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had no sooner given up my former project, but my head was presently full of draining fens and marshes, banking out the sea, and joining new lands to my country; for since it is thought impracticable to inerease the people to the land, I fell immediately to consider how much would be gained to the prince by increasing the land to the people.
of their estates by the body of the people, yet both the sovereign and the subjects in general would be, enriched by the very loss.
If the people only make the riches, the father of ten children is a greater benefactor to his country than he who has added to it 10,000 acres of land, aud no people. It is certain Lewis has joined vast tracts of land to his dominions: but if Philarithmus says true, that he is not now master of so many subjects as before; we may then account for his not being able to bring such mighty armies into the field, and for their being neither so well fed, nor clothed, nor paid as formerly. The reason is plain, Lewis must needs have been impoverished not only by his loss of subjects, but by his acquisition of lands.-T.,
If the same omnipotent power which made the world, should at this time raise out of the ocean, and join to Great Britain, an equal extent of land, with equal buildings, corn, cattle, and other conveniences and necessaries of life, but no men, women, nor children, I should hardly believe this would add either to the riches of the people, or revenue of the prince; for since the present buildings are sufficient for all the inhabitants, if any of them should forsake the old to inhabit the new part of the island, the increase of house-rent in this would be attended with an equal decrease of it in the other. Besides, we have such a sufficiency of corn and cattle, that we give bounties to our neighbours to take what exceeds of the former off our hands, and we will not A man should be religious, not superstitious. suffer any of the latter to be imported upon us by Ir is of the last importance to season the passions our fellow-subjects; and for the remaining product of a child with devotion, which seldom dies in a of the country, it is already equal to all our mar-mind that has received an early tincture of it. kets. But if all these things should be doubled to Though it may seem extinguished for a while by the same buyers, the owners must be glad with half their present prices, the landlords with half their present rents; and thus, by so great an enlargement of the country, the rents in the whole would not increase, nor the taxes to the public.
No. 201.] SATURDAY, OCTOBER 20, 1711.
the cares of the world, the heats of youth, or the allurements of vice, it generally breaks out and discovers itself again as soon as discretion, consideration, age, or misfortunes, have brought the man to himself. The fire may be covered and overlaid, but cannot be entirely quenched and smothered.
A state of temperance, sobriety, and justice, without devotion, is a cold, lifeless, insipid condition of virtue; and is rather to be styled philosophy than religion. Devotion opens the mind to great conceptions, and fills it with more sublime ideas than any that are to be met with in the most exalted science; and at the same time warms and agitates the soul more than sensual pleasure,
On the contrary, I should believe they would be very much diminished; for as the land is only valuable for its fruits, and these are all perishable, and for the most part must either be used within the year, or perish without use, the owners will get rid of them at any rate, rather than they should waste in their possession: so that it is probable the annual production of those perishable things, even of the tenth part of them, beyond all possibility of use, will reduce one half of their value. It seems to be It has been observed by some writers, that man is for this reason that our neighbour merchants, who more distinguished from the animal world by devotion engross all the spices, and know how great a quan- than by reason, as several brute creatures discover tity is equal to the demand, destroy all that exceeds in their actions something like a faint glimmering it. It were natural, then, to think that the annual of reason, though they betray in no single circum, production of twice as much as can be used, must stance of their behaviour any thing that bears the reduce all to an eighth part of their present prices; least affinity to devotion. It is certain, the proand thus this extended island would not exceed one-pensity of the mind to religious worship, the natufourth part of its present value, or pay more than one-fourth part of the present tax.
It is generally observed, that in countries of the greatest plenty there is the poorest living; like the schoolman's ass in one of my speculations, the people almost starve between two meals. The truth is, the poor which are the bulk of a nation, work only that they may live; and if with two days' labour they can get a wretched subsistence for a week, they will hardly be brought to work the other four. But then with the wages of two days they can neither pay such prices for their provisions, nor such excises to the government.
ral tendency of the soul to fly to some superior being for succour in dangers, and distresses, the gratitude to an invisible superintendent which arises in us upon receiving any extraordinary and unexpected good fortune, the acts of love and admiration with which the thoughts of men are so wonderfully transported in meditating upon the divine perfections, and the universal concurrence of all the nations under heaven in the great article of adoration, plainly show that devotion or religious worship must be the effect of tradition from some first founder of mankind, or that it is conformable to the natural light of reason, or that it proceeds That paradox, therefore, in old Hesiod, that "half from an instinct implanted in the soul itself. For is more than the whole," is very applicable to the my own part, I look upon all these to be the conpresent ease; since nothing is more true in political current causes: but whichever of them shall be arithmetic, than that the same people with half a assigned as the principle of divine worship, it country is more valuable than with the whole. Imanifestly points to a Supreme Being as the first begin to think there was nothing absurd in Sir W. author of it. Petty, when he fancied that if all the highlands of Scotland and the whole kingdom of Ireland were sunk in the ocean, so that the people were all saved and brought into the lowlands of Great Britain; Day, though they were to be reimbursed the value
I may take some other opportunity of considering those particular forms and methods of devotion which are taught us by Christianity; but shall here observe into what errors even this divine principle may sometimes lead us, when it is not moderated
by that right reason which was given us as the guide of all our actions.
and which take possession in the same manner, and are never to be driven out after they have been The two great errors into which a mistaken devo- once admitted. I have seen the Pope officiate at tion may betray us, are enthusiasm and superstition. St. Peter's, where, for two hours together, he was There is not a more melancholy object than a busied in putting on or off his different accoutreman who has his head turned with religious enthu-ments, according to the different parts he was to siasm. A person that is crazed, though with pride act in them. or malice, is a sight very mortifying to human na- Nothing is so glorious in the eyes of mankind, ture; but when the distemper arises from any in- and ornamental to human nature, setting aside the discreet fervours of devotion, or too intense an ap-infinite advantages which arise from it, as a strong, plication of the mind to its mistaken duties, it steady, masculine piety; but enthusiasm and superdeserves our compassion in a more particular man- stition are the weaknesses of human reason, that ner. We may however learn this lesson from it, expose us to the scorn and derision of infidels, and that since devotion itself (which one would be apt sink us even below the beasts that perish. to think could not be too warm) may disorder the mind, unless its heats are tempered with caution and prudence, we should be particularly careful to keep our reason as cool as possible, and to guard ourselves in all parts of life against the influence of passion, imagination, and constitution.
Devotion, when it does not lie under the check of reason, is very apt to degenerate into enthusiasm. When the mind finds herself very much inflamed with her devotions, she is too much inclined to think they are not of her own kindling, but blown up by something divine within her. If she indulges this thought too far, and humours the growing passion, she at last flings herself into imaginary raptures and ecstasies; and when once she fancies herself under the influence of a divine impulse, it is no wonder if she slights human ordinances, and refuses to comply with any established form of religion, as thinking herself directed by a much superior guide. As enthusiasm is a kind of excess in devotion, superstition is the excess, not only of devotion, but of religion in general, according to an old heathen saying, quoted by Aulus Gellius,* "Religentem esse oportet, religiosum nefas;" "A man should be religious, not superstitious." For, as the author tells us, Nigidius observed upon this passage, that the Latin words which terminate in osus generally imply vicious characters, and the having of any quality to an excess.
An enthusiast in religion is like an obstinate clown, a superstitious man like an insipid courtier. Enthusiasm has something in it of madness, superstition of folly. Most of the sects that fall short of the church of England have in them strong tinctures of enthusiasm, as the Roman catholic religion is one huge overgrown body of childish and idle superstitions.
The Roman-catholic church seems indeed irrecoverably lost in this particular. If an absurd dress or behaviour be introduced into the world, it will soon be found out and discarded. On the contrary, a habit or ceremony, though never so ridiculous, which has taken sanctuary in the church, sticks in it for ever. A Gothic bishop, perhaps, thought it proper to repeat such a form in such particular shoes or slippers; another fancied it would be very decent if such a part of public devotions was performed with a mitre on his head, and a crosier in his hand. To this a brother Vandal, as wise as the others, adds an antic dress, which he conceived would allude very aptly to such and such mysteries, till by degrees the whole office has degenerated into an empty show..
Their successors see the vanity and inconvenience of the ceremonies; but instead of reforming, perhaps add others, which they think more significant,
Noctes Attica, lib. iv. cap. 9,
Idolatry may be looked upon as another error arising from mistaken devotion; but because reflections on that subject would be of no use to an English reader, I shall not enlarge upon it.-L.
No. 202.] MONDAY, OCTOBER 22, 1711.
HOR. 1 Ep. xviii. 25. Tho' ten times worse themselves, you'll frequent view Those who with keenest rage will censure you-P. THE other day, as I passed along the street, I saw a sturdy 'prentice-boy disputing with a hackneycoachman; and in an instant, upon some word of provocation, throw off his hat and periwig, clench his fist, and strike the fellow a slap on the face; at the same time calling him rascal, and telling him he was a gentleman's son. The young gentleman was, it seems, bound to a blacksmith; and the debate arose about payment for some work done about a coach, near which they fought. His master, during the combat, was full of his boy's praises; and as he called to him to play with his hand and foot, and throw in his head, he made all us who stood round him of his party, by declaring the boy had very good friends, and he could trust him with untold gold. As I am generally in the theory of mankind, I could not but make my reflections upon the sudden popularity which was raised about the lad; and perhaps with my friend Tacitus, fell into observations upon it, which were too great for the occasion; or ascribed this general favour to causes which had nothing to do towards it. But the young blacksmith's being a gentleman, was, methought, what created him good-will from his present equality with the mob about him. Add to this, that he was so much a gentleman, as not, at the same time that he called himself such, to use as rough methods for his defence as his antagonist. The advantage of his having good friends, as his master expressed it, was not lazily urged; but he showed himself superior to the coachman in the personal qualities of courage and activity, to confirm that of his being well allied, before his birth was of any service to him.
If one might moralize from this silly story, a man would say, that whatever advantages of fortune, birth, or any other good, people possess above the rest of the world, they should show collateral eminences besides those distinctions; or those distinctions will avail only to keep up common decencies and ceremonies, and not to preserve a real place of favour or esteem in the opinion and common sense of their fellow-creatures.
The folly of people's procedure, in imagining that nothing more is necessary than property and superior circumstances to support them in distinction, appears in no way so much as in the domestic part of life. It is ordinary to feed their humours
"TO THE SPECTATOR.
"The humble petition of John Steward, Robert Butler, Harry Cook, and Abigail Chambers, in behalf of themselves and their relations belonging to and dispersed in the several services of most of the great families within the cities of London and Westminster;
into unnatural excrescences, if I may so speak, and make their whole being a wayward and uneasy condition, for want of the obvious reflection that all parts of human life is a commerce. It is not only paying wages, and giving commands, that constitutes a master of a family; but prudence, equal behaviour, with readiness to protect and cherish them, is what entitles a man to that character in their very hearts and sentiments. It is pleasant enough to observe, that men expect from their dependants, "That in many of the families in which your pe from their sole motive of fear, all the good effects titioners live and are employed, the several heads which a liberal education, and affluent fortune, and of them are wholly unacquainted with what is busievery other advantage, cannot produce in them-ness, and are very little judges when they are well selves. A man will have his servant just, diligent, or ill used by us your said petitioners. sober, and chaste, for no other reason but the terror of losing his master's favour; when all the laws, divine and human, cannot keep him whom he serves within bounds, with relation to any one of those virtues. But both in great and ordinary affairs, all superiority, which is not founded on merit and virtue, is supported only by artifice and stratagem. Thus you see flatterers are the agents in families of humourists, and those who govern themselves by any thing but reason. Make-bates, distant relations, poor kinsmen, and indigent followers, are the fry which support the economy of a humoursome rich man. He is eternally whispered with intelligence of who are true or false to him in matters of no consequence, and he maintains twenty friends to defend him against the insinuations of one who would perhaps cheat him of an old coat.
I shall not enter into further speculation upon this subject at present, but think the following letters and petition are made up of proper sentiments on this occasion.
"I am a servant to an old lady who is governed by one she calls her friend, who is so familiar a one, that she takes upon her to advise her without being called to it, and makes her uneasy with all about her. Pray, Sir, be pleased to give us some remarks upon voluntary counsellors; and let these people know, that to give any body advice, is to say to that person, I am your betters.' Pray, Sir, as near as you can, describe that eternal flirt and disturber of families, Mrs. Taperty, who is always visiting, and putting people in a way, as they call it. If you can make her stay at home one evening, you will be a general benefactor of all the ladies' women in town, and particularly to,
"Your loving friend,
"That for want of such skill in their own affairs, and by indulgence of their own laziness and pride, they continually keep about them certain mischievous animals called spies.
"That whenever a spy is entertained, the peace of that house is from that moment banished.
"That spies never give an account of good services, but represent our mirth and freedom, by the words, wantonness and disorder.
"That in all families where there are spies, there is a general jealousy and misunderstanding.
"That the masters and mistresses of such houses live in continual suspicion of their ingenuous and true servants, and are given up to the management of those who are false and perfidious.
"That such masters and mistresses who entertain spies, are no longer more than ciphers in their own families; and that we your petitioners are with great disdain obliged to pay all our respects, and expect all our maintenance from such spies. "Your petitioners therefore most humbly pray, that you would represent the premises to all persons of condition; and your petitioners, as in duty bound, shall for ever pray," &c.-T.
No. 203.] TUESDAY, OCTOBER 23, 1711.
Illustrious parent! if I yet may claim
this means there are several married men who have a little family in most of the parishes of London and Westminster, and several bachelors who are undone by a charge of children.
THERE is a loose tribe of men whom I have not yet taken notice of, that ramble into all the corners of this great city, in order to seduce such unfortunate females as fall into their walks. These abandoned profligates raise up issue in every quar"I am a footman, and live with one of those ter of the town, and very often for a valuable conmen, each of whom is said to be one of the best-sideration, father it upon the churchwarden. By humoured men in the world, but that he is passionate. Pray be pleased to inform them, that he who is passionate, and takes no care to command his hastiness, does more injury to his friends and servants in one half hour, than whole years can When a man once gives himself this liberty of atone for. This master of mine, who is the best preying at large, and living upon the common, he man alive in common fame, disobliges somebody finds so much game in a populous city, that it is every day he lives; and strikes me for the next surprising to consider the numbers which he some thing I do, because he is out of humour at it. If times propagates. We see many a young fellow these gentlemen knew that they do all the mischief who is scarce of age, that could lay his claim to the that is ever done in conversation, they would re-jus trium liberorum, or the privileges which were form; and I who have been a Spectator of a gen-granted by the Roman laws to all such as were tleman at dinner for many years, have seen that indiscretion does ten times more mischief than illnature, But you will represent this better than Your abused humble servant, "THOMAS SMOKY."
fathers of three children. Nay, I have heard a rake, who was not quite five-and-twenty, declare himself the father of a seventh son, and very prudently determine to breed him up a physician. In short, the town is full of these young patriarchs,
not to mention several battered beaus who like make for their own crimes, and indeed the only heedless spendthrifts that squander away their es-method that is left for them to repair their past tates before they are master of them, have raised miscarriages, up their whole stock of children before marriage. I must not here omit the particular whim of an impudent libertine, that had a little smattering of heraldry; and, observing how the genealogies of great families were often drawn up in the shape of trees, had taken a fancy to dispose of his own illegitimate issue in a figure of the same kind:
And in short space the laden boughs arise, With happy fruit advancing to the skies: The mother plant admires the leaves unknown Of alien trees, and apples not her own.-DRYDEN. The trunk of the tree was marked with his own name, Will Maple. Out of the side of it grew a large barren branch, inscribed Mary Maple, the name of his unhappy wife. The head was adorned with five huge boughs. On the bottom of the first was written in capital characters, Kate Cole, who branched out into three sprigs, viz. William, Richard, and Rebecca. Sal Twiford gave birth to another bough that shot up into Sarah, Tom, Will, and Frank. The third arm of the tree had only a single infant on it, with a space left for a second, the parent from whom it sprung being near her time when the author took this ingenious device into his head. The two other great boughs were very plentifully loaden with fruit of the same kind: besides which there were many ornamental branches that did not bear. In short, a more flourishing tree never came out of the herald's office.
What makes this generation of vermin so very prolific, is the indefatigable diligence with which they apply themselves to their business. A man does not undergo more watchings and fatigues in a campaign, than in the course of a vicious amour.As it is said of some men, that they make their business their pleasure, these sons of darkness may be said to make their pleasure their business. They might conquer their corrupt inclinations with half the pains they are at in gratifying them.
I would likewise desire them to consider, whether they are not bound in common humanity, as well as by all the obligations of religion and nature, to make some provision for those whom they have not only given life to, but entailed upon them, though very unreasonably, a degree of shame and disgrace. And here I cannot but take notice of those depraved notions which prevail among us, and which must have taken rise from our natural inclination to favour a vice to which we are so very prone, namely, that bastardy and cuckoldom should be looked upon as reproaches; and that the ignominy which is only due to lewdness and falsehood, should fall in so unreasonable a manner upon the persons who are innocent.
I have been insensibly drawn into this discourse by the following letter, which is drawn up with such a spirit of sincerity, that I question not but the writer of it has represented his case in a true and genuine light.
"I am one of those people who by the general opinion of the world are counted both infamous and unhappy.
My father is a very eminent man in this kingdom, and one who bears considerable offices in it. I am his son, but my misfortune is, that I dare not call him father, nor he without shame own me as his issue, I being illegitimate, and therefore deprived of that endearing tenderness and unparalleled satisfaction which a good man finds in the love and conversation of a parent. Neither have I the opportunities to render him the duties of a son, he having always carried himself at so vast a distance, and with such superiority towards me, that by long use I have contracted a timorousness when before him, which hinders me from declaring my own necessities, and giving him to understand the inconveniences I undergo.
"It is my misfortune to have been neither bred a scholar, a soldier, nor to any kind of business, Nor is the invention of these men less to be ad- which renders me entirely incapable of making mired than their industry and vigilance. There is provision for myself without his assistance; and a fragment of Apollodorus the comic poet (who was this creates a continual uneasiness in my mind, contemporary with Menander) which is full of hu-fearing I shall in time want bread; my father, if mour, as follows: "Thou mayest shut up thy I may so call him, giving me but very faint asdoors," says he, "with bars and bolts. It will be surances of doing any thing for me. impossible for the blacksmith to make them so fast, but a cat and a whore-master will find a way through them." In a word, there is no head so full of stratagems as that of a libidinous man."
I have hitherto lived somewhat like a gentleman, and it would be very hard for me to labour for my living. I am in continual anxiety for my future fortune, and under a great unhappiness in losing Were I to propose a punishment for this infamous the sweet conversation and friendly advice of my race of propagators, it should be to send them, after parents; so that I cannot look upon myself otherthe second or third offence, into our American co-wise than as a monster, strangely sprung up in lonies, in order to people those parts of her majesty's dominions where there is a want of inhabitants, and in the phrase of Diogenes, "to plant men." Some countries punish this crime with death; but I think such a punishment would be sufficient, and might turn this generative faculty to the advantage of the public.
nature, which every one is ashamed to own.
"I am thought to be a man of some natural parts, and by the continual reading what you have offered the world, become an admirer thereof, which has drawn me to make this confession; at the same time, hoping, if any thing herein shall touch you with a sense of pity, you would then allow me the In the mean time, until these gentlemen may be favour of your opinion thereupon; as also what part thus disposed of, I would earnestly exhort them to I, being unlawfully born, may claim of the man's take care of those unfortunate creatures whom they affection who begot me, and how far in your opinion have brought into the world by these indirect me-I am to be thought his son, or he acknowledged as thods, and to give their spurious children such an my father. Your sentiments and advice herein will education as may render them more virtuous than be a great consolation and satisfaction to, their parents. This is the best atonement they can C." Sir, your admirer, &c. W. B."
No. 204.] WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 24, 1711. fellows who look at you, and observe your eye wan
Her face too dazzling for the sight
I AM not at all displeased that I am become the courier of love, and that the distressed in that passion convey their complaints to each other by my means. The following letters have lately come to my hands, and shall have their place with great willingness. As to the reader's entertainment, he will, I hope, forgive the inserting such particulars as to him may, perhaps, appear frivolous, but are to the persons who wrote them of the highest consequence. I shall not trouble you with the prefaces, compliments, and apologies, made to me before each epistle when it was desired to be inserted: but in general they tell me, that the persons to whom they are addressed have intimations, by phrases and allusions in them, from whence they came.
"TO THE SOTHADES.
der after new conquests every moment you are in a
"When I sat at the window, and you at the other end of the room by my cousin, I saw you catch me looking at you. Since you have the secret at last, which I am sure you should never have known but by inadvertency, what my eyes said was true. But it is too soon to confirm it with my hand, therefore shall not subscribe my name."
"There were other gentlemen nearer, and I know no necessity you were under to take up that flippant creature's fan last night; but you shall never touch a stick of mine more, that's pos.
"The word, by which I address you, gives you, who understand Portuguese, a lively image of the tender regard I have for you. The Spectator's late letter from Statira gave me the hint to use the same method of explaining myself to you. I am not affronted at the design your late behaviour discovered you had in your addresses to me; but I impute it to the degeneracy of the age, rather than your particular fault. As I aim at nothing more than being yours, I am willing to be a stranger to your name, your fortune, or any figure which your wife might expect to make in the world, provided my commerce with you is not to be a guilty one. I resign gay dress, the pleasures of visits, equipage, plays, balls, and operas, for that one satisfaction of having you "TO COLONEL R- -s in Spain.* for ever mine. I am willing you shall industriously "Before this can reach the best of husbands and conceal the only cause of triumph which I can know the fondest lover, those tender names will be of no in this life. I wish only to have it my duty, as well more concern to me. The indisposition in which as my inclination, to study your happiness. If this you, to obey the dictates of your honour and duty, has not the effect this letter seems to aim at, you are left me, has increased upon me; and I am acto understand that I had a mind to be rid of you, quainted by my physicians I cannot live a week and took the readiest way to pall you with an offer longer. At this time my spirits fail me; and it is of what you would never desist pursuing while you the ardent love I have for you that carries me bereceived ill usage. Be a true man; be my slave yond my strength, and enables me to tell you, the while you doubt me, and neglect me when you think most painful thing in the prospect of death is, that I love you. I defy you to find out what is your pre-I must part with you, But let it be a comfort to sent circumstance with me but I know, while I can keep this suspense,
"I am your admired "MADAM,
"It is a strange state of mind a man is in, when the very imperfections of the woman he loves turn into excellences and advantages. I do assure you, I am very much afraid of venturing upon you. I now like you in spite of my reason, and think it an ill orcumstance to owe one's happiness to nothing bat infatuation. I can see you ogle all the young
The Portuguese word Saudades (here inaccurately written Sothades) signifies, the most refined, most tender, and ardent desires for something absent, accompanied with a solicitude and anxious regard, which cannot be expressed by one word in any other language. Saudade," say the dictionaries, significa Finissimo sentimiento del bien ausente, com deseo de poseerlo/Hence the word Saudades comprehends every good wish; and Murtas Saudades is the highest wish and compliment that can be paid to another. So if a person is observed to be melancholy, and is asked, "What ails him?" if he answers. Tenho Saudades; it is understood to mean, "I am under the most refined torment for the absence of my love; or from being absent from my country," &c
you, that I have no guilt hangs upon me, no unrepented folly that retards me; but I pass away my last hours in reflection upon the happiness we have lived in together, and in sorrow that it is so soon to have an end. This is a frailty which I hope is so far from criminal, that methinks there is a kind of piety in being so unwilling to be separated from a state which is the institution of heaven, and in which we have lived according to its laws. As we know no more of the next life, but that it will be a happy one to the good, and miserable to the wicked, why may we not please ourselves, at least to alle viate the difficulty of resigning this being, in imagining that we shall have a sense of what passes below, and may possibly be employed in guiding the steps of those with whom we walked with innocence when mortal? Why may not I hope to go on in my usual work, and, though unknown to you, be assistant in all the conflicts of your mind! Give me leave
The person to whom this letter is addressed was generally believed to be Colonel Rivers, at the time when this paper was first published. “