UNITED STATES. - In 29 States and Territories of the Union there are 19 State Conventions, beside 16 State Organizations for other than governmental and disciplinary purposes, 84 Ecclesiastical Associations, beside 8 Associational Organizations for Missionary and other purposes; 16 Periodicals, beside 4 Annuals; 10 Books published within the last year; 10 Schools under denominational patronage; 1097 Churches or Societies, not including churches organized within societies; 837 Houses of Worship owned wholly or in part by the denomination; and 612 Preachers.

These are united in a national organization called the United States Convention, to which is attached a national Historical Society, and a General Reform Association.

BRITISH PROVINCES. One Association, 15 Societies, 7 Meetinghouses, and 5 Preachers.

TOTAL FOR NORTH AMERICA. One General Convention and two National Organizations for Historical and Reformatory purposes; 19 State or Territorial Conventions, and 16 other State Organizations for Missionary, Tract and Educational objects; 85 Associations, and 8 Associational Organizations for general objects; 20 Periodicals, including annuals; 10 Schools, 1112 Churches and Societies; 844 Houses of Worship, 619 Preachers.

Of the clergy of our denomination it may with truth be said, that, generally speaking, in point of natural and acquired abilities, moral character and literary and scientific attainments, they are at least respectable. In their political principles they are purely democratic; the advocates of free toleration and equal rights, and the champions of civil and religious liberty. The same is also true of the lay members of the denomination.

As a denomination of professing Christians, we entertain sentiments of the utmost liberality and charity towards all Christian sects. We extend the hand of fellowship to all professing the Christian name who walk worthy of their vocation. When clergymen of other denominations are present at our meetings, they are invited into our pulpits and to take a part in the services. At the administration of the Lord's Supper our opposing brethren are

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always invited to partake with us; and our Meeting-houses are open and free to all denominations when not occupied by us.

Gain of the Denomination in nine years. — In 1835 there were in the United States and British Provinces, so far as could be ascer tained, 661 Societies, 246 Meeting-houses, and 311 Preachers. From that time to the present we have gained 437 Societies, 638 Meeting-houses, and 308 Preachers.

Probable Number of Universalists in America. The number of those who openly avow their belief in Universalism in this country, and of those who manifest a preference for that religious persuasion, cannot be less than 800,000, and is probably much greater. In addition to these, it is known that Universalism is believed by some of the Unitarians of this country, both of the clergy and laity; that a belief in this doctrine prevails to a considerable extent among the Hicksite Quakers, and that it is generally embraced by the Shakers, and by the Tunkers or German Baptists. Besides, there are undoubtedly many believers in Universalism to be found in all the different denominations in the country. Prof. Stuart, of Andover College, in a late work against Universalism, says that many members of Orthodox churches in the New England States seriously doubt the doctrine of endless punishment, and that some, both of the clergy and laity, entertain a secret belief in universal salvation. Rev. Wilbur Fisk, of the Methodist church, in a sermon against Universalism preached before the New England Conference in 1823, says, "The eternity of future rewards and punishments is a subject which, at the present, excites among us considerable attention. In consequence of the plausible objections that are made to the doctrine of endless misery, the minds of many serious, candid people have become unsettled." He also speaks of some "whose feelings have become neutralized by the arguments of the contending parties, and who are looking on with dangerous indifference." The celebrated Dr. Beecher calls Universalism, "the giant heresy of the day."

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Universalism in Europe. — In England, Ireland and Scotland, there are some congregations of Universalists, as also some preachers who belong to that sect. The Unitarians of these countries openly avow their belief in, and boldly preach the doctrine of, universal salvation. In Germany it is well known that this doctrine prevails almost universally. Dwight, in his "Travels in the North of Germany, in 1825 and 1826," says of the Germans, that "they

have done more to enlarge the knowledge of sacred criticism, than all the nations of Europe. In this respect, they are a century in advance of England and of every other nation." P. 334. On page 421 he says, that in Germany "the doctrine of the Eternity of Future Punishment is almost UNIVERSALLY REJECTED. I have seen but ONE person in Germany who believed it, and but one other whose mind was wavering on this subject."

Facts in relation to the History of Universalism.- From the time of the death of the apostle John, which happened about A. D. 100, to the year 150, the history of opinions entertained by Christians respecting the final destiny of the human race, is involved in much obscurity. But little is known except that the doctrine of the final happiness of all men was held by the different sects of Gnostics, viz., the Basilidians, the Carpocratians, and the Valentinians. And although these sects were regarded as heretics by the orthodox fathers, and although these fathers "warmly and bitterly attacked their respective systems in general," yet, "it does not appear that they ever selected the particular tenet of the salvation of all souls as obnoxious."

In the year 140, or 150, a belief in Universalism was distinctly avowed in a work, which was the production of some Christian or Christians, called the "Sibylline Oracles."

Of the orthodox fathers, who lived between 150 and 210, some believed in Universalism, while others held to the doctrine of endless misery. "This diversity of opinion, however, occasioned no divisions, no controversies nor contentions among them; and both sentiments existed together in the church without reproach."

From the year 230 to 553, Universalism was believed and advocated by a number of the most learned, pious and distinguished fathers that the church ever produced.

Tertulliau, a presbyter of Carthage, in Africa, was the first Christian writer who asserted and maintained the doctrine that the misery of the wicked will be of equal duration with the happiness of the righteous. This doctrine he defended in a work published by him in the year 204.

Universalism was never condemned by any Christian writer, either orthodox or heretic, till the year 394.

"In the year 394 a quarrel broke out between the followers of the celebrated Origen and their opponents, in which some of the latter attacked, for the first time, the particular tenet of the ultimate

salvation of the Devil, but did not at first object to the final salvation of all men.

"In 399, some of the councils that were convened against the Origenists, condemned expressly the doctrine of the salvation of the Devil and his angels, though they passed by the belief of the salvation of all mankind without a censure."

Universalism was not officially condemned by the church until the Fifth General Council, which was held at Constantinople in the year 553. See Ancient History of Universalism," and "Plain Guide to Universalism."

Notwithstanding this authoritative condemnation of Universalism, the doctrine still continued to be held and maintained in the church until the establishment of Popery.

From the time of the condemnation of Universalism by the Fifth General Council, the church gradually sunk into ignorance, superstition, and moral darkness, until at last spiritual despotism and tyranny reigned triumphant.

From the time of the breaking out of the Protestant Reformation to the present time, Universalism has been believed and advocated by some of the most distinguished divines, theologians and philosophers, of all the different prominent sects in Christendom.

The Manicheans, a very powerful and influential sect, which flourished from the year 265 even to the time of the Reformation, held the doctrine of Universalism.

During the reign of Popery, Universalism was held by the Albanenses, the Albigenses, the Waldenses, the Paulicians, and the Lollards. It is thought that these sects all descended from the Manicheans. Neither of them ever submitted to or acknowledged the authority of the Pope.

Universalists, as a distinct denomination, were known in England as early as 1770.

The first Universalist preacher in the United States was Dr. George De Benneville. He came to this country in 1741.

The first Universalist society in the United States was formed between the years 1771 and 1780.

The first Universalist paper was published in England in 1793. The first Universalist paper in the United States was published at Boston, Mass., in 1802. The first weekly paper was commenced in 1819.

The General Convention of Universalists of the United States was formed in 1785.

List of distinguished Individuals who were Universalists. — Previous to the Reformation, Universalism was believed and advocated by the following individuals; many of them the most eminent of the Christian Fathers: Basilides, Carpocrates, Valentine, Clemens Alexandrinus, Origen, Alexander, bishop of Jerusalem, Ambrosius, Gregory Thaumaturgus, Titus, bishop of Bostra, Basil the Great, bishop of Cesarea, Gregory, bishop of Nyssa, Didymus, Jerome, Gregory, bishop of Nazienzus, Evagrius Ponticus, Diodorus, bishop of Tarsus, Theodore, bishop of Mopsuestia, John, bishop of Jerusalem, Victorinus, Nonnus, Leontius, Domitian, Theodorus Ascidas, Clement, Rainold, Walter Lollard.

It may be proper to remark that most of the above individuals were believers in future punishment, and that they freely applied the terms everlasting and eternal to punishment, not, however, to express its endless, but its indefinite duration.

Since the era of the Reformation, Universalism has been held by the following eminent persons, who have lived at different periods of time and in different countries.

In England, it has been advocated by Gerard Winstanly, William Everard, Rev. William Earbury, Rev. Richard Coppin, Samuel Richardson, Rev. Jeremy White, Dr. Henry More, Archbishop Tillotson, Dr. Thomas Burnet, William Whiston, Sir Isaac Newton, Rev. Dr. Samuel Clarke, Dr. George Cheyne, Chevalier Ramsay, Mrs. Jane Leadley, Rev. Richard Clarke, Rev. William Law, William Duncombe, Rev. Samuel Say, Soame Jenyns, Henry Brooke, Dr. Andrew Kippis, Dr. William Paley, Rev. Robert Robinson, Rev. Geo. Walker, Dr. John Coakley Lettsom, Dr. John Hey, Dr. David Hartley, Abraham Tucker, Rev. Thomas Broughton, Bishop Thomas Newton, Sir George Stonehouse, John Henderson, Dr. Nathan Drake, Dr. James Brown, Rev. William Matthews, Rev. Francis Leicester, Rev. Edward Holmes, Rev. Rochemont Barbauld, Mrs. Ann Letitia Barbauld, Rev. John Brown, Rev. Theophilus Lindsey, Rev. Dr. Joseph Priestley, Dr. John Jebb, Rev. John Simpson, Rev. Timothy Kenrick, Dr. John Prior Estlin, Dr. Lant Carpenter, Rev. Richard Wright, Rev. Henry Poole, Rev. Robert Aspland, Rev. Dr. Thomas Belsham, Rev. John Grundy, Rev. Russel Scott, Dr. Thomas Cogan, Rev. W. J. Fox, Rev. William Vidler

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