« VorigeDoorgaan »
Against rash and
uncharitable judgments. A.M. 101. and his righteousness; * and all these omorrow: for the morrow shall take A.M. 4031. An. Olymp. things shall be added unto you. thought for the things of itself. “Suffici. An. Olymp.
34 Take therefore no thought for the ent unto the day is the evil thereof.
A. D, 27.
a Vark 10. 30. Luke 12. 31. Rom. 14. 17.
Lev. 22. 30. Prov. 27. 1.-_ Job 14. 1. Luke 12. 20.
Verse 34. Take therefore no thought] That is, Be not future time which God would have us foresee and provide therefore anriously careful.
for, is that of judgment and eternity: and it is about this The cighth and last reason, against this preposterous con- alone that we are careless ! duct, is, that carking care is not only useless in itself, but Suficient unto the day is the evil thereof.] Aqxetov Tn huige renders us miserable before hand. The future, falls under xoxsa autns, Sufficient for each day is its own calamity. Each the cognisance of God alone: we encroach, therefore, upon day has its peculiar trials ;-we should meet them with conhis rights, when we would fain foresee all that may happen fidence in God. As we should live but a day at a time, so to us, and secure ourselves from it by our cares.
How much we should take care to suffer no more evils in one day than good is omitted, how many evils caused, how many duties are necessarily attached to it. He who neglects the present neglected, how many innocent persons deserted, how many for the future, is acting opposite to the order of God, his own good works destroyed, how many truths suppressed, and interest, and to every dictate of sound wisdom. Let is live how many acts of injustice authorized by those timorous for eternity, and we shall secure all that is valuable in time. forecasts, of what may happen; and those faithless appre- There are many valuable reflexions in the Abbé Quesnel's hensions concerning the future! Let us do now what God work, on this chapter; and from it several of the preceding requires of ns, and trust the consequences to him. The have been derived.
CHAPTER VII. Our Lord warns men against rash judgment and uncharitable censures, 1–5. Shew's that holy things must not be prophaned, 6; gives encouragement to fervent persevering prayer, 7-11. Shew's how men should deal with each other, 12. Exhorts the people to enter in at the strait gate, 13, 14; to beware of false teachers, who are to be known by their fruits, 15—20. Shews that no man shall be saved by his mere profession of Christianity, however specious, 22, 23. The parable of the wise man who built his house upon a rock, 24, 25. Of the foolish man who built his house without a foundation, on the sand, 26, 27. Christ concludes his sermon, and the people are astonished at his doctrine, 98, 29.
UDGE ‘not, that ye be not ye shall be judged: band with what A.M.4031. An. Olynıp.
measure ye mete, it shall be measured
An. Olymp. 2 For with what judgment ye judge, to you again.
A. M. 1031. 4. D). 27.
A. D. 27.
2 Luke 6. 37. Rom. 2. 1. & 14. 3, 4, 10, 13. 1 Cor. 4. 3, 5. Jan. 4. 11, 12.
Mark 4. 24. Luke 6. 38.
them. His jealous and envious heart wishes that there may Verse 1. Judge not, that ye be not judged.] These exhort- be no good quality found but in himself, that he alone may tations are pointed against rash, harsh, and uncharitable be esteemed. Such is the state of every unconverted man; judgments, the thinking eril, where no evil seems, and speak- and it is from this criminal disposition, that evil surmises, rash ing of it accord:ngly. The Jews were highly criminal here,' judgments, precipitate decisions, and all other unjust proand yet had very excellent maxims against it, as may be seen cedures against our neighbour, flow. in Schoetgen. This is one of the most important exhortations Verse 2. For with what judgment] He who is serere on others, in the whole of this excellent sermon. By a secret and cri- | will naturally excite their scverily against himself. The minal.disposition of nature, man endeavours to elevate him-censures and calumnies which we have suffered, are probably self above others, and to do it more effectually, depresses || the just reward of those which we have dealt out to others.
NOTES ON CHAP. VII.
3 And why beholdest thou the mote out of thine own eye; and then shalt A.M. 4031. An . Olymp
. that is in thy brother's eye, but con- thou see clearly to cast out the mote An. Olymp.
siderest not the beam that is in thine out of thy brother's eye. own eye?
6 "Give not that which is holy unto the 4 Or how wilt thou say to thy brother, Let dogs, neither cast ye your pearls before swine, me pull out the mote out of thine eye; and, lest they trample them under their feet, and behold, a beam is in thine own eye?
turn again and rend
you. 5 Thou hypocrite, first cast out the beam 7 | Ask, and it shall be given you ; seek,
*Luke 6. 41, 42.- Prov, 9, 7, 8. & 23. 9. Acts 13. 45, 46.
< Ch. 21. 22. Mark 11. 24. Luke 11.9, 10. & 18. 1. John 14. 1S. & 15. 7.
& 16. 23, 24. Jam. 1. 5, 6. 1 John 3. 22. & 5. 14, 15.
Verse 3. And why beholdest thou the note] Kazpos might be Cast out the mote out of thine eye, he is immediately ready to translated the splinter : for splinter bears some analogy to answer, Cast out the beam that is in thine own eye.” This probeam, but mote does not. I should prefer this word (which verbial mode of speech the Gloss interprets thus: “ Cast out, has been adopted by some learned men) on the authority of S'op kisim, the mote, that is, the little sin, that is in thy Hesychius, who is a host in such matters ; Kazpos, xegesve čudou hand : to which he answered, Cast out the great sin that is hin, Karphos, is a thin piece of wood, a splinter. It often in thine. So they could not reprove, because all were sin. happens, that the faults which we consider as of the first enor- | ners.” See Lightfoot. mity in others, are, to our own iniquities, as a chip is, when Verse 6. Give not that which is holy] To aynoy, the holy or compared to a large beam. On one side, self-love blinds us to sacred thing ; i. e. any thing, especially of the sacrificial ourselves; and on the other, envy and malice give us piercing kind, which had been consecrated to God. The members eyes in respect of others. When we shall have as much zeal to of this sentence should be transposed thus : correct ourselves, as we have inclination to reprove and cor
Give not that which is holy unto the dogs, rect others, we shall know our own defects better than now
Lest they turn again and rend you : we know those of our neighbour. There is a caution very
Neither cast ye your pearls, before swine, similar to this of our Lord given by a heathen:
Lest they trample them under their feet. Cum tua prævideas oculis mala lippus inunctis;
The propriety of this transposition is self-evident. There Cur in amicorum vitiis tam cernis acutum,
are many such transpositions as these, both in sacred and Quam aut aquila, aut serpens Epidaurius ?
profane writers. The following is very remarkable: Hor. Sat. lib. 1. sat. 3. 1. 25—27.
“ I am black but comely; " When you can so readily overlook your own wickedness, “ As the tents of Kedar, as the curtains of Solomon," why are you more clear-sighted than the eagle or serpent of
That is, Epidaurus, in spying out the failings of your friends ?" But
“ I am black as the tents of Kedar, the saying was very common among the Jews, as may be
Comely as the curtains of Solomon.” seen in Lightfoot.
See many proofs of this sort of writing in Mr. Wakefield's Verse 4. Or how wilt thou say] That man is utterly unfit Commentary. to shew the way of life to others, who is himself walking in As a general meaning of this passage, we may just say, the way of death.
“ The sacrament of the Lord's supper, and other holy Verse 5. Thou hypocrite] A hypocrite, who professes ordinances which are only instituted for the genuine followers to be what he is not, (viz. a true Christian) is obliged, for of Christ, are not to be dispensed to those who are continually the support of the character he has assumed, to imitate all returning like the suarling ill-natured dog to their easily prethe dispositions and actions of a Christian; consequently he dominant sins of rash judgment, barking at and tearing the must reprove sin, and endeavour to shew an uncommon af- characters of others by evil-speaking, back-biting and slunderfection for the glory of God. Our Lord unmasks this vile ing; nor to him, who, like the swine, is frequently returnpretender to saintship, and shews him that his hidden hypo- | ing to wallow in the mud of sensual gratifications and ima : crisy, covered with the garb of external sanctity, is more purities.” abominable in the sight of God, than the openly professed Verse 7. Ask-seck-knock] These three words include and practised iniquity of the profligate.
the ideas of, want, loss, and earnestness. Ask: turn beggar In after times, the Jews made a very bad use of this say- at the door of Mercy, thou art destitute of all spiritual good, ing: “ I wonder,” said Rabbi Zarphon, " whether there be and it is God alone who can give it to thee; and thou hast any in this age that will suffer reproof? If one say to another, Il no claim but what his mercy has given thee on itself.
A. D. 27.
Directions to perscvere
in ferrent prayer. A. 11,4951. and ye shall find; knock, and it shall 11 If ye then, being evil, know how A. M. 1631. An. Olymp. be opened unto you:
to give good gifts unto your children, An. Olymp. 8 For - every one that asketh re- how much more shall your Father ceiveth, and he that seeketh findeth; and to him which is in heaven, give good things to them that knocketh it shall be opened.
that ask him? 9 • Or what man is there of you, whom if 12 Therefore all things, ' whatsoever
ye would his son ask bread, will he give him a stone ? that men should do to you, do ye even so to
10 Or if he ask a fish, will he give him a them; for this is the law and the prophets. serpent ?
13 Enter ye in at the strait gate : for wide
a Prov. 8. 17. Jer. 9. 12, 13.-_ Luke 11. 11, 12, 13.
Gen. 6. 5. & 8. 21.
d Tob. 1. 15. Luke 6. 31.- Lev. 19. 18. ch. 22.10. Roin. 13. 8, 9, 10.
Gal. 5. 11. 1 Tim. 1.5.-Luke 13. 24.
Seek: Thou hast lost thy God, thy paradise, thy soul.-Look tional eternal damnation, any creature he has made? He who about thee, leave no stone unturned ;-there is no peace, no can believe that he has, may believe any thing: but still GOD final salvation for thee till thou get thy soul restored to the favour and image of God.
Verse 12. Therefore all things whatsocrer ye would that men] krock : Be in earnest—be importunate : Eternity is at This is a most sublime precept, and highly worthy of the hand! and if thou die in thy sins, where God is thou shalt i grandeur and beneficence of the just God who gave it. The never come.
general meaning of it is this : “ Guided by justice and mercy, Ask with confidence and humility.
do unto all men as you would have them to do to you, were Seck with care and application.
your circumstances and theirs reversed.” Yet, this saying Knock with earnestness and persererance.
may be misunderstood; “ If the prisoner should a-k the judge, Verse 8. For trery one that asketh receireth] Prayer is ' whether he would be cortent to be lianged, were lie in his always heard after one manner or other. No soul can pray case,' he would answer, 'No.' Then, says the prisoner, do as in vain that prays as directed above. The truth and faithful- you would be done to :-neither of them must do as private ness of the Lord Jesus are pledged for it.— Ye shall receive-men; but the judge must do by him, as they have publicly ye shall find-it shall be opened. These words are as agreed ; that is, both judge and prisone: have consented to a strongly biniling on the side of God, as thou shalt do no murder law, that if either of them steal, he shall be hanged.”-Selden. is on the side of man. Bring Christ's word, and Christ's None but he whose heart is filled with love to God and all sacrifice with thee, and not one of Heaven's blessings can be mankind, can keep this pre
manhind, can keep this precept, either in its spirit or letter. denied thce. See on Luke xi. 9.
Self-love will feel itself sadly cramped when brought within Verse 9. Or what man is there--whom if his son] Men are the limits of this precept—but God hath spoken it: it is the exhorted to come unto God, with the persuasion that he is a spirit and design of the law and the prophets ; the sum of all most gracious and compassionate Parent, who possesses all that is laid down in the Sacred Writings, relative to mens' heavenly and earthly good; knows what is necessary for each conduct towards each other. It seems as if God had written it of his creatures, and is infinitely ready to communicate that upon the hearts of all men, for sayings of this kind
be which they need most.
found among all nations, Jewish, Christian, and Heathen. See Will he give him a stone ?] Will he not readily give him bread many examples in Wetstein's notes. if he have it? This was a proverb in other countries; a benefit Verse 13. Enter ye in at the strait gate] Our Saviour grudgingly given by an avaricious man, is called by Seneca, seems to allude here to the distinction between the public and punem lapidosum, stony bread. Hence that saying in Plautus: private ways mentioned by the Jewish lawyers. The public Alteru manu, fert lupidem, punem ostentat altera.--in one roads were allowed to be sixteen cubits broad, the private hand he brings a stone, and stretches out bread in the other. ways only four. The words in the original are very em
Verse 11. If ye then, being eril] Ilovngos ortis, who are radi- phatic: Enter in (to the kingdom of heaven) through this cally and diabolically depraved, yet feel yourselves led by strait gate, doce tns otevns Tuang, i. e. of doing to every one as natural aflection, to give those things to your children which it you would he should do unto you; for this alone seems to be are necessary to support their lives; how much more will the struit gate which our Lord alludes to. your Father, who is in hcaven, whose nature is infinite good- Forride is the gate] And very broad, uçuxwgos, from supus, broad, nes, mercy, and grace, give good things--his grace and Spirit, and xwgos, a place, a spacious roomy place; that leadeth for(revua kybor, the Iloiy Glost, Lukexi. 13.) to them who ask him? ward απαγουσα into THAT destruction εις την απωλειαν, meaning What a picture is here given of the goodness of God! Reader, eternal misery, intimating, that it is much more congenial to ask thy soul, could this heavenly Father reprobate to uncondi- ll the revengeful, covetous heart of fallen man, to take every
Of the strait gate, false prophets,
yood and evil fruits, &c. A. 1.4031. is the gate, and broad is the way, that'| 16 Ye shall know them by their fruits. A. 11.4031. An.Oly=p. leadeth to destruction, and many there , 'Do men gather grapes of thorns, or An. Olymp. be which go in thereat.
figs of thistles! 14 - Because strait is the gate, and narrow 17 Even so 5 every good tree bringeth forth is the way, which leadeth unto life, and few good fruit; but a corrupt tree bringeth forth there be that find it.
evil fruit. 15 [ Beware of false prophets, whichi come 18 A good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit, to you in sheep's clothing, but inwardly they neither can a corrupt tree bring forth good are “ ravening wolves.
* Or, Hox.- Deut. 13. 3. Jer. 23. 16. ch. 24. 4, 5, 11, 24. Mark 13. 2. Roin. 16. 17, 18. Eph. 5. 6. Col. 2. 8. 2 Pet. 2. 1, 2, 3. 1 Jolin 4. 1.
© Mic. 3. 5. 2 Tim. S. 5. Acts 20. 29, 30.
Le ver. 20. cl. 12. SS.
adrantage of another, and to enrich himself at bis expence, all the world leave their sins, and all the world may walk rather than to walk according to the rule laid dos n before, by : abreast in this good way. our blessed Lord, and that acting contrary to it, is the way to
Verse 15. Beware of fulse prophets) By false prophets, everlasting misery. With those who say it means repentance, we are to understand teachers of erroneous doctrines, who and forsaking sin, I can have no controversy. That is cer- come professing a commission from God, but whose aim is tainly a gate and a strait one too, through which every sinner not to bring the heavenly treasure to the people, but rather must turn to God, in order to find salvation. But the doing to rob them of their earthly good. Teachers who preach for lo every one as we would they should do unto us, is a gate ex- hire, having no motive to enter into the ministry but to get tremely strait, and very difficult, to every unregenerate mind. a living as it is ominously called by some, however they may
Verse 14. Because strait is the gate] Instead of 07ı because, bear the garb and appearance of the innocent useful sheep, I should prefer to how, which rearling is supported by a the true pastors commissioned by the Lord Jesus; or to great majority of the best MSS. rêrsions, and fathers. | whatever name, class, or party they may belong, are, in the How strait is that gate! This mode of expression more sight of the heari-searching God, no other than rarenous wolves, forcibly points out the difficulty of the way to the kingdom.. whose design is to feed themselves with the fat, and clothe themHow strange is it that men should be unwilling to give up selves with the fleece, and thus ruin, instead of sare, the flock. their worldly interests to secure their everlasting salvation ! Verse 16. Ye shall know them by their fruits.] Fruits, in the and yet no interest need be abandonesł, but that which is Scripture and Jewish phraseology, are taken for works of produced by injustice and unkindness. Reason, as well as
“ A man's works,” says one, are the tongue of God, says, such people should be excluded from a place of his heart, and tell honestly whether he is inwardly corrupt blessednes. Ile who shews no mercy (and much more he .' or pure." By these works you may distinguish (E7ywc&50+) who shews no justice) shall have judgment without mercy. these ravenous wolves froin true pastors. The judgment Jam. ii. 13.
formed of a man by his general conduct is a safe one: if the Few there be that find it.] The strait gate, orien quan, judgment be not favourable to the person, that is his fault, signifies literally what we call a wicket, i. e, a little door in as you have your opinion of him from his works, i. e. the a large gate. Gate, among the Jews, signifies, metaphorically, confession of his own heart. the entrance, introduction, or means of acquiring any thing. Verse 17. So every good tree] As the thorn can only proSo they talk of the gate of repentance, the gate of prayers, duce thorns, not grupes; and the thistle, not figs, but prickles ; and the gate of tears. When God, say they, shut the gate of so an unregenerate heart will produce fruits of degeneracy. paradise against Adam, He opened to him the gate of re- As we perfectly know that a good tree will not produce bud pentance. The way to the kingdom of God is made sufficiently fruit, and the bad tree will not, cannot produce good fruit; manifest--the completest assistance is promised in the way, so we know, that the profession of godliness, while the life is and the greatest encouragement to persevere to the end, is ungodly, is imposture, hypocrisy, and deceit. A man cannot keld out in the everlasting gospel. But men are so wedded be a saint and a sinner at the same time. Let us remember, to their own passions, and so determined to follow the that as the good tree means a good heart, and the good fruit, imaginations of their own hearts, that still it may be said: a holy life, and that every heart is naturally ricious ; so there There are few who find the way to heaven ; fewer yet who is none but God who can pluck up the vicious tree, create
any time in it; fewer still who walk in it; and fewest a good heart, plant, cultivate, water, and make it continually of all who persevere unto the end. Nothing renders this fruitful in righteousness and true holiness. way either narrow or dificult to any person, but Sin. Let | Verse 18. A good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit] Lore
Who shall enter into
the kingdom of hearen,
19 ? Every tree that bringeth not || Lord, have we 'not prophesied in thy 4.1.14091. An Olymp. forth good fruit is hewn down, and name? and in thy name have cast out An Olymp. cast into the fire.
devils ? and in thy name done many · 20 Wherefore by their fruits ye shall know wonderful works? them.
23 And 4 then will I profess unto them, I never 21 (Not every one that saith unto me, "Lord, knew you: *depart from me, ye that work Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven; iniquity. but he that doeth the will of my Father which is 24 [ Therefore ' whosoever heareth these sayin heaven.
ings of mine,and doeth them, I will liken him unto 22 Many will say to me in that day, Lord, a wise man, which built his house upon a rock:
*Ch. 3. 10. Luke 3. 9. John 15. 2, 6.-Hos. 8. 2. ch. 23. 11, 12.
Luke 6. 46. & 13. 25. Acts 19. 13. Roni. 2. 13. James 1. 22.
Nunıb. 24. 4. John 11. 51. I Cor. 13. 2.-och. 25. 1.?. Luke 13. 25, 27,
2 Tim. 2. 19. --Ps. 5. 5. & 6. 8. c. 35, 41.- _f Luke 6. 47, &c.
.to God and man is the root of the good tree; and from this Verse 22. JInny will say to me in that day). Exeyn on nuespse, ir principle all its fruit is found. To teach, as some have done, that rery day, viz. the day of judgment--have we not pro. that a state of salvation may be consistent with the greatest | phesied, taught, publicly preached, in thy nume; acknowcrimes, (such as murder and adultery in David) or that the ledging thee to be the only Saviour, and proclaiming the righteous necessarily sin in all their best works; is really to as such to others; cast out damons, impure spirits, who had make the good trce bring forth bad fruit, and to give the lie taken possession of the bodies of men ; done many miracles, being to the Author of Eternal Truth.
assisted by supernatural agency to invert even the course of Verse 19. Every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit) | nature, and thus prove the truth of the doctrine we preached? What a terrible sentence is this against Christless pastors, and Verse 23. Will I profess] Opodoynow, I rvill fully and plainly Christless hearers! Every tree that produceth not good fruit, | tell them, I never knew you~I never approved of you; EXUOTTETC., is to be now cut down, the act of excision is now the word is used in many places, both in the Old and New taking place: the curse of the Lord is even now on the head Testaments. You held the truth in unrighteousness, while and the heart of every fulse teacher, and impenitent hearer. you preached my pure and holy doctrine; and for the sake
Verse 20. Wherefore by their fruits, &c.] This truth is often of my own truth, and through my love to the souls of men, repeated, because our eternal interests depend so much upon | I blessed your preaching ; but yourselves I could never it. Not to have good fruit, is to have evil: there can be no esteem, because ye were destitute of the spirit of my Gospel, innocent sterility in the invisible tree of the heart. He that unholy in your hearts, and unrighteous in your conduct. brings forth no fruit, and he that brings forth bad fruit, are Alas! alas! how many preachers are there who appear proboth only fit for the fire.
phets in their pulpits; how many writers, and other evariVerse 21. Not every one] Ov nas, a Hebraism, say some, gelical workmen, the miracles of whose labour, learning, and for no person.
It is a Græcism and a Latinism too: doctrine, we admire, who are nothing, and worse than noTartwv bewv, not all of the gods, i. e. not ANY of the gods. thing, before God; bt cause they perform not his will, but Hom. Odlyss. 2. 240. So Terence : Sine omni periclo, with- their own? What an awful consideration, that a out all danger, i.e. without any danger. And Juvenal: | eminent gifts, whose talents are a source of public utility, Sine omni lube, without all inperfection, i.e. without any.should be only as a way-mark or finger-post in the way to See more in Mr. Wakefield. The sense of this verse seems to eternal bliss, pointing out the road to others, without walking be this; No person, by merely acknowledging my authority, in it himself! believing in the divinity of my nature, professing faith in Depart from me] What a terrible word! What a dreadful the perfection of my righteousness, and infinite merit of my separation ! Depart from ME! from the very Jesus whom atoncment, shall enter into the kingdom of heuren-shall have you have proclaimed, in union with whom alone eternal life any part with God in glory; but he who docth the will of my is to be found. For, united to Christ, all is heuren ; separated Father-he who gets the bad tree rooted up, the good trei from him, all is hell. planted, and continues to bring forth fruit to the glory and Verse 24. Therefore whosoever heareth these sayings of praise of God. There is a good saying among the Rabbins mine] That is, the excellent doctrines laid down before in on this subject.“ A man should be as rigorous as a panther, this and the two preceding chapters. There are several pa, as swift as an eagle, as fleet as a stag, and as strong as a lion, rables or similitudes like to this in the Rabbins. I sliall quote to do the will of his Creator.”
but the two following: