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and trembled. The hills melted like wax at the presence of the Lord, at the presence of the Lord of the whole earth.
Isa. 9: 19, 20. Through the wrath of the Lord of hosts is the land darkened, and the people shall be as the fuel of the fire; no man shall spare his brother. And he shall snatch on the right hand, and be hungry; and he shall eat on the left hand, and they shall not be satisfied: they shall eat every man the flesh of his own arm.
Isa. 47 14. Behold, they shall be as stubble; the fire shall burn them; they shall not deliver themselves from the power of the flame: there shall not be a coal to warm at, nor fire to sit before it.
Isa. 66: 15, 16. For, behold, the Lord will come with fire, and with his chariots like a whirlwind, to render his anger with fury, and his rebuke with flames of fire. For by fire and by his sword will the Lord plead with all flesh and the slain of the Lord shall be many.
Jer. 4 4. Circumcise yourselves to the Lord, and take away the foreskins of your heart, ye men of Judah and inhabitants of Jerusalem; lest my fury come forth like fire, and burn that none can quench it, because of the evil of your doings.
Jer. 21: 12. O house of David, thus saith the Lord: Execute judgment in the morning, and deliver him that is spoiled out of the hand of the oppressor, lest my fury go out like fire, and burn that none can quench it, because of the evil of your doings.
Lam. 2: 3, 4. He hath cut off in his fierce anger all the horn of Israel: he hath drawn back his right hand from before the enemy, and he burned against Jacob like a flaming fire, which devoureth round about. He hath bent his bow like an enemy: he stood with his right hand as an adversary, and slew all that were pleasant to the eye in the tabernacle of the daughter of Zion he poured out his fury like fire.
Ezek. 21: 31, 32. And I will pour out mine indignation upon thee; I will blow against thee in the five of my wrath, and deliver thee into the hand of brutish men, and skilful to destroy. Thou shalt be for fuel to the fire; thy blood shall be in the midst of the land; thou shalt be no more remembered: for I the Lord have spoken it.
Ezek. 22 18-22. Son of man, the house of Israel is to me become dross all they are brass, and tin, and iron, and lead, in the midst of the furnace; they are even the dross of silver. Therefore, thus saith the Lord God; Because ye are all become dross, behold, therefore, I will gather you into the midst of Jerusalem. And as they gather silver, and brass, and iron, and lead, and tin into the midst of the furnace, to blow the fire upon it to melt it, so will I gather you in mine anger and in my fury, and I will leave you there, and melt you. Yea, I will gather you and blow upon you in the fire of my wrath, and ye shall be melted in the midst thereof. As silver is melted in the midst of the furnace, so shall ye be melted in the midst thereof; and ye shall know that I the Lord have poured out my fury upon you.
Mal. 3: 2, 3. But who may abide the day of his coming? and who shall stand when he appeareth? for he is like a refiner's fire, and like fuller's soap. And he shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver: and he shall purify the sons of Levi, and purge them as gold and silver, that they may offer unto the Lord an offering in righteousness.
Matt. 3 10. And now also the axe is laid unto the root of the trees therefore every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire.
Matt. 7 19. Every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down and cast into the fire.
Luke 3: 9. And now also the axe is laid unto the root of the trees: every tree, therefore, which bringeth not forth good fruit, is hewn down, and cast into the fire.
John 15: 6. If a man abide not in me, he is cast forth as a branch, and is withered; and men gather them, and cast them into the fire, and they are burned.
Matt. 3: 11. I indeed baptize you with water unto repentance; but he that cometh after me is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost, and with fire.
Luke 3: 16. John answered, saying unto them all, I indeed baptize you with water; but one mightier than I cometh, the latchet of whose shoes I am not worthy to unloose: he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost, and with fire.
Mark 9: 43-49. And if thy hand offend thee, cut it off: it is better for thee to enter into life maimed, than, having two hands, to go into hell (Gehenna), into the fire that never shall be quenched; where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched. . . . . And if thine eye offend thee, pluck it out it is better for thee to enter into the kingdom of God with one eye, than, having two eyes, to be cast into hell-fire (Gehenna puros); where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched. For every one shall be salted with fire, and every sacrifice shall be salted with salt.
Acts 2: 3, 4. And there appeared unto them cloven tongues, like as of fire, and it sat upon each of them. And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance.
1 Cor. 3: 13-15. Every man's work shall be made manifest for the day shall declare it, because it shall be revealed by fire and the fire shall try every man's work, of what sort it is. If any man's work abide, which he hath built thereupon, he shall receive a reward. If any man's work shall be burned, he shall suffer loss: but he himself shall be saved; yet so as by fire.
2 Thess. 1 7—9. And to you who are troubled, rest with us, when the Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven with his mighty angels, in flaming fire, taking vengeance on them that know not God, and that obey not the Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ: who shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power.
Heb. 1: 7. And of the angels he saith, Who maketh his angels spirits, and his ministers a flame of fire.
James 3: 5, 6. Even so the tongue is a little member, and boasteth great things. Behold, how great a matter a little fire kindleth! And the tongue is a fire, a world of iniquity: so is the tongue among our members, that it defileth the whole body, and setteth on fire the course of nature; and it is set on fire of hell (Gehenna).
2 Pet. 3: 7. But the heavens and the earth, which are now, by the same word are kept in store reserved unto fire, against the day of judgment and perdition of ungodly men.
Verse 12. Looking for and hasting unto the coming of the day of God, wherein the heavens being on fire shall be dissolved, and the elements shall melt with fervent heat.
Rev. 9: 17. And thus I saw the horses in the vision, and them that sat on them, having breast-plates of fire, and of jacinth and brimstone; and the heads of the horses were as the heads of lions: and out of their mouths issued fire, and smoke, and brimstone.
Rev. 20 9. And they went up on the breadth of the earth, and com
passed the camp of the saints about, and the beloved city: and fire came down from God, out of heaven, and devoured them.
Lam. 4 11. The Lord hath accomplished his fury; he hath poured out his fierce anger, and hath kindled a fire in Zion, and it hath devoured the foundation thereof.
Zech. 2 5. For I, saith the Lord, will be unto her a wall of fire round about, and will be the glory in the midst of her (Jerusalem).
Luke 12: 49. I am come to send fire on the earth; and what will I, if it be already kindled?
Heb. 12: 29. For our God is a consuming fire.
Dan. 7:9, 10. I beheld till the thrones were cast down, and the Ancient of days did sit, whose garment was white as snow, and the hair of his head like the pure wool: his throne was like the fiery flame, and his wheels as burning fire. A fiery stream issued and came forth from before him : thousand thousands ministered unto him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him: the judgment was set, and the books were opened.
Dan. 10: 6. His body also was like the beryl, and his face as the appearance of lightning, and his eyes as lamps of fire, and his arms and his feet like in color to polished brass, and the voice of his words like the voice of a multitude.
EVERLASTING FIRE. -Matt. 18: 8. Wherefore, if thy hand or thy foot offend thee, cut them off, and cast them from thee: it is better for thee to enter into life halt or maimed, rather than having two hands, or two feet, to be cast into everlasting fire (aionion pur, or fire of the age).
Matt. 25: 41. Then shall he say also unto them on his left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire (aionion pur), prepared for the devil and his angels.
ETERNAL FIRE. Jude 1: 7. Even as Sodom and Gomorrah, and the cities about them, in like manner giving themselves over to fornication, and going after strange flesh, are set forth for an example, suffering the vengeance of eternal fire (aionion puros).
UNQUENCHABLE FIRE. Matt. 3: 12. Whose fan is in his hand, and he will thoroughly purge his floor, and gather his wheat into the garner; but he will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire.
Luke 3 17. Whose fan is in his hand, and he will thoroughly purge his floor, and will gather the wheat into his garner; but the chaff he will burn with unquenchable fire.
Brief Remarks on the scripture usage of the word FIRE, and the phrases EVERLASTING, ETERNAL and UNQUENCHABLE FIRE.
It will readily be learned from a careful observance of those scriptures arranged in Section 1 of this Chapter, that the term fire is a very common and emblematical expression, denoting severe trials, calamities, and even common afflictions of the people,
called the judgments of God. It will also be seen that the term fire, in many instances, stands immediately connected with the words rendered hell, such as Sheol, Gehenna, &c., which see in this work.
The above facts are so easily understood, both from the Old and New Testament scriptures, that but very little need be said. The first place in which it is mentioned in the New Testament is Matt. 3: 10, "And now also the axe is laid unto the roots of the trees: therefore every tree that bringeth forth not good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire." There are other similar passages, which teach the same things, and are understood in the same manner. Under the figure of cutting down trees, and casting them into the fire, in this text, is represented the severe judgment about to fall on the Jewish nation, which was before denominated the wrath to come. This figure was often used by the prophets, and, consequently, must have been well understood by the Jews in our Saviour's day. See Isa. 10: 33, 34; Jer. 46: 22, 23; Ezek. 31: 23.
We need not offer arguments that this is the true application of this and the like passages, inasmuch as there is such a universal agreement on the subject among standard commentators. Hammond says, "But now are God's judgments come home to this people, and ready to seize upon the whole nation, and shall actually fall upon every unreformed sinner among you." Par. in loc. Pearce says, "Vengeance is about to be taken upon the Jewish nation." Assembly's Annotations, Poole's Annotations, Lightfoot, and others, make the same application. Clarke says, "The Jewish nation is the tree, and the Romans the axe," &c. Kenrick says, The national calamities with which you are threatened, are no light evils, but such as, if you do not repent, shall be like cutting up the tree by the roots; for as barren trees, which bring forth no fruit, are hewn down and cast into the fire, so shall it be with you, if you perform not good works; your kingdom shall be overthrown, and the inhabitants of the land utterly extirpated." See Paige's Selections.
A like application is made of similar passages, by the same authors. There is not, in truth, an instance in the Bible where fire is used to signify punishment in eternity. In sermons and exhortations a different interpretation is often given; but few, however, are will. ing to risk their reputation for biblical knowledge, by publicly
disputing what is so abundantly asserted by the most learned.
In the second place it will be seen, in the observance of those passages, that by fire is prefigured the truth of God; which is represented as burning, cleansing, purifying and heating. See Mal. 4: 1, and 3: 2, 3. By these quotations is learned the burning affliction of the Jewish people, in the day of their distress. Dr. A Clarke says, "The day cometh that shall burn as an oven, - signi fying the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans. And all th proud, this is in reference to verse 15, of the preceding chapter. The day that cometh shall burn them up, either by famine, by sword, or by captivity, all these rebels shall be destroyed. It shall leave them neither root nor branch; a proverbial expression for total destruction; neither man nor child shall escape." Com. on Mal. 4: 1. Thus Clarke applies the passage wholly to the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans. It is also seen, from the saine (Mal. 3: 3), that Christ is represented at that time as sitting “as a refiner and purifier of silver: purifying the sons of Levi, that they may offer unto the Lord an offering in righteousness." The prophet represents the Lord himself as a wall of fire. Zech. 2:5, "For I, saith the Lord, will be unto her a wall of fire round about, and a glory in the midst of her" (Jerusalem). In Luke 12: 49, it is said, "I am come to send fire on the earth; and what will I, if it be already kindled?" Heb. 12: 29, Paul says, "For our God is a consuming fire." From the above remarks are made plain the nature and qualities of this fire. The properties and qualities of God are indestructible. There are also moral and intellectual properties in man, as parts of God's perfection, or image, which cannot be destroyed. Thus, notwithstanding "God is a consuming fire," yet, that fire is such that it only consumes what stands opposed to its own perfections: it cannot destroy its own qualities or properties. Hence the utility of the apostle's language in 1 Cor. 3: 13-15, "Every man's work shall be made manifest for the day shall declare it, because it shall be revealed by fire: and the fire shall try every man's work, of what sort it is. If any man's work abide, which he hath built thereupon, he shall receive a reward If any man's work shall be burned, he shall suffer loss: but he himself shall be saved; yet so as by fire." So we learn that this fire not only consumes wickedness, wicked works, and the