS. Below will be found (§§ 79, 82, 85, 88), examples of good reports actually prepared by students; and the assistant can always show similar finished reports in other subjects; but students are expected to think out a good arrangement for themselves.

§ 77. Bibliographical special reports. [Cf. §§ 6-13.]

OBJECT.

The first report is intended to teach students how to find books and articles, how to cite references, and how to arrange results.

SCOPE. To each student is assigned some person connected with the history of the United States. The report is to be a list of the printed books, pamphlets and magazine articles bearing on that perNo narrative is expected. No list of works by the person is desired.

son.

AUTHORITIES.

Students will be held responsible for all titles

which can be obtained through the following authorities :

(a) The encyclopaedias and biographical dictionaries, in the Delivery Room.

(b) The bibliographical helps, in the Reading Room.

(c) The library catalogues in the Reading Room of the Library, including Leypoldt's American Catalogue.

(d) The Card Catalogue of Authors in the Harvard College Library.

(e) W. T. Poole, Index to Periodicals; Supplements to Poole's Index; Q. P. Indexes; Fletcher, A. L. A. Index; Jones, Index to Legal Periodicals; and other indexes to particular periodicals to be found in the Reading Room.

(f) Bibliographies of books relating to the person, in biographies, cyclopaedias, biographical dictionaries, or histories.

(g) Accounts in collections of biographics: so far as accessible in the "History 13 Alcove" of the Reading Room.

SELECTION. Only those books are to be enumerated in which the whole, or a distinct or specific part is devoted to the person. References to be made whenever there is a distinct chapter, section or article on the person, however short. Thus, under Washington, it will not be necessary to enter books primarily on the Revolution, or on the United States, or on Virginia. But titles ought to be found in a collection of Lives of the Presidents, or of Great American Generals, or Essays on Members of the Federal Convention. Hence it is necessary to know what public station your subject has filled. Since, however, in many cases the books, articles, and sections, devoted wholly to one man are very few, the student who has only a scanty lot, after exhausting the bibliographical aids, may then add extracts from general histories and biographies, not less than one page in length, wholly given up to the man. They will be held responsible only for books reserved in the Reading Room and Evans Library.

METHODS. The most convenient method is to go through the bibliographical aids, setting down each promising title on a slip or card and keeping them arranged alphabetically; then to arrange in some logical order and write out consecutively. Students are not expected to draw out a long list of books from the Stack.

VERIFICATION. Students are expected to verify for themselves the titles of all books accessible in the open part of the Harvard College Library. The instructor will be very glad to have students search out books not in Cambridge, but to be found in the Boston Athenaeum, Boston Public Library or other Boston libraries. If a title be found and the book is not in the College Library, set down opposite it a reference to the place in which you found the title. Please insert the Library number of all books. The precise form of the title of books, if published before 1870, may usually be found for authors from A to S, in Sabin's Bibliotheca Americana.

FORM OF REPORT. Titles should be arranged in each class alphabetically by authors. References and abbreviations should be punctuated systematically. The title should be sufficiently full to identify the book; the place of publication and date should always be given, the number of pages, and size of the book when those particulars are found. All references to parts of books must show the precise volume and page: for a specimen see § 79; others may be seen by applying to the assistant.

§ 78. Bibliographical subjects. The following list includes the greater number of the states menupon whom bibliographical reports

have already been prepared in the Harvard classes, with some additional names. In making up the list the most distinguished men have been omitted, because experience shows that the material is so large that a disproportionate amount of work must be spent upon them. On the other hand it is important to choose persons who are not so insignificant that nothing has been written about them. names are arranged by states.

The

MAINE. James G. Blaine; James P. Fessenden; Hannibal Hamlin; Hugh McCullough; Edward Preble; T. B. Reed.

NEW HAMPSHIRE. John P. Hale; Isaac Hill; Jeremiah Mason; Franklin Pierce; Levi, Woodbury.

VERMONT. Ethan Allan; George P. Marsh; George F. Edmunds. MASSACHUSETTS. Charles F. Adams; John Adams; Samuel Adams; Fisher Ames; John A. Andrews; N. P. Banks; Phillips Brooks; B. F. Butler; George Cabot; Rufus Choate; Caleb Cushing; R. H. Dana; John Davis; Henry Dearborn; Samuel Dexter; Edward Everett; William Lloyd Garrison; Elbridge Gerry; John Hancock; George F. Hoar; Henry Knox; Levi Lincoln; Henry Cabot Lodge; Horace Mann; Harrison Gray Otis; James Otis; Theophilus Parsons; Timothy Pickering; Wendell Phillips; David Porter; Josiah Quincy (the elder), Josiah Quincy (the younger); Robert Rantoul; Wm. E. Russell; Theodore Sedgwick; Robert G. Shaw; Joseph Story; Caleb Strong; Charles Sumner; John G. Whittier; Henry Wilson; Robert C. Winthrop.

RHODE ISLAND. A. E. Burnside; William Ellery; Stephen Hopkins; Oliver H. Perry; Roger Williams.

CONNECTICUT. Manasseh Cutler; Timothy Dwight (the elder); Oliver Ellsworth; Nathan Hale; Wm. S. Johnson; Roger Sherman; Jonathan Trumbull; Fitz John Winthrop; Oliver Wolcott.

NEW YORK. John Armstrong; Benedict Arnold; Chester A. Arthur; John J. Astor; Jacob Brown; John Brown; Aaron Burr; Benjamin F. Butler; Grover Cleveland; De Witt Clinton; George Clinton; Roscoe Conkling; S. S. Cox; John A. Dix; Reuben E. Fenton; Millard Fillmore; Hamilton Fish; Gideon Granger; Horace Greely; Alexander Hamilton; Winfield S. Hancock; John Jay; John Kelley; James Kent; Rufus King; Edward Livingston ; Robe R. Livingston; Samuel J. May; William L. Marcy; Edwin D. Morgan; Levi P. Morton; Gouverneur Morris; Charles H. Parkhurst; Thomas Platt; Theodore Roosevelt, Philip Schuyler; William H. Seward; Horatio Seymour; Carl Schurz; Gerrit Smith; James C. Spencer; John W. Taylor; Samuel G. Tilden; Daniel Tompkins; Wm. M. Tweed; Martin Van Buren; Stephen Van Rensellaer;

James S. Wadsworth; Gouverneur K. Warren; Thurlow Weed: Charles Wilkes; Silas Wright.

NEW JERSEY. Jonathan Dayton; William L. Dayton; George B. McClellan; William Patterson; William Pennington; Charles Stewart; Richard Stockton; Robert F. Stockton.

PENNSYLVANIA. James Buchanan; Simon Cameron; Andrew G. Curtin; Alexander J. Dallas; George M. Dallas; William G. Duane; Robert Fulton; Albert Gallatin; Stephen Girard; Andrew Gregg; David McM. Gregg; Robert C. Grier; Jared Ingersoll; Thomas McKean; George G. Meade; Thomas Mifflin; Robert Morris; Frederick A. Muhlenberg; John P. G. Muhlenberg; David D. Porter; David R. Porter; James M. Porter; Matthew Quay; Samuel J. Randall; Benjamin Rush; John Sergeant; Arthur St. Clair; Edwin M. Stanton; Thaddeus Stevens; David Wilmot; James Wilson; William Wilkins.

DELAWARE. James A. Bayard; Thomas F. Bayard, John M. Clayton; John Dickinson; Thomas Macdonough; Louis McLane; Robert M. McLane; Caesar Rodney; Daniel Rodney.

MARYLAND. Charles Carroll; Samuel Chase; Fred Douglass; Arthur P. Gorman; Robert G. Harper; Reverdy Johnson; Luther Martin; James McHenry; William Pinkney; John Rodgers; Robert Smith; Roger B. Taney; James Wilkinson.

VIRGINIA. James Barbour; John W. Eppes; John B. Floyd; William H. Harrison; Patrick Henry; David Hunter; Robert M. T. Hunter; Thomas J. Jackson; Peter Johnson; John Paul Jones; Charles Lee; Robert E. Lee; Robert H. Lee; John Marshall; James M. Mason, James Monroe; Edmund Randolph; John Rando'ph; Winfield Scott; Andrew Stevenson; George H. Thomas; James Turner; John Tyler; Abel P. Upsher; Bushrod Washington; George Washington; Henry A. Wise.

NORTH CAROLINA. Joseph Graham; William A. Graham; Nathaniel Macon; Willie P. Mangum; Hugh Williamson.

SOUTH CAROLINA. Preston Brooks; Pierce Butler; John C. Calhoun; Langdon Cheves; Wade Hampton; Henry Lawrence, George McDuffie; James L. Orr; James L. Petigru; Francis W. Pickens ; Charles Pinckney; Charles C. Pinckney; Thomas Pinckney; J. S. Poinsett; Edward Rutledge; John Rutledge.

GEORGIA. John C'arke; Howell Cobb; George W. Crawford; William H. Crawford; Charles F. Crisp; John Forsyth; Herschel V. Johnson; Wilson Lumpkin; Montgomery C. Meigs; Alex. H. Stephens; Robert Toombs; George Troup.

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