18-23. At Nancy an International Aeronautical Congress dealt with various scientific and legal aspects of aviation.

20-21. Congress in London of the International Geodetic Association. 20-24. International Press Conference met in London. The delegates were welcomed by the Postmaster-General on behalf of the Government and entertained at dinner at the Hotel Cecil, at which Sir Edward Grey spoke on the service the Press might render in promoting international peace.

21. A hurricane swept over the Louisiana and Mississippi coasts; over 70 lives were lost and $10,000,000 of property.

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22. The centenary of Tennyson's birth commemorated at Lincoln. Violent storms in Southern France, following a severe shock of earthquake in Southern France and other Mediterranean countries. 25. The Hudson-Fulton celebration began in New York.

The French military airship République fell from a height of 500 ft. near Moulins (Allier), a blade of the propeller becoming detached and tearing the balloon; the crew of two officers and two non-commissioned officers were killed instantly.

25-26. A magnetic storm, ascribed by Sir Oliver Lodge to solar radio-activity, was felt in Great Britain, Central Europe, Russia, and South Africa. Telegraphic communication was greatly interfered with. 26. Aeronautical Exhibition opened at Paris.

On Great Gable, Wastdale, Mr. T. J. Rennison of London was killed by a fall while climbing Eagle's Nest Ridge.

26-Oct. 3. Berlin Aviation week.

28. Announcement that Sir Henry Hesketh Bell was appointed Governor of Northern Nigeria, vice Sir Percy Girouard, appointed Governor of the East Africa Protectorate.

In South Wales very heavy rain, amounting at Cardiff to two inches, caused serious floods at Neath, Swansea, Aberavon, and elsewhere. Serious floods were also reported from various parts of England. At Ilfracombe 2/14 inches of rain fell in twenty-four hours.

29. At New York, Mr. Orville Wright made two flights over the Bay and round the Statue of Liberty.


2, 4. New documents published in the Times by Dr. C. W. Wallace, throwing fresh light on Shakespeare's life and the exact situation of the Globe Theatre.

2. The Pekin-Kalgan railway opened, the first line constructed, owned, and worked entirely by Chinese.

3. At Berlin, the German Crown Prince ascended with Mr. Orville Wright, who afterwards reached a height of over 400 metres.

The Gordon Bennett balloon race started from Zurich. After a long inquiry the committee declared the America III. (U.S., Mr. Mix)

winner, the Azurea (Swiss, Capt. Mossner) second, and the Helvetia (Swiss, Col. Schaeck) third. The balloons mostly landed in Bohemia, Silesia, and Hungary; the America III. landed in a pine forest near Ostrolenka, Russian Poland, at 3 A. M. on October 6.

4. At Manchester University, the John Morley Chemical Laboratories, given by Mr. Carnegie, were opened, and honorary degrees conferred on Mr. Whitelaw Reid, the American Ambassador, Sir Robert Stout, Sir Alfred Lyall, and Prof. Wallach of Göttingen.

At Oxford, Mr. Spenser Wilkinson was elected to the Chichele Professorship of Military History, just founded by All Souls' College. At Cambridge, the Rev. C. H. W. Johns, Fellow of Jesus College, and an eminent Assyriologist, was elected Master of St. Catharine's College, Cambridge, vice the Rev. C. K. Robinson, D.D., deceased.

Close of the Agram trial for high treason. (See Foreign History, Chapter II.)

6. A National Loan Exhibition in aid of the National Gallery Funds, and comprising important examples of Italian, Spanish and Dutch old masters and English and French eighteenth century painters, was opened at the Grafton Galleries, with speeches by Mr. L. Harcourt and Mr. Balfour.

10. The Fades Railway Viaduct, over the Sioule Gorge between Montluçon and Clermont-Ferrand, said to be the highest in the world, opened by the President of the French Republic.

11. Hurricanes did great damage at Havana and on the Floridan Gulf Coast of the United States. The town of Key West was almost destroyed.

12. Announcement that Sir Richmond Ritchie, Secretary in the Political and Secret Department of the India Office, had been appointed Permanent Under-Secretary for India, vice Sir H. Godley, retired; and that Mr. F. A. Hirtzel would succeed Sir Richmond Ritchie.

The Admiralty announced the establishment of a Navy War Council with the First Sea Lord as President, comprising the officers of the Naval Intelligence Department and a newly established Mobilisation Department, and the Assistant Secretary of the Admiralty, with power to call various responsible officers to act temporarily as members.

13. Execution of Señor Ferrer at Barcelona (see Foreign History, Chapter IV.), followed by a riot in Paris and other demonstrations on the Continent and in London.

At Newmarket, the Cesarewitch Stakes were won by Mr. J. B. Joel's Submit. Time, 3 mins. 57 secs.

14. New blocks of buildings for the University College of South Wales and Monmouthshire opened by the Earl of Plymouth at Cardiff.

In the Chancery Division, an order was made for the compulsory winding up of the Crystal Palace Company.

15. The new Naval Harbour at Dover opened by the Prince of Wales.


17. President Taft and President Diaz exchanged visits at El Paso, Texas, and the adjacent town of Juarez, Mexico.

18. Flight from Juvisy to Paris, round the Eiffel Tower, and back, by Comte de Lambert in a Wright aeroplane. Time, 49 minutes.

18-26. Aviation meetings at Blackpool and Doncaster, greatly hindered by bad weather. At Blackpool (Oct. 20) Mr. Henry Farman flew 47 miles 1,184 yards in 1 hr. 32 mins., and Mr. Latham (Oct. 22) made a daring flight in a heavy gale twice round the course, travelling ninety miles an hour with the wind and five against it. At Doncaster (Oct. 26) M. Sommer flew 29 miles 1,575 yards in 44 mins. 53 secs.

19. Lord Curzon of Kedleston delivered the opening address at the winter session of the Edinburgh Philosophical Institution on "The Place of India in the Empire." He illustrated the increased recognition of India's claims, spoke of the part taken by the Indian Army and Indian labour in building up the Empire, of the importance of Indian trade, and of the services of Great Britain to India. He closed with a survey of the aspects and proximate causes of the existing unrest. The Earl of Rosebery presided.

Selby Abbey Church re-opened and re-dedicated on restoration after the fire of 1906.

19-24. At San Francisco, the 150th anniversary was celebrated of the discovery of the Bay by Gaspar di Portola in 1769. (Sir Francis Drake, however, had anticipated him.) Warships of Great Britain and other Powers were present, and point was given to the celebration by the recovery from the earthquake of April, 1906.

20. First special degree Congregation of Birmingham University. Honorary degrees conferred at Birmingham University (in commemoration of the King's visit of July 7) on Mr. Chamberlain in absentia and on Mr. Balfour, the Bishop of Birmingham, Mr. Haldane, Lord Rayleigh, Mr. Carnegie, and twenty-seven other eminent persons.

21. Announcement that the Rev. Professor G. A. Smith, D.D., was appointed Principal of Aberdeen University in place of the Rev. Marshall Lang, D.D., deceased.

Trafalgar Day celebrated as usual by decoration of the Nelson Column, and at Portsmouth, Chatham, and other towns.

The King, by pressing a telegraph key at West Dean Park, Chichester, where he was visiting Mr. and Mrs. Willie James, opened the Royal Edward Institute for Tuberculosis at Montreal.

23-25. Visit of Tsar to King of Italy at Racconigi. (See Foreign History, Chapter I.)

25. The King visited Norwich, presenting colours to the Norfolk Territorials, and laying the corner-stone of a new wing at the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital.

26. Prince Ito murdered at Kharbin. (See Foreign History, Chapter VI.)

26-28. Gales and heavy rains, especially in the south of England. At nearly all the south coast meteorological stations the rainfall ex

ceeded an inch in twenty-four hours: at Brighton it was 3.6 inches in twenty-four hours, and 5·48 inches in ninety-six hours, greatly exceeding the whole average for the month. At Margate 5.54 inches were recorded in four days. There were floods at Ryde, Folkestone and elsewhere, and a bridge collapsed on the Tunbridge-Hastings railway. 27. The Donaldson liner Hestia, from Glasgow to St. John, N.B., wrecked in the Bay of Fundy; six men saved, thirty-four missing.

28. At the Parliamentary bye-election for Bermondsey, due to the death of Dr. Cooper (L.), Mr. John Dumphreys (U.) was returned by 4,278 votes; Mr. S. L. Hughes (L.) received 3,291; Dr. Salter (Lab.) 1,435.

29. Royal Commissions announced on the Law of Divorce with Lord Gorell as Chairman, and on the appointment of magistrates, under the presidency of Lord James of Hereford.

Steamboat service re-started by private enterprise on the Thames, but soon suspended.

At Brooklands motor course, M. Paulhan made two flights with lady passengers on a Farman aeroplane.

In the early morning, an explosion took place at the Darran Colliery, near Bargoed, South Wales; twenty-six men were killed, several, including the manager, during an attempt at rescue.

Naval revolt at Athens. (See Foreign History, Chapter II.)

30. The Report of the Postmaster-General for the year ending March 31, 1909, stated that 5,035,920,000 postal packets were delivered during the year in the United Kingdom; of these 2,907,400,000 were letters, 860,000,000 postcards, 953,200,000 halfpenny packets, 202,300,000 newspapers and 113,020,000 parcels. There were 84,825,000 telegrams.

Mr. Stanley Leathes appointed First Civil Service Commissioner, vice Lord Francis Hervey, retired; and the Hon. W. G. Hepburne, Master of Polwarth, appointed Chairman of the Prison Commissioners for Scotland, vice Lieut.-Colonel A. Burness McHardy, retired.

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At Brooklands, M. Paulhan flew thirty-four miles in 58 mins. 57 secs. At Shellbeach, Mr. Moore Brabazon won the Daily Mail Prize for a flight of a mile with an all-British machine.


1. The municipal elections throughout England and Wales showed practically no change in the position of political parties. In London the Progressives gained a majority in Southwark and in Hackney, but the municipal reformers swept Battersea. Sixty-four women candidates stood in nineteen boroughs; eight were returned. Of nine women candidates for town councils in England and Wales two were returned. In Glasgow only two of eight Socialist candidates were returned. Including bye-election returns, there were on December 31 nine women councillors in London, eleven in the rest of England and Wales, and two in Scotland.

1. At Dukinfield, Cheshire, Mr. G. H. Storrs, a wealthy railway contractor, was murdered in his own house; the murderer escaped. A cousin was arrested and committed for trial.

2. At New York, the Tammany candidate for Mayor, Judge Gaynor, was elected, beating Mr. Hearst (Independent) and Mr. Bannard (Republican); but Reform candidates were returned for all the minor offices.

3. At Mourmelon, France, Mr. Henry Farman flew 144 miles in 4 hrs. 17 mins. 53 secs., the longest distance yet traversed.

4. The Rev. A. A. David, Headmaster of Clifton College, was appointed Headmaster of Rugby School, vice the Rev. H. A. James, D.D., who had become President of St. John's College, Oxford.

- In the King's Bench Division in the trial of Irving v. Bodie, an action against a professional hypnotist by a pupil to recover damages for fraudulent misrepresentation, the plaintiff recovered 1,000l. damages. The evidence given caused riotous demonstrations at music halls in London and Glasgow at which "Dr." Bodie's appearance had been announced.

5. At the Parliamentary bye-election for South Armagh, necessitated by the death of Mr. W. McKillop (N.), Dr. Charles O'Neill (N.) was returned by 3,160 votes. Mr. R. Best (U.) obtained 1,628.

Herr Dernburg, German Colonial Secretary, was entertained by the African Society at the Trocadero Restaurant, London, and spoke on his recent African tour.

Lord Rosebery presided at a dinner of the Glasgow University Club and spoke on the work of the University in sending out "missionaries of empire."

6. Severe storm in Newfoundland.

At Sandown, M. Paulhan beat the record for high flying, reaching 977 feet.

At Hull, an Association football match between English and Swedish amateur teams was won by England by seven goals to none.

6-11. Severe storms in Jamaica, interrupting telegraphic communication and doing great damage. (See Foreign History, Chapter VIII.)

9. On the King's birthday the Rt. Hon. Mr. Justice Johnson of the Irish King's Bench and five other gentlemen were made baronets; there were six new Privy Councillors and twenty new knights, amongst the latter three Liberal members of Parliament, Dr. Robertson Nicoll of the British Weekly, Prof. W. A. Tilden, F.R.S., and Lieutenant Shackleton. The G.C.M.G. was conferred on three ex-Colonial Governors. Mr. George Reid, sometime Prime Minister of Australia, was made K.C. M.G., Lieutenant-General Sir R. S. Baden-Powell K.C.B., Dr. Sven Hedin Hon. K.C.I. E., and the Earl of Wemyss and March G.C.V.O.

10. The Lord Mayor's procession and banquet. The usual emblematic cars were exchanged for a naval and military display, including detachments of Naval Volunteers, Territorials, Regulars, and Boy Scouts.

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