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Remarkable conversation

ST. JOHN.

between Christ and Nathanael.

A. D. 26.

A. D. 26.

CCI. 2.

CCI. 4.

A. M. 1030. saith of him, Behold * an Israelite in. 50 Jesus answered and said un- A. 11.4130. An. Olymp. deed, in whom is no guile !

to him, Because I said unto thee, An. Olymp. 48 Nathanael saith unto him, Whence I saw thee under the fig-tree, be. knowest thou me? Jesus answered and said un- lievest thou ? thou shalt see greater things to him, Before that Philip called thee, when than these. thou wast under the fig-tree, I saw thee. 51 And he saith unto him, Verily, verily, I 49 Nathanael answered and saith unto him, say unto you, • Hereafter

ye

shall see heaven Rabbi, thou art the Son of God; thou art open, and the angels of God ascending and * the King of Israel.

descending upon the Son of man.

• Ps. 32. 2. $ 73. 1. ch. 8. 39. Rom. 2. 28, 29. & 9. 6.—Matt. 14. 33.

c Matt. 21. 5. & 27. 11, 42. ch. 18. 37. & 19. S.

d Gen. 28. 12. Matt. 4. 11. Luke 2. 9, 13. & 22. 43. & 24. 4.

Acts 1. 10.

prejudices against the truth: but he confounds those who Verse 50. Because I suid-1 suw thee, &c.] As thou hast take them up through envy and malice, and endeavour to credited my divine mission on this simple proof, that I saw communicate them to others.

thee when and where no human eye, placed where mine was, Verse 47. Behold an Israelite indeed] A worthy descend- could see thee; thy faith shall not rest merely upon this, for ant of the patriarch Jacob, who not only professes to believe thou shalt see greater things than these—more numerous and in Israel's God, but who worships him in sincerity and truth, || express proofs of my eternal power and Godhead. according to his light.

Verse 51. Verily, verily] Amen, amer. The doubling of In whom is no yuile ! ] Deceitfulness ever has been, and this word probably came from this circumstance: that it was still is the deeply marked characteristic of the Jewish people. I written in both Hebrew fox and in Greek auny, signifying, To find a man living in the midst of so much corruption,

it is true. walking in uprightness before his Maker, was a subject wor- Heaven open] This seems to be a figurative expression : thy the attention of God himself. Behold this man ! and 1. Christ may be understood by this saying to mean, that a while you see and admire, imitate his conduct.

clear and abundunt revelation of God's will should be now Verse 48. Whence knowest thou me?] He was not yet ac- made unto men ; that heaven itself should be laid as it were quainted with the divinity of Christ, could not conceive that open, and all the mysteries which had been shut up, and hidhe could search his heart, and therefore asks how he could den in it from eternity, relative to the salvation and glorificaacquire this knowledge of him, or who had given him that tion of man, should be now fully revealed. 2. That by the character. It is the comfort of the sincere and upright, that angels of God ascending and descending, is to be understood, God knows their hearts; and it should be the terror of the that a perpetual intercourse should now be opened between deceitful and of the hypocrite, that their false dealing is ever heaven and earth, through the medium of Christ who was noticed by the all-seeing eye of God.

God manifested in the flesh. Our blessed Lord is represented Under the fig-trec] Probably engaged in prayer with God, in his mediatorial capacity as the ambassador of God to men : for the speedy appearing of the salvation of Israel: and the and the angels ascending and descending upon the Son of man, shade of this fig.iree, was perhaps the ordinary place of re- is a metaphor taken from the custom of dispatching couriers treat for this upright man. It is not a fig-tree, but thy ouxny, or messengers rom ne prince to his ambassador in a foreign The fig-tree, one particularly distinguished from the others. court, and from the ambassador back to the prince. This There are many proofs that the Jewish Rabbins chose the metaphor will receive considerable light, when compared with shade of trees, and particularly the fig-tree, to sit and study | 2 Cor. v. 19, 20. God was in Christ reconciling the world ununder. See many examples in Schoetgen. How true is the to himself :-we are ambassadors for Christ, as though God saying, The eyes of the Lord are through all the earth, be- | did beseech you by us, we pray you in Christ's stead to be reconbolding the evil and the good. Wheresoever we are, what-||ciled to God. The whole concerns of human salvation shall soever we are about, may a deep conviction of this truth rest be carried on from henceforth, through the Son of man; and upon our hearts, Thou God seest ne!

an incessant intercourse be established between heaven and Verse 49. Rubbi] That is, Teacher ! and so this word earth. Some have illustrated this passage by the account of should be translated.

Jacob's vision, Gen. xxviii. 12. But though that vision may Thou art the Son of God] The promised Messiah.

intimate, that God had established at that time, a communicaThou art the king of Israel.] The real descendant of Da- tion between heaven and earth, through the medium of angels; vid, who art to sit on that spiritual throne, of which the throne yet it does not appear that our Lord's saying here has any reof David was the type.

ference to it; but that it should be understood as stated above.

l'arious testimonies concerning

CHAP. I.

the Logos, or Word of God.

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What a glorious view does this give us of the Gospel dis- || tisfy my desires.” Zend Avesta, vol. i. Vendidad Sade, pensation! It is heaven opened to earth; and heaven opened p. 104. on carth. The church militant and the church triumphant Zoroaster consulted Ormusd, and spoke thus to him : “O become one, and the whole heavenly family in both, see and Ormusd, absorbed in excellence, just Judge of the world, adore their common Lord. Neither the world nor the church | pure, who existest by thy own power, what is that great is left to the caprices of time or chance. The Son of man word given by God, that living and powerful word; O Orgoverns as he upholds all. Wherever we are prayiny, stu- | musd, tell me plainly, which existed before the heavens, bedying, hearing, meditating, his gracious eye is upon us. fore the water, before the earth, before the flocks, before the He notes our wants, our weakness, and our petitions; and fire, the child of Ormusd, before men, before the whole race his eye affects his heart. Let us be without guile, deeply, of existing beings, before all the benefits, and before all the habitually sincere, serious, and upright; and then we may pure germs given by Ormusd ?” Ormusd replied : “ Prorest assured, that not only the eye, but the hand of our Lord nounce that great word well, that word which existed before shall be ever upon us for good. Happy the man whose heart beaven was made, before the water, before the earth, before can rejoice in the reflection, Thou God seest me!

brute animals, before men, and before the holy angels (ams

chaspands.) I pronounced that word with majesty, and all 1. TESTIMONIES

the pure beings which are, and which have been, and which CONCERNING THE LOGOS, OR WORD OF GOD;

shall be, were formed. I continue to pronounce it in its utFROM THE CHALDEE TARGUMS.

most extent, and abundance is multiplied.” Ibid. p. 138, The person here stiled the Logos, is called 91779 999 debar

139. ychorah, the word of Jehoral, Gen. xv. 1, 4. 1 Sam. iii. 7,21.

“By his original word, Ormusd created the world, and xv. 10. 1 Kings xiii. 9, 17. xix. 9, 15. Psal. cvii. 20. and vanquished Ahriman, the genius of evil.” Ibid. p. 140. the Targums, or Chidee paraphrases frequently substitute

not, 1. "I XID'O meymra d'yay, the word of the Lord, for 1.7. Jeho

“ The saints in heaven and earth pronounce the sacred vuh himself. Thus the Jerusalem Targum in Gen. iii. 22. and

WORD :-under the character of Honover (i. e. pure desire) both that and the Targum of Jonathan ben Uzziel, in Gen. it is worshipped.” Ibid. 141. xix. 24. And Onkelos, on Gen. iii. 8. for the voice of the

“ Ormusd, together with the luminous and excellent WORD, Lord God, has, the voice of the word of the Lord. The Jeru- | is invoked, to defend the true worshipper from the oppression salem Targum on Gen. i. 27. før, And God created man, has, | of evil spirits.” Ibid. p.

174. The word of Jehorah creuted, &c. Compare Targum Jonathan, on Isai. xlv. 12. xlviii. 13. Jerem. xxvii. 5. And on

“ Man is healed by the Supreme word.” Ibid. p. 324. Gen. xxii. 14. that of Jerusalem says, Abraham indoked, Sva

“ By this word all defiled places are rendered pure : fire, !'Txapp beshem meymru d’yay, in the name of the word of water, earth, trees, flocks, men, women, stars, moon, sun, the Lord, and said, thou art Jehovah. So Onkelos, Gen.

and the primæval light, with all the blessings given by Or'xxviii. 20, 21. If the word of Jehovah will be my help-then, musd, are purified by it.” Ibid. p.

368. the word of Jehovah shall be my God. See Parkhurst under

The word of Ormusd is termed “ Ezem baté, I am;" and the word ΛΟΓΟΣ. .

is represented as “ putting every thing in a safe state-as the After a serious reading of the Targums, it seems to me

author of abundance; the source of all productions; the evident that the Chaldee term xop10 meymra, or word, is holy, pure, precious, and desirable word, which watches taken personally, in a multitude of places in them. When

over all the creation.” Ibid. Jescht Rashne Rust. vol. ii. p. Jonathan ben Uzziel speaks of the Supreme Being, as doing or

239. saying any thing, he generally represents him as performing

It is called “ the excellent, elevated, and victorious word: the whole by this Meymra, or Word, which he considers not the source of light; the principle of action, which smites and as a speech or word spoken, but as a person distinct from the triumphs; which gives health ; discomfits wicked men and Most High, and to whom he attributes all the operations of the spirits; which exists through all the world, destroying the Deity. To attempt to give the word any other meaning than evil, and fulfilling the desires of the good.” Ibid. Jescht of this, in various places throughout the Targums, would, in Ormusd, vol. ii. p. 145. my opinion, he flat opposition to every rule of construction ;

The Word is invoked as “ The pure wordthe most pure though like the Greek word Zoyos, it has other acceptations word: the strong—the most strong: the extended and ancient in certain places. See Lightfoot.

-the most extended and the most ancient : the victorious

the most victorious: the salutary--the most salutary: which 2. Testimonies concerning the personality, attributes, and gives health-is the abundant source of health, and cures influence of the word of God, taken from the Zend Avesta wounds and diseases of all kinds.” Ibid. Jescht of Ardebeand other writings attributed to Zoroaster.

hesht, vol. ii. p. 157. • Let thy terrible word which I pronounce, O Ormusd ! It is termed “the creator, or creating principle.Ibid. elevate itself on high. May it be great before thee, and sa- Jescht. of Furrardin, rol. ii. p. 252.

Various testimonies concerning

ST. JOHN.

the Logos, or Word of God.

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must be

p. 509.

Prayer is made to the soul of the excellent worD, the if the Iinage of God: and * [Tosunu tas vezes ayane, The Shepherd body of which is supremely luminous.” Ibid. p. 262. of his holy flock. In bis treatise upon Creation, lie speaks of

Through the whole governinent of Ormusd, men are the Word, as s the divine operator by whom all things acere :commanded to invoke that most pure and excellent word. disposed: and mentions him as o superior to the angels and all Ibid. p. 264.

created beings, and the image and likeness of God, and says, That the word in the above places, does not mean the sa- that this Image of the true God was esteemed the same as Godcred books of the Parsees, it is expressly said, that “ The,?ws autor (@tov) xataVOOUTó. 8 This LOGOS, the IWORD of God, Law of the Mazdejesnans (the disciples of Zoroaster) comes' says he, is superior to all the world, and more ancient; being the from this super-excellent Word.” Ibid. Si-Rouzé, Dansres- ' productor of all that was produced. The eternal Word of the pand, p. 323, 354.

everlasting God is the sure and fired foundation, upon tshich “ The Law is the body under which the primitive word, all things depend. He mentions man as in need of redemp. which created the world, is manifested. The primitive word tion, and says, what intelligent person, who views mankind therefore is worshipped in reading and reverencing that Law: engaged in unworthy and wicked pursuits, but 10 and the effects produced in the soul by it, are no less than a griered to the heart, and call upon that only Saviour God, that new creation, in some sort similar to that, which this omnific these crimes may be extenuated, and that, by a ransom and price Word formed in the beginning.” Ibid. vol. ii. p. 595. of redemption, being giren for his soul, it may again obtain its

.“ The word proceeds from the first principle, time without | freedom. It pleased God therefore to appoint his Logos to be bounds, i. e. eternity: it is before all created beings, and by a Mediator. "To his Word, the chief and most ancient of all it all the creation of God has been forined.” Ibid. vol. ii. in heaven, the Great Author of the world gave this especial sit,

that he should stand as a medium, (or intercessor) between the I find a word of the same import, used in exactly tlie same Creator and the created; and he is accordingly the adrocate for sense, in the Zend Avesta, attributed to the ancient Persian | all mortals.

The same

12 Word is the Intercessor for man, who law giver, Zoroaster.

is always tending to "3 corruption : and he is the appointed mosOne might suppose that Mohammed bad the first chapter senger of God, the gorernor of all things, to man in subjection of St. John's Gospel in his eye when he wrote ver. 33. of; to him. 1+ He therefore exhorts ercry person, who is able, lo Surat xix. of his Koran: cusut Juo pat you will change ous exert himself in the race which he is to run, to bend his course zalyka Isa ibno Mareema Kuwlolhokki,' This is Jesits the son of without "s remission to the divine Word above, who is the founMary, the word of TRUTII.—Some may understand the Arabic tain of all wisdom; that by drinking at this sacred spring, he, differently: This is a true word, that Jesus is the son of Mary. He repeats continually, that the Locos is the express image

instead of death, may obtain the reward of everlasting life.

of God. 3. TESTIMONIES

The Word by which the world was made, is the Image of CONCERNING THE LOGOS, OR WORD OF GOD,

the supreme Deity. " As we perceive the sun's light, though the

sun itself is not seen ; and behold the brightness of the moon, Aster I had begun my collections from Philo Judæus, re- l though its orb may not appear to the eye; so men look up to, lative to the Logos; I casually met with a work of the late and acknowledge, the likeness of God, in his minister the Logvery learned Mr. Jacob Bryant, entitled, The sentiments of os, whom they esteem as God. He attempts to describe bis Philo Judæus concerning the aorok, or WORD OF GOD. 8° nalure by representing him as, not uncreated, like God; por Cambridge 1797. From this valuable tract, I shall make a few extracts, and beg leave to refer the Reader to the pamphlet itself.

4 De Agricult. vol. i. p. 308. s De Mundi Opif. vol. i. “Philo Judæus speaks at large in many places, of the Word

p.
4.
• De Profugis. vol. i. p.

561. ? De Somniis. vol. i. of God, the second person, which he mentions as (deutigos

p.
656.

8 De Leg. Alleg. vol. i. p. 121. 9 De Plantati. Ot05) the second divinity, the great cause of all things, and

one. Naë. vol. i.

p.

331. " De Confus. Ling. vol. i. p. 418. . styles him as Plato, as well as the Jews, had done before, the

1. 50. " Quis Rerum Divin. Hæres. vol. i. p. 501, 502. Logos. Of the divine Logos or Word, he speaks in many

Ibid.

p.
501. l. 49. For

κηφαινοντος αει προς το αφθαρτον, , places, and maintains at large, the divinity of the Second

we should certainly read προς το φθαρτον. .

" De Profugis. person, and describes his attributes in a very precise and co

vol. i. p. 560. I. 31. " The present realing is azevsi, the pious manner, styling him τον δευτερον Θεον ος εσιν εκεινου (Θεου

meaning of which I do not comprehend. The true reading *gwTow) Acyos, the second Deity, who is the Word of the supreme is probably anyeusi, from a tversos, without remissionindesiGod; ? Ilgwtoyovoy vior, his forse begotten Son; Εικων Θεου,

16

FROM PHILO JUDEUS.

18

12

13

1

3

nenter, without stopping to take breath.

16 De Monarchia,

vol. ii. 1. ii. p. 225. Τον δε αορατον και νοητον Θείο Λογον εικονα 'Philo. Fragin. vol. ii. p. 625. * De Agricult. vol. i. 12.sy to Otou. De Mundi Opif. vol. i. p. 6. 17 De Somniis. 3 De Alundi Opif. vol. i. p. 6.

vol. i. p. 656. 1. 33. 18 Quis Rer. Dirin. IIæres. vol. i. p. 502.

P. 303.

Various testimonies concerning

CHAP. I.

the Logos, or Word of God.

4

yet created, as man; but of a divine substance. 'For the eral import, he argues in 52 particulars, from which I have Word of God, which is above all the host of heaven, cannot extracted the following, as being most closely allied to the be comprehended by human wisdom, having nothing in his na- subject, inserting the original words along with the translation. ture, that is perceptible to mortal sense. For being the Image of The references, in all cases, are to Dr. Ningey's edition of God, and the eldest of all intelligent beings, he is seated imme- Philo, 2 vols. fol. Lond. 1742. diately next to the one God, without any interval of separation. This, in the language of scripture, is sitiing on the right hand 4. A LIST OF SOME OF THE PARTICULAR TERMS AND DOCTRINES of God. He adds, ? For not being liable to any roluntary, or FOUND IN Philo, with parallel passages from the New Tesinvoluntary change, or falling off, he hus God for his lot and tament. portion, and his residence is in God. The like is mentioned

1. The Logos is the Son of Godunes Otov. De Agric. in another place, where he is represented again as sinless, || vol. i. p. 308. De Profug. ib. p. 562. compare Mark i. 1. and as the great High priest of the world. 3 We maintain,

Luke iv, 41, John i. 34. Acts vii. 37. that by the (true) High priest, is not meant a mun, but the di

2. The second divinity-deUtepas Clos Agros. Fragm. vol. ii. tine Word, who is free from all voluntary and involuntary p. 625. comp. John i. 1. 1 Cor. i. 24. transgressions; being of heavenly parentage, born of God, and

3. The first-begotten of God-Abyos TTCWToyovos. De Somof thut divine Wisdom, by which all things were produced. He

niis, vol. i. p. 633. comp. Ileb. i. 6. Coloss. i. 15. speaks to the same purpose in another place, where he makes

4. The image of God-xwe nou Occv. De Mundi Opific. mention of the Word. Εν τω και Αρχιερευς, ο πρωτογονος αυτου

vol. i. p. 6, 414, 419, 656. comp. Col. i. 15. Heb. i. 3. (:cu) otos Aoyos, in which presides that High priest, the holy | 2 Cor. iv. 4. Word, the first-born of God; at other times styled geoBUT&Tos

5. Superior to angels-υπερανω παντων (αγγελων) Λογος Θειος. Vos sou, the Son of God, antecedent to all creation. S TOUTOy

De Profugis, vol. i. p. 561. comp. Heb. i. 4, 6. μεν γαρ πρεσβιτατον υιον και των οντων ανέτειλε Πατηρ ον

ετερωθι πρω- 6. Superior to all the world—0 Ayos—UTEFXYW TAYTOS E55. τογονον ωνομασε. . It is manifest, that every attribute which the

De Leg. Allegor. vol. i. p. 121. comp. Heb. ii. 8. sacred writers have given to Christ, in his mediatorial capa- 7. By whom the world was created—10v svoy Acyou toy tavcity, Philo has attributed to him in his divine character, an

Tu dozxodunsavix. De Mund. Opif. vol. i. p. 4. comp. John tecedent to creation, page 15--22.

i. 3. I Cor. viii. 6. Heb. i. 2, 10. Mr. Bryant thinks that Philo derived all this knowledge

8. The great substitute of God—maşxos tou tov. De concerning the Logos, from the Apostles, and the works and Agricult. vol. i. p. 309. comp. John i. 3. and xvii. 4. Eph. conversation of Christian writers; for it is very probable, that. 9. Phil. ii. 7. Philo was contemporary with our Lord himself. Mr. B. is

9. The light of the world— Ows Xoome: and intellectual sun so well satisfied that Philo derived all this knowledge from

–ηλιος νοητος. .

De Somniis, vol. i. p. 6, 414, 632, 633. comp. these sources, that he goes on to ask:

John i. 4, 9. and viii. 12. 1 Pet. ii. 9. “ Whence else could he have obtained so many terms,

10. Who only can see God— jouw toy Otov očesu xadogxv. De which bear such an analogy with the expressions and doc

Confus. Linguar. vol. i. p. 4]8. comp. John i. 18. and vi. 46. trines in the apostolical writings? Such are roos Otou, Angos 11. Who resides in God--Εν αυτω μονω κατοικησει. . De Proπρωτογονος, πρεσβυτατος, αίδιος, Λογος Αρχιερευς, μεσος, μεθοριος, fing. vol. 1. p. 561. comp. John i. 1, 18. and xiv. 11. ικετης του θνητου, δημιουργος, Ποιμήν της ιερας αγελης, Υπαρχος

12. The most ancient of Gorl's works, and before all things Θεου, σφραγις, εικων Θεου, φως, πνευμα Θεου, πνευμα πανσoφoν. We

We agro@uratos TWY Óra yezovt. De Confus. Ling. vol. i. p. 427. read farther concerning redemption, and—Autga xat owsza, the De Leg. Allegor. ib. p. 121. comp. John i. 2. and xvii. 5, 24. price and ransom for the soul, αντι θανατου ζωην αιδιον, and

2 Tim. i. 9. Heb. i. 2. ανθρωπου ναος Θεου. . To these, other instances might be added 13. Esteemed the same as God-Λογον ως αυτον (Θεον) καταequally significant; few of which are to be found in the

De Somniis, vol. i. p. 656. comp. Mark ii. 7. Rom. Greek Version, or in any Jewish doctrines, at least in the ac

ix. 5. Phil. ii. 6. ceptation given. They were obtained either from the con

14. The Logos is eternal- wideos Asgos. De Plunt. Noe, versation, or from the writings, of the first Christians; or

vol. i. p. 332. and vol. ii. p. 604. comp. Jolin xii. 34. 2 Tim. rather from both, page 202.”

i. 9. and iv. 18. Heb. i. S. Rev. X. 6. At p. 105. Mr. B. gives “ A recapitulation of the charac

15. Beholds all things—ošudepxesan ως παντα εφoραν ειναι ters and attributes of the Logos, with the collateral evidence

ixotros. De Leg. Allegor. vol. i. p. 121. comp. Heb. iv. 12, 13. from scripture.” This with some other matlers of a collat

Rev, ji. 23.

16. He unites, supports, preserves, and perfects the world
-
τε γας του οντος Λογος δεσμος

ως των απαντων-συνεχει τα μέρη 'De Profugis. vol. i. p. 561. 1. 16. 2 Ibid. 224.

παντα, και σφιγγει-περιεχει τα όλα, και πεπληρωκεν. De Prof: p. 562. ). 13. 4 De Somniis. vol. i.

p.

653. s De Confus. | vol. i. p. 562. Fragm. vol. ii. p. 655. comp. John iii. 35. Col. Ling. vol. i. p. 414.

i. 17. Heb. i. 3.

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3 Ibid.

Various testimonies concerning

ST. JOHN.

the Logos, or Word of God.

.

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17. Nearest to God without any separation-ó EyyutatW podsvog 33. The just man advanced by the Logos to the presence CYT95 pez Sopsou dvasnatos. De Profug. vol. i. p. 561. comp. John of his Creator-TW autW hoywidquoas Tingloy autou. De Sai. 18. and x. 30, and xiv, 11. and xvii. 11.

crificiis, vol. i. p. 165. comp. John vi. 37, 44. xii. 26. xiv. 6. 18. Free from all taint of sin, voluntary or involuntary- 34. The Logos, the true High-priest—aşxueprus, o Pitoyovos ανευ τροπης εκουσιου- και της ακουσιου. De Profug. vol. i. p. OUTOU £105 Aoyos. De Somniis, vol. i. p. 653. De Profug. ib. 561. comp. John viii. 46. Heb. vii. 26. and ix. 14. 1 Pet. p. 562. comp. John i. 41. vii. 46. Acts iv. 27. Heb. iv. 14. iv. 22.

vii. 26. 19. Who presides over the imperfect and weak-ou:05 yoz 35. The Logos in his mediatorial capacity-Aoyos ag Xeepsus newy TWY 27:).wy ar em cos. De Leg. Allegor. vol. i. p. 128. u!99zvos: of whom he says, Oxvuelo και τον μετα σπoδης απνευς, comp. Matt. xi. 5. Luke v. 32. 1 Tim. i. 15.

δραμoντα σιντονως ιερον Λογον, ένα τη μεσον των τεθνηκότων και των 20. The Logos, the fountain of wisdom-Apyou osnov, o suvrev. “ I am astonished to see the Holy Logos running oopics 550 anyn. De Profug. vol. i. p. 560, 566. comp. John with so much speed and earnestness, that he may stand beiv. 14. vii. 38. 1 Cor. i. 24. Col. ii. 3.

tween the living and the dead.” Quis Rer. Divinar. Hæres. 21. A messenger sent from God 955B:UTNS TOU MY ELovos atgas

vol. i.

p.

501. сотр. . 1 Tim. ii. 5. Heb. viii. 1-6. ix. 11, TO UTO200v. Quis Rer. Div. Hæres. vol. i. p. 501. comp. John 12, 24. v. 36. vii. 29, 42. 1 John iv. 9.

These testimonies are truly astonishing : and if we allow, 2. The advocate for mortal man-ικετης μεν επι του θνητου. as some contend, that Philo was not acquainted either with Quis Rer. Dir. Hær. vol. i. p. 501. comp. John xiv. 16. xvii. the disciples of our Lord, or the writings of the New Testa20. Rom. viii. 34. Heb. vii. 25.

ment, we sliall be obliged to grant, that there must have been 23. He ordered and disposed of all things-Socke xan doevenues some measure of divine inspiration in that man's mind, who Ib. p. 506. comp. Col. i. 15, 16. Ileb. xi. 3.

could, in such a variety of cases, write so many words and 24. The shepherd of God's flock-Tov og for avrov Agyov,—a sentences, so exactly corresponding to those of the Evangelists TOY ETILL ERED BY Tns vegas TOUTHS ageans. De Agricul. vol. i. p. 308. and Apostles. comp. John x. 14. Heb. xiii. 20. 1 Pet. ii. 25.

5. Testimonies concerning a Trinity among the Chinese, and 25. Of the power and royalty of the Logos—O TOU my cleovos

concerning the word of God. Λογος- και βασιλικη δυναμις αυτου. De Profug. vol. i. p. 561.

Among the ancient Chinese characters which have been comp. I Cor. xv. 25. Eph. i. 21, 22. Heb. i. 2, 3. Rev. xvii. 14.

preserved, we find the following A, like the Greek delta, and 26. The Logos is the physician, who heals all evil-sov ay- since written A. According to the Chinese Dictionary 7:20(ös 156 Aoyo:) Wotip Iarçox xoxwy. De Leg. Allegor. vol. i. Kang-hi, this character signifies union. According to Chouep. 122. comp. Luke iv. 18. vii. 21. 1 Pet. ii. 24. Jam. i. 21.

ouen, a celebrated work, A is three united in one. The Licou 27. The Logos is the seal of God-ods:500 n6052715. De chou tsing hoen, which is a rational and learned explanation Profug. vol. i. p. 517, 548. De Plunt. Noa, ib. p. 332. comp. i of ancient characters, says: “ A signifies intimate union, John vi. 27. Eph. i. 13. Heb. i. 3. 28. The sure refuge of those who seek him— pv T W TOY

harmony, the chief good of man, of the heaven, and of the

earth: it is the union of three." xeron Diwy?sy w5:204wtator. De Profug. ib. p. 560. comp. Matt.

The book See-ki says, Formerly the emperor made a soxi. 28. 1 Pet. ii. 25. 29. Of heavenly food distributed by the Logos equally, to

lemn sacrifice every three years to the Spirit Trinity in all who seek it-iny origorvoon rçopnu fuxens. Quis Rer. Dirin. Unity.” *=-ehin, san Y. The word Tao in ordiIlær. vol. i. p. 499. comp. Matt. v. 6. vii. 7. xiii. 10. xxiv. nary discourse signifies rule, law, wisdom, truth, way, word. 14. xxvjij, 19. Rom. x. 12, 18.

In the text of Luo tse il signifies the divinity. 50. Of men's forsaking their sins, and obtaining spiritual he) is an abyss of perfections which comprehends all beings. freedom by the Logos-hov Digoxe ang tuxns. De Cong. Quær. The Tao which can be described, is not the eternal Tao. The Erud. Grut, vol. i. p. 534. De Prof. ib. p. 561, 563. comp.

Tao is its own rule and model. The Tao preserves the heaJohn viii. 36. I Cor. vii. 22. 2 Cor. iii. 17. Gal. v. 1, 13. vens, and sustains the earth. It is so elevated that none cani

31. Of men's being freed by the Logos from all corruption, reach it; so deep that none can fathom it; so immense that and entitled to immortality—o ugos Acyos stovunst, yesas czaseeroy it contains the universe; and notwithstanding it is complete δους, κληρον αθανατοντην εν αφθαρτων γενει ταξιν. De Cong. Quur.

0.7 Sepow yves sativ. De Cong. Quar. in the smallest things.” Erud. Grut. vol. i. p. 535. comp. Rom. viii. 21. I Cor. xv.

“He who is as visible, and yet cannot be seen, is denomi. 52, 53. 1 Pet. i. 3, 4.

nated licou 4; he who can be heard, and yet speaks not to 32. The Logos mentioned by Philo, not only as usos fov, the ears, hi ; he who is as tangible, and yet cannot be felt, is the Son of God; but also, aya TYTOV TEXNOY, his belored Son. named ouci: in vain do you consult your senses concerning De Leg. Allegor. vol. i. p. 129. comp. Matt. iii. 17. Luke these three ; your reason alone can discourse of them, and it ix. 35. Col. i. 13. 2 Pet. i. 17.

will tell you that they are but one : above, there is no light;

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