The fearful condition of those


who reject the gospel.

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cast out into outer darkness: there thy way; and as thou hast believed, A. 11.40 shall be weeping and gnashing

gnashing of so be it done unto thce. And his An. Olymp. , tccth.

servant was healed in the selfsame 13 And Jesus said unto the centurion, Go "hour.

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* Psal. 49. 19. Rev. 16. 9, 11.

Mark 5. 31. Luke 7. 10, 50.

P. 412.

sudden transitions from ertreme heat, to extreme cold; the assume the forms of beasts continually miserable, and suffer extremes of both, I have found to produce exactly the same alternate afflictions from extremities of cold and hent; sursensation.

rounded with terrors of various kinds. They shall have old Milton happily describes this in the following inimitable i age without resource; diseases attended with anguish; pangs of verses, which a man can scarcely read, even at Midsummer, innumerable sorts, and lastly, unconquerable death.without shivering.

Institutes of MENU, ch. xii. Inst. 75-80. Beyond this flood a frozen continent

In the Zend Avesta, the place of wicked spirits is termed Lies dark and wild, beat with perpetual storms “ The places of darkness, the germs of the thickçst darkness." Of whirlwind and dire hail

An uncommonly significant expression : Darkness has its birth the parching air

there : there are its seeds and buds, there it vegetates everlast-
Burns frore, and cold, performs the effect of fire. ingly, and its eternal fruit is--darkness !
Thither by harpy-footed furies hal’d,

See Zend Avesta, vol. i. Vendidad sadi, Fargard. xviii.
At certain revolutions all the damn'd
Are brought; and feel by turns the bitter change And is this, or any thing as bad as this, HELL? Yes, and
Of fierce extremes, extremes by change more fierce, worse than the worst of all that has already been mentioned.
From beds of raging fire, to starve in Ice,

Hear Christ himself. There their worm dieth not, and the fire is

and there to pine NOT QUENCHED! Great God! save the Reader from this damImmoveable, infix'l, and frozen round

nation! Periods of time; thence hurried back to fire.

Verse 13. As thou hast believed, so be it done] Let the Parad. Lost, book ii. line 586. mercy thou requestest, be equal to the faith thou hast brought There is a passage in the Vulgate, Job xxiv. 19. that to receive it by. According to thy faith be it done urito thee, might have helped Milton to this idea. Ad nimium calorem is a general measure of God's dealings with mankind. To transeut ab aquis nirium. “Let him pass to excessive heat, get an increase of fuith, is to get an inerease of every grace from waters of snow.” This reading which is found only in which constitutes the mind that was in Jesus; and prepares this form, in the Vulgate, is vastly expressive. Every body fully, for the enjoyment of the kingdom of God. God is the knows that snow-water is colder than snow itself. Another of sume in the present time which he was in ancient days; and our Poets has given us a most terrible description of perdi- miracles of healing may be wrought on our own bodies and tion, on the same ground.

souls, and on those of others by the instrumentality of our The once pamper'd spirit

faith. But, alas! where is faith to be found ! *To bathe in fiery floods, or to reside

and his serrant was healed in the selfsume hour.] E» en w€* In thrilling regions of thick ribbed ice;

in that


hour, Faith is never exercised in the power To be imprison'd in the viewless winds,

and goodness of God till it is needed; and when it is exercise, And blown with restless violence round about God works the miracle of healing. Christ never says, believe This pendant world; or to be worse than worst now for a salvation which thou now needest, and I will give it Of those, that lawless and incertain thoughts to thee in some future time. That salvation which is expected Imagine

through works or sufferings, must of necessity be future, as Similar to this is that dreadful description of the torments there must be time to work or suffer in: but the salvation of the wicked given in the Institutes of Menu; “ The wicked which is by faith, inust be for the preseni moment, for this shall liare a sensation of agony in Tamisra, or utter darkness, simple reason, it is BY FAITII, that God may be manifested and and in other seats of horror; in disipatračuna, or the sword- honoured ; and not by xorhis or by sufferings, lest any map leaved forest, and in diflerent places of binding fast, and of should boust. To say, that though it is of faith, yet it may, rending: multifarious tortures await them: they shall be and must in many cases, be delayed, (though the person is mangled hy ravens and owls, and shall swallow cakes boiling coming in the most genuine humility, deepest contrition, and not; and shall walk orer inflamed sands, and shall feel the with the liveliest faith in the blood of the Lamb) is to say pangs of being baked like the vessels of a Potter : they shall that there is still something necessary to be done, either on

Peter's mother-in-law healed.


A scribe resolves to be a disciple.

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14 ( And when Jesus was come 17 That it might be fulfilled which A M. 4031. into Peter's house, he saw his wife's was spoken by Esaias the prophet, say- An. Olymp.

mother laid, and sick of a fever. ing, “ Himself took our infirmities, and 15 And he touched her hand, and the fever bare our sicknesses. left her: and she arose and ministered unto 18 Now when Jesus saw great multitudes them.

about him, he gave commandment to depart 16 [ When the even was come, they brought unto the other side. unto him many that were possessed with devils : 19 ° And a certain scribe came, and said unto and he cast out the spirits with his word, and him, Master, I will follow thee whithersoever healed all that were sick:

thou goest.

• Mark 1. 29, 30, 31. Luke 4. 38, 39.- 1 Cor. 9. 5.

Mark 1. 32, &c. Luke 4. 40, 41.- Isai. 53. 4. 1 Pet. 2. 24.

c Lube 9. 57, 58.

the part of the person, or on the part of God, in order to Secondly, Because they were then strongly addicted to Magic, procure it; neither of which positions has any truth ini : and so, as it were, invited evil spirits to be familiar with them.

Verse 14. Peter's house] That Peter lived al Capernaum, It seems strange to find men at this distance of time questionand that Christ lodged with him, is fully evident from this ing the truth of that, which neither Scribes nor Pharisees then terse compared with chap. xvii. 24.

doubted; nor did they ever object against the pretensions of Peter's wife's mother) Learn hence, says Theophylact, that Christ and bis apostles to cast them out. And, if the whole marriage is no hindrance to virtue, since the chief of the business of Dæmonism had been only a vulgar error (as wise Apostles had his wife. Marriage is one of the first of divine men now tell us) what a fine opportunity had the wise men Institutions, and is a positive command of God. He says, the then, to unmask the whole matter, and thus pour contempt state of celibacy is not good, Gen. ii. 18. Those who pre- on the pretensions of our blessed Lord and his followers, who tend to say that the single state is more holy than the other, held it to be one proof of their divine mission, That Dæmons slander their Maker, and say in effect, “ we are too holy to were subject to them? keep the commandments of God.”

And healed all that were sick] Not a soul did the Lord Jesus Verse 15. He touched her hand] Can any thing on this side ever reject, who came to him soliciting his aid. Need any the unlimited power of God, effect such a cure with only a sinner despair who comes to him, conscious of his spiritual touch? If the Scriptures had not spoken of the divinity of malady, to be healed by his merciful hand? Christ, these proofs of his power must have demonstrated it Verse 17. Himself took our infirmities] The quotation is to the common sense of every man, whose creed had not pre- taken from Isa. liii. 4. where the verb xui nasa signifies to riously blinded him.

bear sin, so as to make atonement for it. And the Rabbins Ministered unto them.] Autous them, is the reading of most of understand this place to speak of the sufferings of the Messiah, the printed editions, but autw, to him, has the utmost evidence for the sins of Israel ; and say that all the diseases, all the in its support from MSS. Versions and Fathers. Serving griefs, and all the punishments due to Israel shall be borne by Christ in his ordinances and in his members is the best proof him. See Synopsis Sohar. Christ fulfills the prophecies in we can give to others of our being soundly restored to spi- all respects, and is himself the completion and truth of them, ritual health.

as being the lamb and victim of God, which bears and takes Verse 16. When the eren was come] The Jews kept their away the sin of the world. The text in Isaiah refers properly sabbath from evening to evening, according to the law, Lev. to the taking away of sin; and this in the Evangelist, to the Exiii. 32. From evening to evening shall ye celebrate your subbath.removal of corporeal afflictions: but as the diseases of the body And the Rabbins say, The sabbath doth not enter but when the are the emblems of the sin of the soul, Matthew referring to sun is set. Hence it was that the sick were not brought out the prediction of the prophet, considered the miraculous to our Lord till after sun-set, because then the sabbath was healing of the body, as an emblem of the soul's salvation by ended.

Christ Jesus. Many that were possessed with devils] Dr. Lightfoot gives Verse 18. Unto the other side.] Viz. of the lake of Genetwo sound reasons why Judea, in our Lord's time, abounded sareth, whence he proceeded to the country of the Gergesenes, with Dæmoniacs. First, Because they were then advanced to

ver. 28. the very height of impiety; see what Josephus, their own

Verse 19. A certain scribe] Though 'fus ypappXTEUS, ONE historian, says of them : There was not (said he) a nation scribe, may be considered as a Hebraism; yet it is probable under heaven more wicked than they were. See on Rom. i. 1. || that the literul construction of it was intended, to shew that


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One requests to bury his father. Sr. MATTHEW.

A great tempest at seu, 20 And Jesus saith unto him, The 23 | And when he was entered into A M. 4031. Ar. Olymp. foxes have holes, and the birds of the a ship, his disciples followed him.

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CCI,S. air have nests; but the Son of man 24 ° And, behold, there arose a great hath not where to lay his head.

tempest in the sea, insomuch that the ship was 21 ^ And another of his disciples said unto him, covered with the waves: but he was asleep. Lord, suffer me first to go and bury my father. 25 And his disciples came to him, and

22 But Jesus said unto him, Follow me; and awoke him, saying, Lord, sate let the dead bury their dead.


US :


a Luke 9. 59, 60.-- See 1 Kings 19. 20.

• Mark 4. 57, &c. Luke 8. 23, &c.

few of this class came to the Lord Jesus for instruction or long after they are called; the middle way is the only safe salvation.

one: not to move a finger in the work till the call be given, Master] Rather teacher, Slxonal, from 8.82.00w, I teach, and not to delay a moment after. wbich itself seems to be derived from dexw, I shew, and means Verse 22. Let the dead bury their dead.] It was usual for the

person who shews or points out a particular way or science. the Jews to consider a man as dead who had departed from I will follow thee whithersoever thou goest.] A man who is the precepts of the Law; and on this ground, every transgressor not illuminated by the Spirit of Goil, thinks himself capable was reputed a dead man. Our Lord's saying being in common of any thing: he alone who is divinely taught, knows he can

use, had nothing difficult in it to a Jew. Natural death is the do nothing but through Christ strengthening him. Every separation of the body and soul; spiritual death, the separation teacher among the Jews had disciples, and some especially of God and the soul : men who live in sin are dead to God. ihat followed or accompanied them wherever they went, that Leave the spiritually dead to bury their natural dead. All the they might have some person at hand with whom they might common offices of life may be performed by any person; to converse concerning the divine law.

preach the glad tidings of the kingdom of God is granted but Verse 20. The fores have holes, &c.] Reader! art thou a to a few, and to these only by an especial call; these should poor man? and dost thou fear God? Then, what comfort must immediately abandon worldly concerns and employments, thou derive from the thought, that thou so nearly resemblest and give themselves wholly up to the work of the ministry. the Lord Jesus! But how unlike is the rich man, who is the vo- Verse 24. Arose a great tempest in the sea] Probably tary of pleasure and slave of sin, to this heavenly pattern! excited by Satan, the prince of the power of the air, who,

Son of man] A Hebrew phrase, expressive of humiliation having got the author and all the preachers of the gospel toand debasement; and on that account, applied emphatically to gether in a small vessel, thought by drowning it to defeat the himself, by the meek and lowly Jesus. Besides, it seems here purposes of God, and thus to prevent the salvation of a to be used to point out the incarnation of the Son of God, ruined world. What a noble opportunity must this have apaccording to the predictions of the prophets, Psal. viii. 5. peared to the enemy of the human race! Dan. vii. 13. And as our Lord was now shewing forth his Verse 25. And his disciples) the disciples. In the common eternal Divinity in the miracles he wrought; he seems stu- | printed editions, as well as in our translation, it is his discidious to prove to them the certainty of his incarnation, be- || ples, but avrou, his, is omitted by the very best MSS., and by cause on this depended the atonement for sin. Indeed our || Bengel, Wetstein, and Griesbach. This is a matter of very Lord seems more intent on giving the proofs of his humanity, sinall importance, and need not be noticed, only every transthan of his divinity, the latter being necessarily manifested by | lator and commentator should aim to the uttermost of his the miracles which he was continually working.

knowledge and power, to give every particle of the language Verse 21. Another of his disciples] This does not mean any of of the inspired penman that can be expressed, and to insert The twelve, but one of those who were constant hearers of our no one word which he has reason to believe did not come by Lord's preaching; the name of disciple being common to all the inspiration of God. those who professed to believe in him, John vi. 66. Bury my Lord, save us: we perish.] One advantage of trials is to father : probably his father was old, and apparently near make us know our weakness, so as to oblige us to have redeath, but it was a maxim among the Jews, that if a man course to God by faith in Christ. It is by faith alone that we had any duty to perform to the dead, he was, for that time, may be said to approach him; by love we are united to him, free from the observance of any other precept or duty. The and by prayer we awuke him. All good perishes in us without children of Adam are always in extremes; some will rush | Christ; without his grace, there is not so much as one mointo the ministry of the gospel without a call, others will delay ment in which we are not in danger of utter ruin,

How Jesus commands a calm.


Two damoniacs meet Jesus.

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26 And he saith unto them, Why | side into the country of the Gerge- . A. 11. 4031. An Olymp. are ye fearful, O ye of little faith? senes, there met him two possessed An. Olynp.

Then he arose, and rebuked the with devils, coming out of the tombs, #inds and the sea; and there was a great exceeding fierce, so that no man might pass by calm.

27 But the men marvelled, saying, What 29 And behold they cried out, saying, What manner of man is this, that even the winds and have we to do with thee, Jesus, thou Son of the sea obey him!

God? art thou come hither to torment us before 28 Tb And when he was come to the other the time?

that way.

· Ps. 65. 7. & 89. 9. & 107. 29.

► Mark 5. 1, &c. Luke 8. 26, &c.

proper then is this short prayer for us, and how familiar What manner of man is this] IIOT&TOS EFIY OU TOʻ, How great should it be to us! Taken in the extensive christian sense it is is this person! Here was God fully manifest, but it was in the exceedingly expressive; it comprehends all the power of our flesh,--there, were the hidings of his power. Lord's might, all the merit of his utonement, and all the depth Verse 28. The country of the Gergesencs] This word is vaof our misery and danger. See Quesnel.

riously written in the MSS. and Versions; Gergasenes, Gerasenes, Verse 2. Why are ye fearful, o ye of little faith?] Faith Gadurenes, Gergesions, and Gersedonians. The three first are seter bold-incredulity always timid. When faith fails in supported by the greater authorities. They might have all temptation, there is the utmost danger of shipwreck. Lord, been names of the same place or district; but if we depend on encrease our fuith! is a necessary prayer for all who desire to what Origen says, the people mentioned here could not have be saved.

been the inhabitants of Gerasa, which, says he, is a city of Then he arose arid rebuked the windls, &c.] As the agitation Arabia, outs bancoskv, Oute doprny A NOSOV Exovta, which has neither of the sea was only the effect of the wind, it was necessary seri, nor lake nigh to it. Gadara was, according to Josephus, the to remove the cuuse of the disturbance, that the effect might metropolis of Perea, or the region beyond Jordan: both the Cease. Joshua did not say to the earth, earth, stand tkou still, || city and villages belonging to it, lay in the country of the Gerbecause the earth is not the cause of its own motion : but gasenes ; whence Christ going into the country of the Gada., man, stand thou still, S17 ULU shemesh dom, Sun be silent, or renes, Mark v. 1. is said to go into the region of the Gergusenes, restrain thy influence, which is a proper cause of the revo- Vat. viii. 28.” Whitby. lutions of all the planets. When the solar influence was by Two possessed with devils) Persons possessed by »vil dæmons. the miraculous power of God suspended, the standing still of Mark and Luke mention only one dæmoniac, probably the the earth was a necessary consequence. Both Christ and fiercer of the two. Joshua spoke with the strictest philosophical precision. Coming out of the tombs] It is pretty evident that cupolas were See the notes on Josh. x. 12-14.

generally builded over the graves among the Jews, and that There was a great calm.] One word of Christ can change the these dæmoniacs had their dwellings under such: the evil spirits face of nature, one word of his can restore calm and peace to which were in them, delighting more in these abodes of desolathe most troubled and disconsolate soul. Prayer and faith, tion and ruin, as being more congenial to their fierce and diaboif sincere, shall be heard though they may be weak. 1. That lic nature, and therefore would drive the possessed into thein. our imperfections may not hinder us from praying to God. Verse 29. What have we to do with thee] The literal trans2. That we may be persuaded it is not our merits which slation of to muso xau cov; is, What is it to us and to thee? which nake our prayers effectual. 3. That we may offer them up perhaps might be understood to imply their disclaiming any with great humility: and 4. That we may be fully united to | design to interfere with the work of Christ, and that he should Christ, without which union, there is no salvation.

not therefore meddle with them; for it appears they exceedThere was at first a great agitation, then a great calm. ingły dreaded his power. Taus God ever proportions the comfort to the affliction.

What hare we to do with thee, is a Jewish phrase, which Verse 27. The men marvelled] Every part of the creation often occurs in the Old Testament, signifying an abrupt refu. man excepted) hears and obeys the Creator's voice. Sinners sal of some request, or a wish not to be troubled with the have an ear for the world, the devil and the flesh : till this car company or importunity of others. · Jehu said to the mess shut, God's voice is not discerned : for when it is shut to its senger who was sent by Joram to meet him; What hast thou semies, it is open to ite friends.

to do with peace? David said, What huve I to do with you, 3'e

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Dæmons enter the swine,


which perish in the sea, 30 And there was a good way off| place into the sea, and perished. in 4.M. 4031, An. Olymp. from them, a herd of many swine the waters. feeding.

33 And they that kept them fled, and 31 So ` the devils besought him, saying, If went their ways into the city, and told every thou cast us out, suffer us to go away into the thing, and what was befallen to the possessed herd of swine.

of the devils. 32 And he said unto them, Go. And 34 And behold, the whole city came out to when they were out, they went into meet Jesus: and when they saw him, they the herd of swine: and, behold, the whole besought him that he would depart out of their herd of swine ran violently down a steep coasts.


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sons of Zeruiah ? Compare Judy. xi. 12. 2 Sam. xvi. 10. ayeang twv Xouzwy the herd of swine, Griesbach reads Tous xoigous 2 Kings ix. 18. Ezra iv. 3. John ii. 4. See the note on the swine, on the authority of many MSS. and Versions. Mark i. 24.

The whole herd of swine] Twv xongwy, of swine, is omitted by Jesus, thou Son of God] Griesbach omits the word Jesus, | many MSS. and versions. See Griesbuch, and see on Luke on the authority of several MSS. of the greatest antiquity and viii. 26, &c. respectability; besides some Versions, and several of the Fa- Ran violently down a steep place, &c.] The prayer of these dæthers. I heartily concur with these MSS., &c. for this simple mons is heard and answered! Strange! but let it be noted, that reason, among others, that the word Jesus, i. e. Saviour, was God only hears dæmons and certain sinners when their prayer of too ominous an import to the Satanic interest, to be used is the echo of his own justice. Here is an emblem of the final freely in such a case, by any of his disciples or subalterns. impenitence and ruin into which the swinish sinners, the ha

Art thou come hither to torment us before the time?] From this bitually impure, more commonly fall than other sinners. Christ it appears that a greater degree of punishment awaited these permits the dæmons to do that in the swine, which he did not dæmons than they at that time endured ; and that they knew permit them to do in the possessed, on purpose to shew us there was a time determined by the divine judge, when they | what rage they would exercise on us if left to their liberty should be sent into greater torments.

and malice. Many are the divine favours which we do not Verse 30. A herd of many swine] These were in all pro- consider, or know only in general. “ But the owners of the bability Jewish property, and kept and used in express vio- | swine lost their property.” Yes, and learn from this, of how lation of the law of God; and therefore their destruction, in || small value temporal riches are in the estimation of God. He the next verse, was no more than a proper manifestation of suffers them to be lost, sometimes to disengage us from thein the justice of God.

through mercy; sometimes out of justice to punish us for Verse 31. Suffer us to go away) Etiterfor npesy cweaev; this having acquired or preserved them either by coretousness or is the common reading, but awootedov muas, send us away, ap- || injustice. pears more genuine. This latter reading, Griesbach has Verse 33. And they that kept them fled] Terrified at what adopted on the authority of three ancient MSS. the Coptic, had happened to the swine. Sahidic, Æthiopic, Syriac, all the Arabic, Saxon, most of the Verse 34. The whole city came out) Probably with the inItala and the Vulgate. Send us away seems to express more

tention to destroy Jesus for having destroyed their swine; but fully the absolute power Jesus Christ had over them,-per- having seen him, they were awed by his presence, and only mission alone was not sufficient; the very power by which besought him to depart from their borders. Many rather they were to go away, must come from Christ himself! How chuse to lose Jesus Christ than those temporal goods by vain was the boast of Satan, ch. iv. 9. when we find he could which they gratify their passions, at the expence of their not possess the body of one of the vilest animals that God has souls. They love even their swine better than their salvation. made, without immediate authority from the Most High!

Certain doctors in both sciences, divinity and physic, gravely Since a dæmon cannot enter even into a swine without being tell us, that these dæmoniacs were only common madmen, sent by God bimself; how little is the power or malice of any and that the disease was supposed, by the superstitious Jews, of them to be dreaded by those who have God for their por- to be occasioned by dæmons. But with due deference to great tion and protector !

characters, may not a plain man be permitted to ask by what Verse 32. They went into the herd of swine] Instead of tnv || figure of speech can it be said that “two diseases besought,-

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