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ishment in Gehenna, nor does the word Gehenna occur in his writings. No Jewish writings composed within one hundred years after the time of Josephus have descended to us; so that it cannot be proved that any change in the meaning of Gehenna had taken place within one hundred years after the time of Christ.
4. The first time that Gehenna was used to signify a place of misery after death, of which we have any account, was by Justin Martyr, about the year of our Lord 150.
5. The first time this word is used to signify a place of misery in another world, by any Jewish writer of whom we have any account, was by Jonathan Ben Uzziel, in a Targum written by him, the date of which is uncertain. 66 Prideaux, together with several of the old critics, and even Gesenius, place it not far from the Christian era, on the authority, chiefly, of Jewish traditions. Prideaux, however, has well observed, that, in historical matters, it is not to be regarded what the Jews write, or what they omit.' Most of the eminent critics now agree that it could not have been completed till some time between two hundred and four hundred years after Christ. Dr. Jahn thinks it a collection of the interpretations of several learned men, made towards the end of the third century, and containing some of a much older date.' Eichhorn says that 'Jonathan certainly lived later than the birth of Christ;' and, judging from his style, his fables, his perversions of the prophecies concerning the Messiah, and from the profound silence of the early Jews and Christian Fathers, he concludes that his compilation cannot have been made before the fourth century. The same circumstances that Eichhorn adduces, are thought by Bertholdt to indicate the second or third century; and he is confident that the collection 'cannot have attained its complete form before the end of the second century.' With these general conclusions it is said that Bauer likewise agrees; and some critics have referred the work to as late a period as the seventh and eighth centuries." See Universalist Expositor, vol. 2, p. 368. There is no proof, then, that the meaning of the word Gehenna was changed until one hundred and fifty years after Christ. If, therefore, we believe this word signifies a place of misery after death, we must believe it on the authority of uninspired men, on the authority of Jewish Targums and Talmuds, and not on the authority of the Bible. If the reader is disposed to bow to such authority, he can do so; but we beg to be excused.
The following facts bear equally against understanding either Sheol, Hades, Tartaros, or Gehenna, to signify a place of endless misery.
1. The words eternal, everlasting, forever, &c., are not connected with either Sheol, Hades, Tartaros, or Gehenna, in a single instance in the whole Bible.
2. Paul says he "shunned not to declare the whole counsel of God;" and yet he has not, in all his writings, mentioned either Tartaros or Gehenna. He mentioned hades but once, and then used it to signify the grave. Now, if Paul believed these words signified a place of endless misery, how is this fact to be accounted for?
3. Among all the charges brought against Jesus and his apostles by the unbelieving Jews, they never charged them with threatening them with endless misery in Sheol, Hades, Tartaros, Gehenna, or anywhere else. Now, the Jews believed themselves to be the peculiar people of God; and if Jesus or his apostles had threatened them with endless misery, it would have excited their indignation to the highest pitch; and we should have heard them accusing Christ of being audacious and presumptuous. But no; no such charge is brought against him.
4. No person mentioned in the New Testament ever expressed any fears of going to a place of endless misery after death, or ever prayed to God to be saved from such a place. Nor is it said of any person who had died, that he had gone to a place of endless misery; - either in Sheol, Hades, Tartaros, Gehenna, or anywhere else.
5. The salvation of the gospel is never spoken of as a salvation from a place of endless misery, either in Sheol, Hades, Tartaros, or Gehenna. It is spoken of as a salvation from sin, from the darkness of this world, from wrath, from unbelief, and from the power of darkness; but no intimation is given that Jesus came into this world to save mankind from endless misery in another.
Thus, we have finished our examination of these words. The reader can judge for himself whether either of them, as used in the Scriptures car possibly signify a place of endless misery.
RECAPITULATION. The English word hell occurs in the Bible fifty-four times; thirty-one times in the Old Testament, and twenty-three times in the New. In the Old Testament it occurs
once in Deuteronomy, once in 2 Samuel, twice in Job, seven times in Psalms, seven times in Proverbs, six times in Isaiah, four times in Ezekiel, once in Amos, once in Jonah, and once in Habakkuk. In the New Testament, it occurs nine times in Matthew, three times in Mark, three times in Luke, twice in Acts, once in 2 Peter, once in James, and four times in the book of Revelation. In the following books of the Old Testament it is not found: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1 Samuel, 1 and 2 Kings, 1 and 2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Daniel, Hosea, Joel, Obadiah, Micah, Nahum, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, nor Malachi. It is not found in the following books of the New Testament John, Romans, 1 and 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1 and 2 Thessalonians, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Hebrews, 1 Peter, 1, 2, and 3 John, nor Jude
BIBLE DOCTRINE CONCERNING THE
All the passages in the OLD TESTAMENT wherein the original word SHAITAN or SATAN occurs, in whatever way rendered in the common English Version.
Gen. 26: 21. And they digged another well, and strove for that also: and he called the name of it Sitnah.
Num. 22: 22.
And God's anger was kindled, because he (Balaam) went and the angel of the Lord stood in the way for an adversary against him.
Verse 32. And the angel of the Lord said unto him, Wherefore hast thou smitten thine ass these three times? Behold, I went out to withstand thee, because thy way is perverse before me.
1 Sam. 29: 4. And the princes of the Philistines said unto him, Make this fellow return, that he may go again to his place which thou hast appointed him, and let him not go down with us to battle, lest in the battle he be an adversary to us.
2 Sam. 19: 22. And David said, What have I to do with you, ye sons of Zeruiah, that ye should this day be adversaries unto me?
1 Kings 5: 4. But now the Lord my (Solomon) God hath given me rest on every side, so that there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent.
1 Kings 11: 14 And the Lord stirred up an adversary unto Solomon ; Hadad the Edomite: he was of the king's seed in Edom.
Verse 23. And God stirred him up another adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah, which fled from his lord Hadadezer, king of Zobah.
Verse 25. And he was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon, beside the mischief that Hadad did; and he abhorred Israel, and reigned over Syria.
1 Chron. 21: 1. And Satan stood up against Israel, and provoked David to number Israel.
Ezra 4: 6. And in the reign of Ahasuerus, in the beginning of his reign, wrote they unto him an accusation against the inhabitants of Judab and Jerusalem
Job 1: 6. Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the Lord, and Satan came also among them.
Verse 7. And the Lord said unto Satan, Whence comest thou? Then Satan answered the Lord, and said, From going to and fro in the earth and from walking up and down in it.
Verse 8. And the Lord said unto Satan, Hast thou considered my servant Job? that there is none like him in the earth, a perfect and an upright man, one that feareth God, and escheweth evil?
Then Satan answered the Lord, and said, Doth Job fear God
for naught? Verse 12. And the Lord said unto Satan, Behold, all that he hath is in thy power only upon himself put not forth thine hand. So Satan went forth from the presence of the Lord.
Job 2: 1. Again there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the Lord, and Satan came also among them to present himself before the Lord.
Verse 2. And the Lord said unto Satan, From whence comest thou? And Satan answered the Lord, and said, From going to and fro in the earth, and from walking up and down in it.
Verse 3 And the Lord said unto Satan, Hast thou considered my servant Job, that there is none like him in the earth, a perfect and an upright man, one that feareth God, and escheweth evil? and still he holdeth fast his integrity, although thou movedst me against him, to destroy him without cause.
Verse 4. And Satan answered the Lord, and said, Skin for skin; yea, all that a man hath will he give for his life.
Verse 6. And the Lord said unto Satan, Behold, he is in thine hand; but save his life.
Verse 7. So went Satan forth from the presence of the Lord, and smote Job with sore boils, from the sole of his foot unto his crown.
They also that render evil for good are mine adversaries.
For my love they are my adversaries.
Psalm 38 20. Psalm 71: 13. saries to my soul. Psalm 109: 4. Verse 20. Verse 29. Zech. 3 1. And he showed me Joshua the high priest standing before the angel of the Lord, and Satan standing at his right hand to resist him.
Let this be the reward of mine adversaries from the Lord.
Let mine adversaries be clothed with shame.
Verse 2. And the Lord unto Satan, The Lord rebuke thee, O Satan; even the Lord, that hath chosen Jerusalem, rebuke thee.
All the passages in the OLD TESTAMENT where the word DEVILS occurs.
Lev. 17: 7. And they shall no more offer their sacrifices unto devils, after whom they have gone a whoring.
Deut. 32: 17. They sacrificed unto devils, not to God; to gods whom they knew not, to new gods that came newly up, whom your fathers feared not.
2 Chron. 11: 15. And he (Jeroboam) ordained him priests for the high places, and for the devils, and for the calves which he had made.
Psalm 106 37. Yea, they (the Jews) sacrificed their sons and their daughters unto devils.