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High Epidaurus urges on my speed,
Famed for his hills, and for his horses' breed:
His men in armour bright;
All men of pleasant Tividale,
Fast by the river Tweed, &c
The country of the Scotch warriors, described in these two last verses, has a fine romantic situation, and affords a couple of smooth words for verse. If the reader compares the foregoing six lines of the song with the following Latin verses, he will see how much they are written in the spirit of Virgil:
Adversi campo apparent, hustasque reductis
Eneas was wounded after the same manner by an unknown hand in the midst of a parley.
Has inter voces, media inter talia verba,
Or hostile god, is left unknown by fame.-DRYDEN. But of all the descriptive parts of this song, there are none more beautiful than the four following stanzas, which have a great force and spirit in them, and are filled with very natural circumstances. The thought in the third stanza was never touched by any other poet, and is such a one as would have shined in Homer or in Virgil:
So thus did both these nobles die,
He had a bow bent in his hand,
Against Sir Hugh Montgomery
So right his shaft he set,
The grey-goose wing that was thereun
This fight did last from break of day
For when they rang the ev'ning beil
One may observe, likewise, that in the catalogue of the slain, the author has followed the example of the great ancient poets, not only in giving a long 'i of the dead, but by diversifying it with little characters of particular persons.
And with Earl Douglas there was slain
Sir Charles Carrel, that from the field
Sir Charles Murrel of Ratcliffe too,
Sir David Lamb so well esteem'd,
The familiar sound in these names destroys the ma-
Then Ripheus fell in the unequal fight,
In the catalogue of the English who fell, Witherington's behaviour is in the same manner particularized very artfully, as the reader is prepared for it by that account which is given of him in the beginning of the battle; though I am satisfied your little buffoon readers (who have seen that passage ridiculed in Hudibras) will not be able to take the beauty of it; for which reason I dare not so much as quote it.
Then stept a gallant 'squire forth,
That e'er my captain fought on foot,
And I stood looking on.
For shame, Rutilians, can you bear the sight
Can we before the face of heav'n confess
Our courage colder, or our numbers less?-DRYDEN. What can be more natural, or more moving, than the circumstances in which he describes the behaviour of those women who had lost their husbands on this fatal day?
Next day did many widows come
They wash'd their wounds in brinish tears,
Their bodies bathed in purple blood,
They kiss'd them dead a thousand times,
Thus we see how the thoughts of this poem, which naturally arise from the subject, are always simple, and sometimes exquisitely noble; that the language is often very sounding, and that the whole is written with a true poetical spirit.
If this song had been written in the Gothic manner, which is the delight of all our little wits whether writers or readers, it would not have hit the taste of so many ages, and have pleased the readers of all
ranks and conditions. I shall only beg pardon for such a profusion of Latin quotations; which I should not have made use of, but that I feared my own judgment would have looked too singular on such a subject, had not I supported it by the practice and authority of Virgil.-C.
SATURDAY, MAY 26, 1711. Omnis Aristippum decuit color, et status, et res. HOR. 1 Ep. xvii. 23. All fortune fitted Aristippus well.-CREECH. Ir is with some mortification that I suffered the raillery of a fine lady of my acquaintance, for calling, in one of my papers, Dorimant a clown. She was so unmerciful as to take advantage of my invincible taciturnity, and on that occasion with great freedom to consider the air, the height, the face, the gesture of him, who could pretend to judge so arrogantly of gallantry. She is full of motion, jaunty and lively in her impertinence, and one of those that commonly pass, among the ignorant, for persons who have a great deal of humour. She had the play of Sir Fopling in her hand, and after she had said it was happy for her there was not so charming a creature as Dorimant now living, she began with a theatrical air and tone of voice to read, by way of triumph over me, some of his speeches. "Tis she! that lovely air, that easy shape, those wanton eyes, and all those melting charms about her mouth, which Medley spoke of; I'll follow the lottery, and put in for a prize with my friend Bellair."
In love the victors from the vanquish'd fly; They fly that wound, and they wound that die! Then turning over the leaves, she reads alternately, and speaks:
And you and Loveit to her cost shall find 1 fathom all the depths of woman-kind. Oh the fine gentleman! But here, continues she, is the passage I admire most, where he begins to tease Loveit, and mimic Sir Fopling. Oh, the pretty satire, in his resolving to be a coxcomb to please, since noise and nonsense have such powerful charms.
I, that I may successful prove,
riage of a well-bred man. I did not, I confess, explain myself enough on this subject, when I called Dorimant a clown, and made it an instance of it, that he called the orange wench Double Tripe: I should have shewn, that humanity obliges a gentleman to give no part of human kind reproach, for what they, whom they reproach, may possibly have in common with the most virtuous and worthy amongst us. When a gentleman speaks coarsely, he has dressed himself clean to no purpose. The clothing of our minds certainly ought to be regarded before that of our bodies. To betray in a man's talk a corrupt imagination, is a much greater offence against the conversation of gentlemen than any negligence of dress imaginable. But this sense of the matter is so far from being received among people of condition, that Vocifer even passes for a fine gentleman. He is loud, haughty, gentle, soft, lewd, and obsequious by turns, just as a little understanding and great impudence prompt him at the present moment. He passes among the silly part of our women for a man of wit, because he is geneHe contradicts with a shrug, and rally in doubt. confutes with a certain sufficiency, in professing such and such a thing is above his capacity. What makes his character the pleasanter is, that he is a professed deluder of women; and because the empty coxcomb has no regard to any thing that is of itself sacred and inviolable, I have heard an unmarried lady of fortune say, it is a pity so fine a gentleman as Vocifer is so great an atheist. The crouds of such inconsiderable creatures, that infest all places of assembling, every reader will have in his eye from his own observation; but would it not be worth considering what sort of figure a man who formed himself upon those principles among us which are agreeable to the dictates of honour and religion would make in the familiar and ordinary occurrences of life?
I hardly have observed any one fill his several duties of life better than Ignotus. All the under parts of his behaviour, and such as are exposed to common observation, have their rise in him from great and noble motives. A firm and unshaken expectation of another life makes him become this; humanity and good-nature, fortified by the sense of virtue, have the same effect upon him as the neglect of all goodness has upon many others. Being firmly established in all matters of importance, that
Then how like a man of the town, so wild and gay certain inattention which makes men's actions look is that!
The wise will find a diffrence in our fate,
You wed a woman, I a good estate.
It would have been a very wild endeavour for a man of my temper to offer any opposition to so nimble a speaker as my fair enemy is; but her discourse me very many reflections when I had left her company. Among others, I could not but consider with some attention, the false impressions the generality (the fair sex more especially) have of what should be intended, when they say a "fine gentleman;" and could not help revolving that subject in my thoughts, and settling, as it were, an idea of that character in my own imagination.
No man ought to have the esteem of the rest of the world, for any actions which are disagreeable to those maxims which prevail as the standards of be. haviour in the country wherein he lives What is opposite to the eternal rules of reason and good sense, must be excluded from any place in the car
Spect. No 65.
easy, appears in him with greater beauty: by a thorough contempt of little excellences, he is perfectly master of them. This temper of mind leaves him under no necessity of studying his air, and he has this peculiar distinction, that his negligence is
Such a one does
He that can work himself into a pleasure in considering this being as an uncertain one, and think to reap an advantage by its discontinuance, is in a fair way of doing all things with a graceful unconcern, and a gentleman-like ease. not behold his life as a short transient perplexing state, made up of trifling pleasures and great anxieties; but sees it in quite another light: his griefs are momentary and his joys immortal. Reflection upon death is not a gloomy and sad thought of resigning every thing that he delights in, but it is a short night followed by an endless day. What I would here contend for is, that the more virtuous the man is, the nearer he will naturally be to the character of genteel and agreeable. A man whose fortune is plentiful, shows an ease in his countenance,
himself neglected by his new acquaintance as soon as they had hopes of growing great; and used on such occasions to remark, that it was a great injustice to tax princes of forgetting themselves in their high fortunes, when there were so few that could with constancy bear the favour of their very creatures." My author in these loose hints has one passage that gives us a very lively idea of the uncommon genius of Pharamond. He met with one man whom he had put to all the usual proofs he made of those he had a mind to know thoroughly, and found him for his purpose. In discourse with him one day, he gave him an opportunity of saying how much would satisfy all his wishes. The prince immediately revealed himself, doubled the sum, and
and confidence in his behaviour, which he that is under wants and difficulties cannot assume. It is thus with the state of the mind; he that governs his thoughts with the everlasting rules of reason and sense, must have something so inexpressibly graceful in his words and actions, that every circumstance must become him. The change of persons or things around him does not at all alter his situation, but he ooks disinterested in the occurrences with which others are distracted, because the greatest purpose of his life is to maintain an indifference both to it and all its enjoyments. In a word, to be a fine gentleman is to be a generous and a brave man. What can make a man so much in constant good humour, and shine, as we call it, than to be supported by what can never fail him, and to believe that what-spoke to him in this manner: "Sir, you have twice ever happens to him was the best thing that possibly could befal him, or else he on whom it depends would not have permitted it to have befallen him at all!-R.
No. 76.] MONDAY, MAY 28, 1711. Ut tu fortunam, sic nos te, Celce, feremus.
what you desired, by the favour of Pharamond; but look to it, that you are satisfied with it, for it is the last you shall ever receive. I from this moment consider you as mine; and to make you truly so, I give you my royal word you shall never be greater or less than you are at present. Answer me not (concluded the prince, smiling), but enjoy the fortune I have put you in, which is above my own condition; for you have hereafter nothing to hope or to fear."
HOR. I Ep. viii. 17. As you your fortune bear, we will bear you.-CREECH. THERE is nothing so common as to find a man, whom in the general observation of his carriage you take to be of a uniform temper, subject to such unaccountable starts of humour and passion, that he is as much unlike himself, and differs as much from the man you at first thought him, as any two distinct persons can differ from each other. This proceeds from the want of forming some law of life to our selves, or fixing some notion of things in general, which may affect us in such a manner as to create proper habits both in our minds and bodies. The negligence of this leaves us exposed not only to an unbecoming levity in our usual conversation, but also to the same instability in our friendships, interests, and alliances. A man who is but a mere spectator of what passes around him, and not en. gaged in commerces of any consideration, is but an ill judge of the secret motions of the heart of man, and Pharamond would often, to satisfy a vain fool of by what degrees it is actuated to make such visible power in his country, talk to him in a full court, alterations in the same person: but, at the same and with one whisper make him despise all his old time, when a man is no way concerned in the effect friends and acquaintance. He was come to that of such inconsistencies in the behaviour of men of knowledge of men by long observation, that he would the world, the speculation must be in the utmost de- profess altering the whole mass of blood in some gree both diverting and instructive; yet to enjoy tempers, by thrice speaking to them. As fortune such observations in the highest relish, he ought to was in his power, he gave himself constant enterbe placed in a post of direction, and have the deal- tainment in managing the mere followers of it with ings of their fortunes to them. I have therefore the treatment they deserved. He would by a skilful been wonderfully diverted with some pieces of secret cast of his eye, and half a smile, make two fellows history, which an antiquary, my very good friend, who hated, embrace, and fall upon each other's lent me as a curiosity. They are memoirs of the necks, with as much eagerness as if they followed private life of Pharamond of France. "Phara- their real inclinations, and intended to stifle one mond," says my author, “was a prince of infinite another. When he was in high good humour, he humanity and generosity, and at the same time the would lay the scene with Eucrate, and on a public most pleasant and facetious companion of his time. night exercise the passions of his whole court. He He had a peculiar taste in him, which would have was pleased to see a haughty beauty watch the looks been unlucky in any prince but himself; he thought of a man she had long despised, from observation of there could be no exquisite pleasure in conversation his being taken notice of by Pharamond; and the but among equals; and would pleasantly bewail him-lover conceive higher hopes than to follow the woman self that he always lived in a crowd, but was the he was dying for the day before. In a court, where only man in France that could never get into com- men speak affection in the strongest terms, and dispany. This turn of mind made him delight in mid-like in the faintest, it was a comical mixture of incinight rambles, attended only with one person of his bedchamber. He would in these excursions get acquainted with men (whose temper he had a mind to try) and recommend them privately to the particular observation of his first minister. He generally found
His majesty having thus well chosen and bought a friend and companion, he enjoyed alternately all the pleasures of an agreeable private man, and a great and powerful monarch. He gave himself, with his companion, the name of the merry tyrant; for he punished his courtiers for their insolence and folly, not by any act of public disfavour, but by humorously practising upon their imaginations. If he observed a man untractable to his inferiors, he would find an opportunity to take some favourable notice of him, and render him insupportable. He knew all his own looks, words, and actions had their interpretations; and his friend Monsieur Eucrate (for so he was called) having a great soul without ambition, he could communicate all his thoughts to him, and fear no artful use would be made of that freedom. It was no small delight when they were in private, to reflect upon all which had passed in public.
dents to see disguises thrown aside in one case, and increased on the other, according as favour or disgrace attended the respective objects of men's ap probation or disesteem. Pharamond, in his mirth upon the meanness of mankind, used to say, “As he
could take away a man's five senses, he could give him a hundred. The man in disgrace shall immediately lose all his natural endowments, and he that finds favour have the attributes of an angel." He would carry it so far as to say, "It should not be only so in the opinion of the lower part of his court, but the men themselves shall think thus meanly or greatly of themselves as they are out or in, the good graces of a court.
A monarch who had wit and humour, like Pharamond, must have pleasures which no man else can ever have the opportunity of enjoying. He gave fortune to none but those whom he knew could receive it without transport. He made a noble and generous use of his observations, and did not regard his ministers as they were agreeable to himself, but as they were useful in his kingdom. By this means the king appeared in every officer of state; and no man had a participation of the power, who had not a similitude of the virtue of Pharamond.-R.
What corrrespondence can I hold with you, Who are so near, and yet so distant too? My friend Will Honeycomb is one of those sort of men who are very absent in conversation, and what the French call à reveur and à distrait. A little before our club-time last night, we were walking to gether in Somerset-gardens, where Will picked up a small pebble of so odd a make, that he said he would present it to a friend of his, an eminent virtuoso. After we had walked some time, I made a full stop with my face towards the west, which Will knowing to be my usual way of asking what's o'clock of an af. ternoon, immediately pulled out his watch, and told me we had seven minutes good. We took a turn or two more, when to my great surprise, I saw him squirt away his watch a considerable way into the Thames, and with great sedateness in his looks put up the pebble he had before found into his fob. As I have naturally an aversion to much speaking, and do not love to be the messenger of ill news, especially when it comes too late to be useful, I left him to be convinced of his mistake in due time, and continued my walk, reflecting on these little absences and distractions in mankind, and resolving to make them the subject of a future speculation.
I was the more confirmed in my design, when I considered that they were very often blemishes in the characters of men of excellent sense; and helped to keep up the reputation of that Latin proverb, which Mr. Dryden has translated in the following
Great wit to madness sure is near allied,
And thin partitions do their bounds divide.*
My reader does, I hope, perceive, that I distinguish a man who is absent, because he thinks of something else, from one who is absent because he thinks of nothing at all. The latter is too innocent a creature to be taken notice of; but the distractions
of the former may, I believe, be generally accounted
for from one of these reasons:
taken up with some violent passion, such as anger, fear, or love, which ties the mind to some distant object; or lastly, these distractions proceed from a certain vivacity and fickleness in a man's temper, which, while it raises up infinite numbers of ideas in the mind, is continually pushing it on, without allowing it to rest on any particular image. Nothing therefore is more unnatural than the thoughts and conceptions of such a man, which are seldom occasioned either by the company he is in, or any of those objects which are placed before him. While you fancy he is admiring a beautiful woman, it is an even wager that he is solving a proposition in Euclid: and while you may imagine he is reading the Paris Gazette, it is far from being impossible that he is pulling down and rebuilding the front of his country-house.
At the same time that I am endeavouring to expose this weakness in others, I shall readily confess that I once laboured under the same infirmity my. self. The method I took to conquer it was a firm resolution to learn something from whatever I was obliged to see or hear. There is a way of thinking, if a man can attain to it, by which he may strike somewhat out of any thing. I can at present observe those starts of good sense and struggles of unimproved reason in the conversation of a clown, with as much satisfaction as the most shining periods of the most finished orator; and can make a shift to command my attention at a puppet-show or an opera, as well as at Hamlet or Othello. I always make one of the company I am in; for though I say little myself, my attention to others, and those nods of approbation which I never bestow unmerited, sufficiently show that I am among them. Whereas Will Honeycomb, though a fellow of good sense, is every day doing and saying a hundred things, which he afterward confesses, with a well-bred frankness, were somewhat mal à propos and undesigned.
I chanced the other day to get into a coffee-house where Will was standing in the midst of several auditors, whom he had gathered round him, and was giving them an account of the person and character of Moll Hinton. My appearance before him just put him in mind of me, without making him reflect that I was actually present. So that keeping his eyes full upon me, to the great surprise of his audience, he broke off his first harangue, and proceeded thus:-"Why now there's my friend," mentioning me by name, "he is a fellow that thinks a great deal, but never opens his mouth; I warrant you he is now thrusting his short face into some coffee-house about 'Change. I was his bail in the time of the Popish plot, when he was taken up for a Jesuit." If he had looked on me a little longer, he had certainly described me so particularly without ever considering what led him into it, that the whole company must necessarily have found me out; for which reason remembering the old proverb, "Out of sight out of mind," I left the room; and upon meeting him an hour afterward, was asked by him, with a great deal of good humour, in what part of the world I lived, that he had not seen me these three days.
Monsieur Bruyere has given us the character of an absent man with a great deal of humour, which he has pushed to an agreeable extravagance: with the heads of it I shall conclude my present paper. Either their minds are wholly fixed on some particular science, which is often the case with mathe-down in the morning, opens his door to go out. but "Menalcas," says that excellent author, maticians and other learned men; or are wholly shuts it again, because he perceives that he has his Nullum magnum ingenium sine mixtura dementia.-Se-night-cap on; and examining himself farther, finds neca De Tranquil. Anim. cap. xv. that he is but half-shaved, that he has stuck his
them as I was. I have nothing to do in this day's entertainment, but taking the sentence from the end of the Cambridge letter, and placing it at the front of my paper, to shew the author I wish him my com panion with as much earnestness as he invites me to be his.
I send you the enclosed, to be inserted (if you think them worthy of it) in your Spectators; in which so surprising a genius appears, that it is no wonder if all mankind endeavours to get somewhat into a paper which will always live.
sword on his right side, that his stockings are about his heels, and that his shirt is over his breeches. When he is dressed, he goes to court, comes into the drawing-room, and walking bolt upright under a branch of candlesticks, his wig is caught by one of them, and hangs dangling in the air. All the courtiers fall a laughing, but Menalcas laughs louder than any of them, and looks about for the person that is the jest of the company. Coming down to the court-gate he finds a coach, which taking for his own, he whips into it; and the coachman drives off, not doubting but he carries his master. As soon as he stops, Menalcas throws himself out of the coach, "As to the Cambridge affair, the humour was crosses the court, ascends the stair-case, and runs really carried on in the way I describe it. However, through all the chambers with the greatest famili-you have a full commission to put out or in, and to arity; reposes himself on a couch, and fancies him-do whatever you think fit with it. I have already self at home. The master of the house at last comes in; Menalcas rises to receive him, and desires him to sit down; he talks, muses, and then talks again. The gentleman of the house is tired and amazed; Menalcas is no less so, but is every moment in hopes that his impertinent guest will at last end his tedious visit. Night comes on, when Menalcas is hardly undeceived.
had the satisfaction of seeing you take that liberty with some things I have before sent you. Go on, Sir, and prosper. You have the best wishes of, Sir, your very affectionate, and obliged humble servant." "MR. SPECTATOR, Cambridge.
"You well know it is of great consequence to clear titles, and it is of importance that it be done in the proper season; on which account this is to "When he is playing at back-gammon, he calls assure you that the club of Ugly Faces was instifor a full glass of wine and water; it is his turn to tuted originally at Cambridge, in the merry reign throw; he has the box in one hand, and his glass in of King Charles II. As in great bodies of men it the other; and being extremely dry, and unwilling is not difficult to find members enough for such a to lose time, he swallows down both the dice, and at club, so (I remember) it was then feared, upon their the same time throws his wine into the tables. He intention of dining together, that the Hall belongwrites a letter, and flings the sand into the ink-ing to Clare-hall, the ugliest then in the town bottle; he writes a second, and mistakes the super- (though now the neatest), would not be large enough scriptions. A nobleman receives one of them, and handsomely to hold the company. Invitations were upon opening it reads as follows: 'I would have made to very great numbers, but very few accepted you, honest Jack, immediately upon the receipt of them without much difficulty. One pleaded that this, take in hay enough to serve me the winter.' being at London, in a bookseller's shop, a lady going His farmer receives the other, and is amazed to see by with a great belly longed to kiss him. He had in it, My lord, I received your grace's commands, certainly been excused, but that evidence appeared, with an entire submission too.'-If he is at an enter- that indeed one in London did pretend she longed tainment, you may see the pieces of bread continu- to kiss him, but that was only a pick-pocket, who ally multiplying round his plate. It is true the rest during his kissing her stole away all his money. of the company want it, as well as their knives and Another would have got off by a dimple in his chin; forks, which Menalcas does not let them keep long. but it was proved upon him, that he had, by coming Sometimes in a morning he puts his whole family in into a room, made a woman miscarry, and fright hurry, and at last goes out without being able to ened two children into fits. A third alleged, that he stay for his coach or dinner, and for that day you was taken by a lady for another gentleman, who was may see him in every part of the town, except the one of the handsomest in the university; but upon very place where he had appointed to be upon busi- inquiry it was found that the lady had actually lost ness of importance. You would often take him for one eye, and the other was very much upon the deevery thing that he is not; for a fellow quite stupid, cline. A fourth produced letters out of the country for he hears nothing; for a fool, for he talks to him- in his vindication, in which a gentleman offered him self, and has a hundred grimaces and motions in his his daughter, who had lately fallen in love with him, head, which are altogether involuntary; for a proud with a good fortune: but it was made appear, that man, for he looks full upon you, and takes no notice the young lady was amorous, and had like to have of your saluting him. The truth of it is, his eyes run away with her father's coachman-so that it was are open, but he makes no use of them, and neither supposed, that her pretence of falling in love with sees you-nor any man, nor any thing, else. He him, was only in order to be well married. It was came once from his country-house, and his own foot-pleasant to hear the several excuses which were men attempted to rob him, and succeeded. They held a flambeau to his throat, and bid him deliver his purse; he did so, and coming home told his friends he had been robbed; they desired to know the particulars: Ask my servants,' says Menalcas, hey were with me.' "-X.
WEDNESDAY, MAY 30, 1711. iam tale ms, etinam noster esses!
we cal. so great a genius ours! Lowing letters are so pleasant, that I doubt At the reader will be as much diverted with
made, insomuch that some made as much interest to be excused, as they would from serving sheriff; however, at last the society was formed, and proper officers were appointed; and the day was fixed for the entertainment, which was in venison season. A pleasant fellow of King's college (commonly called Crab, from his sour look, and the only man who did not pretend to get off) was nominated for chaplain; and nothing was wanting but some one to sit in the elbow chair by way of president, at the upper end of the table; and there the business stuck, for there was no contention for superiority there. This affair made so great a noise, that the King, who was then at Newmarket, heard of it, and was pleased merrily