upon: ALL." Again, that this punishment is not strictly endless in duration is further evident from the fact, that the word kolasis, rendered punishment in this text, signifies correction for the benefit of the offender. Donnegan defines it thus: "Kolasis, the act of clipping or pruning - generally, restriction, restraint, reproof check, chastisement." See "Donnegan's Greek and English Lexicon," p. 767. In this, Parkhurst, Dr. Belsham, Simpson, and the Editors of the "Improved Version," agree. This corresponds with the nature of punishment as it is represented in the Bible. See Heb. 12: 6-11.

If it is asked, "What eternal life was to be experienced by the righteous?". we answer, they were to experience salvation from the impending ruin; to be gathered among the elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other; to be made rulers over all the Master's goods; to go in with the Bridegroom to the marriage; to enter into the joy of their Lord; to be placed on the right hand of God; and to inherit the kingdom prepared for them from the foundation of the world. The word eternal, here applied to the life enjoyed by the believer under the Gospel dispensation, is used not to signify or express the duration of that life, but the nature, the quality, or the kind, of it. This life is called eternal for five reasons. 1. To distinguish it from the life enjoyed by those living under the Law or Legal dispensation. That is never called eternal or everlasting life. The phrase, "everlasting life," does not occur but once in the Old Testament, and is then used with reference to the life imparted by the Gospel. 2. Because those who are in the possession of this life enjoy it continually, unceasingly, uninterruptedly, and perpetually. One definition of the word here rendered eternal, is perpetual. 3. Because it is a life to be enjoyed in the "everlasting kingdom of our Lord Jesus Christ." Christ's kingdom is called everlasting, yet it is to come to an end. Paul teaches that Christ shall "deliver up the kingdom to God, even the Father, and he himself become subject to him that did put all things under him." See 1 Cor. 15: 24–28. 4. Because it is a life to be enjoyed under the dispensation of the "everlasting Gospel." The Gospel is called everlasting, yet no one supposes it will be preached. throughout the ceaseless ages of eternity. 5. Because it is a life imparted by that Gospel which brings "life and immortality to light." Hence, the believer in this Gospel lives in the constant

enjoyment of a hope "full of immortality," and in the perpetual anticipation of an inheritance "incorruptible, undefiled, and that fadeth not away." Bear in mind, reader, that the question is not, How has this subject been understood in ages past? How was it understood by the Apostolic and Christian fathers? How was it understood by John Calvin, Martin Luther, or John Wesley? How was it understood by the different sects and denominations in Christendom? — nor, How is it understood by the learned doctors of the church in our day? No, no, these questions are of no importance whatever, except to gratify an idle curiosity. The allabsorbing question is, How did Christ understand it? and What is the true meaning and application of the parable of the sheep and goats? Neither is the question, What has been understood, and what do we understand, by the terms eternal, everlasting, &c.? No, the question is, What are these terms used to signify in the Bible? If we will allow Christ to define his own terms, and explain his own language, and at the same time acknowledge him to be correct in such definition and explanation, the subject is perfectly clear and plain. "Hear ye him," then. John 17: 3, "And this IS LIFE ETERNAL, that they might KNOW THEE, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom thou hast sent." John 6:54, "Whoso eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, HATH ETERNAL LIFE, and I will raise him up at the last day." [For meaning of the phrase "last day," see Chapter VIII.] John 5: 24, "He that heareth my word, and believeth on him that sent me, HATH EVERLASTING LIFE.


All important objections to the view which we have presented of this subject have been answered as we passed along, except three. Those three will now be stated and replied to.

1. It is objected, that the view which we have advocated respecting the time of Christ's coming is contrary to fact, inasmuch as no personal appearing of Christ took place at the destruction of Jerusalem. To this we reply, that we have shown, by the testimony of Jesus himself, that there was to be a coming of the Son of Man at that time. Now, whether this was to be a personal coming, or whether Christ was to make a visible, personal appearance, or not, depends altogether upon the fact whether he did, or did not, appear in such manner at that time. If we admit that Jesus was what he claimed to be, then his authority is indisputable on this point. If, therefore, no personal appearance of Christ took place at

the destruction of Jerusalem, we have a right to conclude that no such coming was had reference to. That there was a visible appearance of Christ at that time, we have no proof; that there was not is very probable, and, therefore, we conclude no such coming was alluded to. If it be asked, "What kind of coming then was alluded to?" we answer, it was a coming in power and glory, a manifestation of Christ's power in the destruction of his enemies, and the salvation of the Christian believers. And here we remark that any particular or special manifestation of God's power, either in saving or punishing mankind, is called in the Scriptures a coming of God. Ex. 19: 9, "And the Lord said unto Moses, Lo, I come unto thee in a thick cloud." Ex. 20: 24, “I (God) will come unto thee (Moses), and bless thee." Ps. 50: 3, "Our God shall come, and shall not keep silence; a fire shall devour before him, and it shall be very tempestuous round about him." Isa. 35: 4, "Say to them that are of a fearful heart, Be strong, fear not; behold, your God will come with vengeance, even God with a recompense; he will come and save you." Isa. 40: 10, "Behold, the Lord God will come with strong hand, and his arm shall rule for him; behold, his reward is with him, and his work before him." Isa. 66: 15,


For behold, the Lord will come with fire, and with his chariots like a whirlwind, to render his anger with fury, and his rebuke with flames of fire." Hosea 6: 3, "And he (God) shall come unto us as the rain, as the latter and former rain unto the earth." Hosea 10: 12, "For it is time to seek the Lord, till he come and rain righteousness upon you." Mal. 4: 6," And he (Elijah) shall turn the heart of the fathers to the children, &c., lest I (God) come and smite the earth with a curse." No one supposes that the comings spoken of in these texts allude to a personal, visible appearance of God, but only to a manifestation of his power. Christ, in speaking of his special interference in rewarding his faithful followers, and punishing the rebellious Jews, adopts the figurative language of the prophets, and represents it in the same light that they represent the manifestations of God's goodness and displeasure under the Legal dispensation. If we carefully notice the language which Christ employs when speaking of his coming, we shall see that he did not mean to be understood that it was to be a visible, personal appearance. Matt. 24: 23-28, "Then if any man shall say unto you, Lo, here is Christ, or there, believe it not; for there

shall arise false Christs, and false prophets, and shall show great signs and wonders, insomuch that, if it were possible, they shall deceive the very elect. Behold, I have told you before. Wherefore, if they shall say unto you, Behold, he is in the desert, go not forth; Behold, he is in the secret chamber, believe it not." This language was evidently designed to caution the disciples against supposing that he was to appear personally and visibly at that time. But he adds, "For as the lightning cometh out of the east, and shineth even unto the west, so also shall the coming of the Son of Man be." From this we learn that his coming was to be sudden, and to some, at least, unexpected; and as the reflection of the lightning might be seen without seeing the lightning itself; so might Christ's power and glory be manifested and seen without beholding his person. He immediately adds, "For wheresoever the carcass is, there will the eagles be gathered together." It is generally conceded, that by the carcass here is meant the Jewish people, and by the eagles, the ensigns of the Roman army. This, then, is a plain declaration that his coming consisted in bringing upon Jerusalem the Roman army, which should destroy the Jews, and work deliverance for the Christians from their persecuting power. Again, Christ, in Mark 8: 38, and 9: 1, expressly calls his coming, a coming in the "glory of his Father." No one would infer from this, that God was personally to appear at that time. Well, in Luke 9: 26. 27, he expressly calls it a coming in "his own glory." "When he cometh in his own glory, and in his Father's, and of the holy angels," &c. Now, as this coming was to be a manifestation of the power and glory of God, and not a visible appearance of God; so, neither was it to be a personal or visible appearance of Christ, but only a manifestation of his power and glory in the manner just related.

2. It is objected that, "At the coming of Christ, spoken of in this parable, he was to be attended by ALL THE HOLY ANGELS; but no such appearance of the angels took place at the destruction of Jerusalem." Whether there was to be a real appearance of angels at the coming of Christ, spoken of here, depends altogether upon what kind of angels was referred to. The word angel has a variety of significations, and is applied in a variety of ways in the Bible. It signifies a messenger or agent, and is applied to both good and bad beings. It is applied to human and super-human beings, also to iranimate

objects. This latter application it has in 2 Cor. 12: 7, 8. It is applied to human beings in the following texts:- Matt. 3: 1, and 11: 10; Mark 1: 2; Luke 7: 24, and 9: 52; Phil. 2: 25; 2 Cor. 8:23; James 2: 25; Rev. 2: 1, 18, and 3: 1, 7, 14. In these passages we find the word applied to John the Baptist; to two of his disciples who were sent to Jesus to inquire whether he was the Messiah or not; to the disciples of Christ, who were sent into a city of Samaria to prepare a place for him; to Epaphroditus, the companion of Paul; an angel or messenger to the church at Philippi; to the brethren of Paul, who were the messengers of the churches; to the spies who were sent to spy out the land of Canaan: and to the ministers of the seven churches of Asia. In Rev. 15: 8, and 16: 1, it is applied to those whom God employs to execute his vengeance. Now, whether Jesus, in this parable, by the word angels, refers to human or super-human beings, must, we think. be considered doubtful. Hence, there are different opinions about it, some inclining to one opinion, some to the other. If we allow that he referred to human beings, then the question arises, What class of human beings were referred to? He might have referred to the messengers of the Gospel-all who should be alive at the time of his coming; or to the Roman armies, which were the executors of God's vengeance upon the Jewish nation. The word angels occurs once in this discourse concerning the destruction of Jerusalem, besides in this parable, and there it undoubtedly signifies the messengers of the Gospel. Matt. 24: 31, "And he shall send his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other." The same angels might have been referred to in this parable. If we suppose Jesus to allude to the Roman armies, then it may be asked, 'How could these messengers be called holy?" To this it has been replied that," they are called holy for the same reason that the people of Israel, the land in which they lived, the temple in which they worshipped, the ministers of the temple, the sacrifices they offered, the vessels and dishes made use of in the temple service, the garments of the priests, and, indeed, all things connected with the religion and state of the Jewish people, are called holy." Again, it has been very truly said, that "the term holy in scripture does not always refer to moral character, but is frequently applied to persons and things, who, or which, are set apart for particular pur


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