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in politic negotiations. The manner of treating the he had borrowed from others, and lay in a clear Pope is, according to the Chinese ceremonial, very light all that he gives his spectators for their money, respectful, for the Emperor writes to him with the with an account of the first manufacturers. But I quill of a virgin ostrich, which was never used be-intended to give the lecture of this day upon the fore but in writing prayers. Instructions are pre- common and prostituted behaviour of traders in paring for the lady who shall have so much zeal as ordinary commerce. The philosopher made it a rule to undertake this pilgrimage, and be an empress for of trade, that your profit ought to be the common prothe sake of her religion. The principal of the In- fit; and it is unjust to make any step towards gain, dian missionaries has given in a list of the reigning wherein the gain of even those to whom you sell is sins in China, in order to prepare the indulgences not also consulted. A man may deceive himself if necessary to this lady and her retinue, in advancing he thinks fit, but he is no better than a cheat who the interests of the Roman Catholic religion in those sells anything without telling the exceptions against kingdoms. it, as well as what is to be said to its advantage. The scandalous abuse of language and hardening of conscience, which may be observed every day in
"TO THE SPECTATOR-GENERAL. "May it please your Honour,
"I have of late seen French hats of a prodigious going from one place to another, is what makes a magnitude pass by my observatory.
No. 546.] WEDNESDAY, NOV. 26, 1712. Omnia patefacienda ut ne quid omnino, quod venditor norit, emptor ignoret-TULL
Every thing should be fairly told, that the buyer may not be
ignorant of any thing which the seller knows.
whole city to an unprejudiced eye a den of thieves. It was no small pleasure to me for this reason to remark, as I passed by Cornhill, that the shop of that worthy, honest, though lately-unfortunate citizen, Mr. John Morton, so well known in the linenin a distressed condition, it ought to be a great trade, is fitting up anew. Since a man has been satisfaction to have passed through it in such a manner as not to have lost the friendship of those who suffered with him, but to receive an honourable
acknowledgment of his honesty from those very persons to whom the law had consigned his estate.
Ir gives me very great scandal to observe, wherever I go, how much skill, in buying all manner of goods, there is necessary to defend yourself from The misfortune of this citizen is like to prove of being cheated in whatever you see exposed to sale. My reading makes such a strong impression upon with him hereafter; for the stock with which he now a very general advantage to those who shall deal me, that I should think myself a cheat in my way, sets up being the loan of his friends, he cannot exif I should translate any thing from another tongue, pose that to the hazard of giving credit, but enters and not acknowledge it to my readers. I under- into a ready-money trade, by which means he will stood from common report, that Mr. Cibber was both buy and sell the best and cheapest. He imintroducing a French play upon our stage, and thought myself concerned to let the town know what each piece he sells, to the piece itself; so that the poses upon himself a rule of affixing the value of was his, and what was foreign. When I came to most ignorant servant or child will be as good a the rehearsal, I found the house so partial to one of buyer at his shop as the most skilful in the trade. their own fraternity, that they gave every thing For all which, you have all his hopes and fortune which was said such grace, emphasis, and force, in for your security. To encourage dealing after this their action, that it was no easy matter to make anyway, there is not only the avoiding the most infajudgment of the performance. Mrs. Oldfield, who, it seems, is the heroic daughter, had so just a conception of her part, that her action made what she spoke appear decent, just, and noble. The passions of terror and compassion they made me believe were very artfully raised, and the whole conduct of the play artful and surprising. We authors do not much relish the endeavours of players in this kind, but have the same disdain as physicians and lawyers have when attorneys and apothecaries give advice. Cibber himself took the liberty to tell me, that he expected I would do him justice, and allow the play well prepared for his spectators, whatever it was for his readers. He added very many particulars not uncurious concerning the manner of taking an audience, and laying wait not only for their superficial applause, but also for insinuating into their affections and passions, by the artful management of the look, voice, and gesture, of the speaker. I could not but consent that The Heroic Daughter appeared in the rehearsal a moving entertainment wrought out of a great and exemplary virtue.
The advantages of action, show, and dress, on these occasions, are allowable, because the merit consists in being capable of imposing upon us to our advantage and entertainment. All that I was going to say about the honesty of an author in the sale of his ware was, that he ought to own all that
"Ximena," or. "The Heroic Daughter;" a tragedy
taken from the "Cid" of Racine, by C. Cibber
tion, that he who buys with ready money saves as mous guilt in ordinary bartering; but this observamuch to his family as the state exacts out of his land for the security and service of his country; that is to say, in plain English, sixteen will do as much as twenty shillings.
My heart is so swelled with grateful sentiments ceived, that I must beg leave to give them utterance on account of some favours which I have lately reamongst the crowd of other anonymous correspondents; and writing, I hope, will be as great a relief to my forced silence, as it is to your natural taciturnity. My generous benefactor will not suffer me to speak to him in any terms of acknowledg ment, but ever treats me as if he had the greatest obligations, and uses me with a distinction that is not to be expected from one so much my superior in fortune, years, and understanding. He insi nuates, as if I had a certain right to his favours. from some merit, which his particular indulgence to artifice to lessen the pain an honest mind feels in me has discovered; but that is only a beautiful receiving obligations when there is no probability of returning them.
"A gift is doubled when accompanied with such a delicacy of address; but what to me gives it an inexpressible value, is its coming from the man I most estcem in the world. It pleases me indeed, as
it is an advantage and addition to my fortune; but when I consider it as an instance of that good man's friendship, it overjoys, it transports me: I look on it with a lover's eye, and no longer regard the gift, but the hand that gave it. For my friendship is so entirely void of any gainful views, that it often gives me pain to think it should have been chargeable to him; and I cannot at some melancholy hours help doing his generosity the injury of fearing it should cool on this account, and that the last favour might be a sort of legacy of a departing friendship.
leaved for her own private use, ordered them to be brought down, and laid in the window, whither every one in the company retired, and writ down a particular advertisement in the style and phrase of the like ingenious compositions which we frequently meet with at the end of our newspapers. When we had finished our work, we read them with a great deal of mirth at the fire-side, and agreed, nemine contradicente, to get them transcribed and sent to the Spectator. The gentleman who made the proposal entered the following advertisement before the title-page, after which the rest succeeded in
"I confess these fears seem very groundless and unjust, but you must forgive them to the apprehen-order :sion of one possessed of a great treasure, who is frighted at the most distant shadow of danger.
"Remedium efficax et universum; or an effectual remedy adapted to all capacities: showing how any person may cure himself of ill-nature, pride, party spleen, or any other distemper incident to the human system, with an easy way to know when the infection is upon him. This panacea is as innocent as bread, agreeable to the taste, and requires no confinement. It has not its equal in the universe,
Since I have thus far opened my heart to you, I will not conceal the secret satisfaction I feel there, of knowing the goodness of my friend will not be unrewarded. I am pleased with thinking the providence of the Almighty hath sufficient blessings in store for him, and will certainly discharge the debt, though I am not made the happy instrument of do-as abundance of the nobility and gentry throughout ing it.
However, nothing in my power shall be wanting to show my gratitude; I will make it the business of my life to thank him; and shall esteem (next to him) those my best friends, who give me the greatest assistance in this good work. Printing this letter would be some little instance of my gratitude; and your favour herein will very much oblige, "Your most humble Servant, &c. "Nov, 24. "W. C."
No. 547. THURSDAY, NOV. 27, 1712.
Ir is very difficult to praise a man without putting him out of countenance. My following correspondent has found out this uncommon art, and, together with his friends, has celebrated some of my speculations after such a concealed but diverting manner, that if any of my readers think I am to blame in publishing my own commendations, they will allow I should have deserved their censure as much, had I suppressed the humour in which they are conveyed to me.
the kingdom have experienced.
"N. B. No family ought to be without it." Over the two Spectators on jealousy, being the two first in the third volume. Nos. 170, 171. "I, William Crazy, aged threescore-and-seven, having been for several years afflicted with uneasy doubts, fears, and vapours, occasioned by the youth' and beauty of Mary my wife, aged twenty-five, do hereby, for the benefit of the public, give notice, that I have found great relief from the two following doses, having taken them two mornings together with a dish of chocolate. Witness my hand," &c.
For the Benefit of the Poor.
"In charity to such as are troubled with the disease of levee-hunting, and are forced to seek their bread every morning at the chamber-doors of great men, I, A. B., do testify, that for many years past I laboured under this fashionable distemper, but was Baldwin, contained in a half-sheet of paper, marked cured of it by a remedy which I bought of Mrs. No. 193, where any one may be provided with the same remedy at the price of a single penny.
"An infallible cure for hypochondriac melancholy, Nos. 173, 184, 191, 203, 209, 221, 233, 235,
239, 245, 247, 251.
"I, Christopher Query, having been troubled with a certain distemper in my tongue, which showed itself in impertinent and superfluous interrosince my perusal of the prescription marked No. gatories, have not asked one unnecessary question
"I am often in a private assembly of wits of both sexes, where we generally descant upon your specu-228." lations, or upon the subjects on which you have treated. We were last Tuesday talking of those "The Britannic Beautifier, being an essay on two volumes which you have lately published. Some modesty, No. 231, which gives such a delightful were commending one of your papers, and some blushing colour to the cheeks of those that are white another; and there was scarce a single person in or pale, that it is not to be distinguished from a the company that had not a favourite speculation. natural fine complexion, nor perceived to be artiUpon this a man of wit and learning told us, he ficial by the nearest friend, is nothing of paint, or thought it would not be amiss if we paid the Spec- in the least hurtful. It renders the face delightfully tator the same compliment that is often made in our handsome; is not subject to be rubbed off, and public prints to Sir William Read, Dr. Grant, Mr. cannot be paralleled by either wash, powder, cosMoor the apothecary, and other eminent physi-metic, &c. It is certainly the best beautifier in the cians, where it is usual for the patients to publish world. the cures which have been made upon them, and the several distempers under which they laboured. The proposal took; and the lady where we visited baving the two last volumes in large paper inter- Liquor. Spect. in folio. No. 545. SPECTATOR-Nos. 79 & 80.
"I, Samuel Self, of the parish of St. James, hay
Translated from the advertisement of the Red Bavarian 2 S
ing a constitution which naturally abounds with acids, made use of a paper of directions marked No. 177, recommending a healthful exercise called good-nature, and have found it a most excellent sweetener of the blood."
"Whereas I, Elizabeth Rainbow, was troubled with that distemper in my head, which about a year ago was pretty epidemical among the ladies, and discovered itself in the colour of their hoods; having made use of the doctor's cephalic tincture, which he exhibited to the public in one of his last year's papers, I recovered in a very few days."
"I, George Gloom, having for a long time been troubled with the spleen, and being advised by my friends to put myself into a course of Steele, did for that end make use of remedies conveyed to me several mornings, in short letters, from the hands of the invisible doctor. They were marked at the bottom Nathaniel Henroost, Alice Threadneedle, Rebecca Nettletop, Tom Loveless, Mary Meanwell, Thomas Smoaky, Anthony Freeman, Tom Meggot, Rustick Sprightly, &c., which have had so good an effect upon me, that I now find myself cheerful, lightsome, and easy; and therefore do recommend them to all such as labour under the same distemper."
Not having room to insert all the advertisements which were sent me, I have only picked out some few from the third volume, reserving the fourth for another opportunity.-O.
No. 548.] FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 28, 1712.
There's none but has some fault, and he's the best.
is nothing to be objected against it. I have however drawn up some additional arguments to strengthen the opinion which you have there delivered, having endeavoured to go to the bottom of that matter, which you may either publish or suppress as you think fit.
cious, and that they differ from one another only 'Horace in my motto says, that all men are vias they are more or less so. Boileau has given the same account of our wisdom, as Horace has of our virtue.
Tous les hommes sont fous, et malgre tous leurs soins. Ne differente entre eux, que du plus et du moins. 'Al men,' says he, 'are fools, and, in spite of their endeavours to the contrary, differ from one another only as they are more or less so."
Two or three of the old Greek poets have given the same turn to a sentence which describes the happiness of man in this life:
That man is most happy who is the least miserable." It will not perhaps be unentertaining to the polite reader to observe how these three beautiful sentences are formed upon different subjects by the same way of thinking; but I shall return to the first of them.
"Our goodness being of a comparative and not an absolute nature, there is none who in strictness him a natural alloy, though one may be fuller of can be called a virtuous man. Every one has in dross than another: for this reason I cannot think it right to introduce a perfect or a faultless man upon the stage; not only because such a character is improper to move compassion, but because there is no such thing in nature. This might probably be one reason why the Spectator in one of his papers took notice of that late invented term called poetical justice, and the wrong notions into which it has led some tragic writers. The most perfect man has MR. SPECTATOR, vices enough to draw down punishments upon his "I HAVE read this day's paper with a great deal head, and to justify Providence in regard to any of pleasure, and could send you an account of seve- miseries that may befal him. For this reason, I ral elixirs and antidotes in your third volume, which cannot think but that the instruction and moral àre your correspondents have not taken notice of in much finer, where a man who is virtuous in the their advertisements; and at the same time must main of his character falls into distress, and sinks own to you, that I have seldom seen a shop fur- under the blows of fortune at the end of a tragedy, nished with such a variety of medicaments, and in than when he is represented as happy and trium which there are fewer soporifics. The several vehi-phant. Such an example corrects the insolence of cles you have invented for conveying your unaccept- human nature, softens the mind of the beholder able truths to us, are what I most particularly ad- with sentiments of pity and compassion, comforts mire, as I am afraid they are secrets which will die him under his own private affliction, and teaches with you. I do not find that any of your critical him not to judge of men's virtues by their successes. essays are taken notice of in this paper, notwith-I cannot think of one real hero in all antiquity so standing I look upon them to be excellent cleansers of the brain, and could venture to superscribe them with an advertisement which I have lately seen in one of our newspapers, wherein there is an account given of a sovereign remedy for restoring the taste to all such persons whose palates have been vitiated by distempers, unwholesome food, or any the like occasions. But to let fall the allusion, notwithstand-in ing your criticisms, and particularly the candour which you have discovered in them, are not the least taking part of your works, I find your opinion "If such a strict poetical justice as some gentle. concerning poetical justice, as it is expressed in the men insist upon were to be observed in this art. first part of your fortieth Spectator, is controverted there is no manner of reason why it should not exby some eminent critics; and as you now seem, to tend to heroic poetry as well as tragedy. But we our great grief of heart, to be winding up your bot-find it so little observed in Homer, that his Achilles toms, I hoped you would have enlarged a little upon is placed in the greatest point of glory and success, that subject. It is indeed but a single paragraph in though his character is morally vicious, and only your works, and I believe those who have read it poetically good, if I may use the phrase of our m with the same attention I have done, will think there I dern critics, The Eneid is filled with innocent;
far raised above human infirmities, that he might not be very naturally represented in a tragedy as plunged in misfortunes and calamities. The poet may still find out some prevailing passion or indiscretion in his character, and show it in such a manner, as will sufficiently acquit the gods of any injustice in his sufferings. For, as Horace observes my text, the best man is faulty, though not in so great a degree as those whom we generally call vicious men.
unhappy persons. Nisus and Euryalus. Lausus and
-Cadit et Ripheus justissimus unus.
And that Pantheus could neither be preserved by
-Nee te tua plurima, Pantheu,
the pleasure of a country life, that in order to make a purchase he called in all his money; but what was the event of it? Why, in a very few days after he put it out again. I am engaged in this series of thought by a discourse which I had last week with my worthy friend Sir Andrew Freeport, a man of so much natural cloquence, good sense, and probity of mind, that I always hear him with particular pleasure. As we were sitting together, being the sole remaining members of our club, Sir Andrew gave me an account of the many busy scenes of life in which he had been engaged, and at the same time reckoned up to me abundance of those lucky hits, Labentem pietas, nec Apollinis infula texit.-Ibid. v. 129. which at another time he would have called pieces I might here mention the practice of ancient tragic of good fortune; but in the temper of mind he was poets, both Greek and Latin; but as this particular then, he termed them mercies, favours of Proviis touched upon in the paper above mentioned, Idence, and blessings upon an honest industry. shall pass it over in silence. I could produce pas-"Now," says he, "you must know, my good friend, sages out of Aristotle in favour of my opinion; and I am so used to consider myself as creditor and if in one place he says that an absolutely virtuous man should not be represented as unhappy, this does not justify any one who shall think fit to bring in an absolutely virtuous man upon the stage. Those who are acquainted with that author's way of writing know very well that, to take the whole extent of his subject into his divisions of it, he often makes use of such cases as are imaginary, and not reducible to practice. He himself declares that such tragedies as ended unhappily bore away the prize in theatrical contentions, from those which ended happily; and for the fortieth speculation, which I am now considering, as it has given reasons why these are more apt to please an audience, so it only proves that these are generally preferable to the other, though at the same time it affirms that many excellent tragedies have and may be written in both kinds.
debtor, that I often state my accounts after the same manner with regard to heaven and my own soul. In this case, when I look upon the debtor side, I find such innumerable articles, that I want arithmetic to cast them up; but when I look upon the creditor side, I find little more than blank paper. Now, though I am very well satisfied that it is not in my power to balance accounts with my Maker, I am resolved however to turn all my future endeavours that way. You must not therefore be surprised, my friend, if you hear that I am betaking myself to a more thoughtful kind of life, and if I meet you no more in this place."
I could not but approve so good a resolution, notwithstanding the loss I shall suffer by it. Sir Andrew has since explained himself to me more at large in the following letter, which is just come to my hands:
"GOOD MR. SPECTATOR,
"I shall conclude with observing, that though the Spectator above mentioned is so far against the rule of poetical justice, as to affirm that good men may "Notwithstanding my friends at the club have meet with an unhappy catastrophe in tragedy, it always rallied me, when I have talked of retiring does not say that ill men may go off unpunished. from business, and repeated to me one of my own The reason for this distinction is very plain, namely, sayings, that a merchant has never enough until because the best of men are vicious enough to jus- he has got a little more;' I can now inform you, tify Providence for any misfortunes and afflictions that there is one in the world who thinks he has which may befal them, but there are many men so enough, and is determined to pass the remainder of criminal that they can have no claim or pretence to his life in the enjoyment of what he has. You know happiness. The best of men may deserve punish-me so well, that I need not tell you I mean, by the ment, but the worst of men cannot deserve happi-enjoyment of my possessions, the making of them useful to the public. As the greatest part of my estate has been hitherto of an unsteady and volatile
No. 549.] SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 29, 1712. nature, either tost upon seas or fluctuating in funds,
Quamvis digressu veteris confusus amici,
The griev'd at the departure of my friend,
it is now fixed and settled in substantial acres and tenements. I have removed it from the uncertainty of stocks, winds, and waves, and disposed of it in a considerable purchase. This will give me great opportunity of being charitable in my way, that is, I BELIEVE most people begin the world with a in setting my poor neighbours to work, and giving resolution to withdraw from it into a serious kind of them a comfortable subsistence out of their own solitude or retirement when they have made them-industry. My gardens, my fish-ponds, my arable selves easy in it. Our unhappiness is, that we find out soine excuse or other for deferring such our good resolutions until our intended retreat is cut off by death. But among all kinds of people there are none who are so hard to part with the world as those who are grown old in the heaping up of riches. Their minds are so warped with their constant attention to gain, that it is very difficult for them to give their souls another bent, and convert them towards those objects, which though they are proper for every stage of life, are so more especially for the last. Horace describes an old usurer as so charmed with
and pasture-grounds, shall be my several hospitals, or rather workhouses, in which I propose to maintain a great many indigent persons, who are now starving in my neighbourhood. I have got a fine spread of improveable lands, and in my own thoughts am already ploughing up some of them, fencing others; planting woods, and draining marshes. In fine, as I have my share in the surface of this island, I am resolved to make it as beautiful
spot as any in her majesty's dominions; at least there is not an inch of it which shall not be cultivated to the best advantage, and do its utmost for
and offers to bribe me with the odd one in case he may succeed Sir Andrew Freeport, which he thinks would raise the credit of that fund I have several letters dated from Jenny Mann's, by gentlemen who are candidates for Captain Sentry's place; and as many from a coffee-house in Paul's churchyard of such who would fill up the vacancy occasioned by the death of my worthy friend the clergyman, whom I can never mention but with a particular respect.
Having maturely weighed these several particu lars, with the many remonstrances that have been made to me on this subject, and considering how invidious an office I shall take upon me if I make the whole election depend upon my single voice, and being unwilling to expose myself to those clamours, which on such an occasion will not fail to be raised against me for partiality, injustice, corrup tion, and other qualities, which my nature abhors, I have formed to myself the project of a club as follows:—
As in my mercantile employment I so disposed of my affairs, that, from whatever corner of the compass the wind blew, it was bringing home one or other of my ships; I hope as a husbandman to contrive it so, that not a shower of rain or a glimpse of sunshine shall fall upon my estate with out bettering some part of it, and contributing to the products of the season. You know it has been hitherto my opinion of life, that it is thrown away when it is not some way useful to others. But when I am riding out by myself, in the fresh air on the open heath that lies by my house, I find several other thoughts growing up in me. I am now of opinion, that a man of my age may find business enough on himself, by setting his mind in order, preparing it for another world, and reconciling it to the thoughts of death. I must therefore acquaint you, that besides those usual methods of charity, of which I have before spoken, I am at this very instant finding out a convenient place where I may build an alms-house, which I intend to endow very I have thoughts of issuing out writs to all and handsomely for a dozen superannuated husband-every of the clubs that are established in the cities men. It will be a great pleasure to me to say my of London and Westminster, requiring them to prayers twice a day with men of my own years, who all choose out of their respective bodies a person of the of them, as well as myself, may have their thoughts greatest merit, and to return his name to me before taken up how they shall die, rather than how they | Lady-day, at which time I intend to sit upon basi shall live. I remember an excellent saying that I ness. learned at school, Finis coronat opus. You know best whether it be in Virgil or in Horace; it is my business to apply it. If your affairs will permit you to take the country air with me sometimes, you shall find an apartment fitted up for you, and shall be every day entertained with beef or mutton of my own feeding; fish out of my own ponds; and fruit out of my own gardens. You shall have free egress and regress about my house, without having any questions asked you; and, in a word, such a hearty welcome as you may expect from
"Your most sincere Friend
"and humble Servant,
The club of which I am a member being entirely dispersed, I shall consult my reader next week upon a project relating to the institution of a new one.-O.
No. 550.j MONDAY, DECEMBER 1, 1712.
In what will all this ostentation end?-RoscOMMON.
By this means, I may have reason to hope, that the club over which I shall preside will be the very flower and quintessence of all other clubs. I have communicated this my project to none but a particular friend of mine, whom I have celebrated twice or thrice for his happiness in that kind of wit which is commonly known by the name of a pun. The only objection he makes to it is, that I shall raise up enemies to myself if I act with so regal an air, and that my detractors, instead of giving me the usual title of Spectator, will be apt to call me the King of Clubs.
But to proceed on my intended project: it is very well known that I at first set forth in this work with the character of a silent man; and I think I have so well preserved my taciturnity, that I do not remember to have violated it with three sentences in the space of almost two years. As a monosyllable is my delight, I have made very few excursions, in the conversations which I have related, beyond a Yes or a No. By this means, my readers have lost many good things which I have had in my heart, though I did not care for uttering them.
Now in order to diversify my character, and to show the world how well I can talk if I have a mind,
SINCE the late dissolution of the club, whereof II have thoughts of being very loquacious in the club have often declared myself a member, there are very many persons who, by letters, petitions, and recommendations, put up for the next election. At the same time I must complain, that several indirect and underband practices have been made use of upon this occasion. A certain country gentleman began to tap upon the first information he received of Sir Roger's death; when he sent me up word that if I would get him chosen in the place of the deceased, he would present me with a barrel of the best October I had ever tasted in my life. The ladies are in great pain to know whom I intend to elect in the room of Will Honeycomb. Some of them indeed are of opinion that Mr. Honeycomb did not take sufficient care of their interests in the club, and are therefore desirous of having in it hereafter a representative of their own sex. A citizen who subscribes himself Y. Z., telis me that he has one-and-twenty-shares in the African company,
which I have now under consideration. But that I may proceed the more regularly in this affair, I design, upon the first meeting of the said club, to have my mouth opened in form; intending to regulate myself in this particular by a certain ritual which I have by me, that contains all the ceremonies which are practised at the opening of the mouth of a cardinal. I have likewise examined the forms which were used of old by Pythagoras, when any of his scholars, after an apprenticeship of silence, was made free of his speech. In the mean time, as I have of late found my name in foreign gazettes upon less occasions, I question not but in their next articles from Great Britain they will inform the world, that "the Spectator's mouth is to be opened on the twenty-fifth of March next." I may perhaps publish a very useful paper at that time of the proceedings in that solemnity, and of the persons who shall assist at it. But of this more hereafter.-0.