the collection of the Academy of Sciences at Stockholm.

DALBERG, (Charles Theodore Anthony Maria,) prince-primate of the confederation of the Rhine, grand duke of Frankfort, and archbishop of Ratisbon, was born at Herrusheim, near Worms, in 1744. He espoused the principles of the French revolution; and assisted at the coronation of Napoleon in 1804. He was a liberal patron of learning and the fine arts, and wrote Réflexions sur l'Univers. Des Rapports entre la Morale et la Politique. He died in 1817.

DALE, (Sanuel,) an English antiquary and botanist, born in 1659. He was originally an apothecary at Braintree, in Essex, until about 1730, when he became a licentiate of the College of Physicians, and a fellow of the Royal Society. He next practised as a physician at Bocking. His Pharmacologia, seu Manuductio ad Materiam Medicam, was first published in 1693, 8vo, republished in 1705, 1710, 8vo, and 1737, 4to, a much improved edition. It was also four times printed abroad. He also published, in 1730, The Antiquities of Harwich and Dover Court, 4to, originally written by Silas Taylor, about the year 1676. His account of the figured fossils of the cliff is very exact and circumstantial, and his synopsis of the animals and vegetables of the neighbouring sea and coast is very clearly given. Dale, who appears to have been a dissenter, was also the author of various communications to the Royal Society, which were published in the Philosophical Transactions. He died in


DALE, (David,) a philanthropist, born in 1738, at Stewarton, in North Britain, where his father was a shopkeeper. On leaving school he was bound apprentice to the weaving business. He afterwards engaged in trade, and acquired a competent fortune, which he devoted to the encouragement of industry, and, with a view to the employment of the poor, he founded, in a dell, on the banks of the Clyde, the extensive and well-known mills of Lanark. Many of the work-people were engaged for a certain number of years, during which time they were provided with clothing, board, and lodging. In addition to these advantages, teachers were employed to watch over their morals, and to ground them in useful knowledge. Mr. Dale also made several attempts to introduce the cotton manufacture into the Highlands, by erecting a mill at Spinningdale, in Sutherland; but his exertions

were not in this instance equally successful. He died at Glasgow in 1806, leaving his property to his son-in-law, Mr. Owen.

DALECHAMPS, (James,) a learned physician and studious botanist, born at Caen, in 1513. He was educated for the medical profession at Montpellier, and became a doctor of the faculty of his native city in 1560. He practised with great reputation at Lyons from 1552 till his death, in 1588. He added thirty plates of rare plants to the Dioscorides of Ruellius, printed in 1552; and after his death appeared his Historia generalis Plantarum in xviii. libros digesta, Lugd. 1587, 2 vols, fol. the labour of thirty years. He also gave editions of Paulus Egineta, Cælius Aurelianus, Pliny the Elder, Athenæi Deipsnosophistæ, and the two Senecas.

D'ALEMBERT, (John le Rond,) a distinguished French philosopher, and an elegant writer, born at Paris, on the 16th of November, 1717. He was the illegitimate son of Destouches Canon and mademoiselle Tencin, who, stifling the natural affections of a mother, unfeelingly caused him to be exposed near the church from which he received the name of le Rond. He owed the preservation of his life to the humanity of the overseer of the quarter, who put him to nurse to the wife of a glazier. Information of his situation being communicated to his father, he listened to the voice of nature and duty, and took measures for his child's subsistence and education. The genius of D'Alembert evinced a precocity rarely exampled. When he was only ten years old, his schoolmaster declared that he had nothing further to teach him; and he was sent to finish his education at the college of Mazarin. Early in his academic course, he composed a Commentary on the Epistle of St. Paul to the Romans, which raised in the Jansenists an expectation that he would prove a second Pascal. But the bent of his mind was towards mathematical studies, and to them he devoted himself for the remainder of his life. Retaining a grateful attachment to the asylum of his infancy and childhood, and desiring nothing more than a quiet retreat, where he might prosecute his studies in tranquillity, D'Alembert, upon leaving the college, took up his residence in the family of his nurse. Here he lived nearly thirty years, esteeming himself happy in contributing, as his fortunes improved, to the comfortable subsistence of those who, during his early years, had supplied the

place of parents. In order to enlarge his means of comfortable subsistence, D'Alembert at first turned his thoughts to the study of the law, and afterwards to that of medicine. But his fondness for geometry refused to be controlled; and, rather than deny himself the gratification of following the strong bias of his mind, he chose to decline the benefit of any lucrative profession. At the age of twenty-four his genius for mathematical investigation appeared in a masterly correction of the errors of Reyneau's Analyse Démontrée, which obtained for him an admission into the Academy of Sciences. He now applied himself with great assiduity to the solution of the problem concerning the motion and path of a body which passes obliquely from a rarer into a denser fluid. This inquiry led him into general speculations on the forces of moving bodies, which produced his Traité de Dynamique, 4to, Paris, 1743. In this treatise, the author establishes an equality at each instant between the changes which the motion of a body has undergone, and the forces or powers which have been employed to produce them. This principle he afterwards applied to the theory of equilibrium, and to the motion of fluids: and all the problems, before resolved in physics, became, in some measure, its corollaries. The discovery of this new principle was followed by that of a new calculus, the first applications of which appeared in his Réflexions sur la Cause générale des Vents, 4to, Paris, 1747, which, in 1746, obtained the prize-medal in the Academy of Berlin, of which he was elected an honorary member. His new Calculus of Partial Differences, D'Alembert, in 1747, applied to the subjects of sounds and vibrating chords. He afterwards employed his principle concerning motion in explaining the motion of any body of a given figure. In 1749 he resolved the problem of the precession of the equinoxes, and explained the phenomenon of the nutation of the terrestrial axis; and in 1752 he published his Essais d'une Nouvelle Théorie du Mouvement des Fluides. In the same year he published, Elements of Music, upon the principles of Rameau; and Researches concerning the Integral Calculus. Other pieces, published, at various times, in the Memoirs of the Academies of Paris and Berlin, were afterwards collected under the title of Opuscules Mathématiques, published at Paris in nine vols, 4to, in 1773, or Memoirs on various Subjects of Geome

try, Mechanics, Optics, and Astronomy, from the year 1761 to 1773. He also wrote Recherches sur différens Points importans du Systême du Monde, 3 vols, 4to, Paris, 1754-1756. With the character of an eminent mathematician, D'Alembert united that of a polite scholar. Genius, judgment, and taste are everywhere displayed in his miscellaneous works, and he is justly regarded in France as one of the first writers of that nation. He is generally understood to have been the first projector of The Encyclopédie, begun in 1750, by D'Alembert, Voltaire, Diderot, and others. Besides many valuable articles in mathematics, history, and polite literature, D'Alembert contributed to that stupendous work, the excellent Preliminary Discourse, in which are united strength and harmony, learning and taste, just thinking and fine writing. The general table which he gives of human knowledge discovers a comprehensive, well-informed, and methodical mind; and the judgments which he passes upon writers who have contributed to the improvement of science, are worthy of an enlightened and impartial philosopher. His company was now sought by the great, and his literary merit was thought sufficient to entitle him to royal patronage. Through the interest of the minister, count D'Argenson, the king, in 1756, granted him a pension of twelve hundred livres. In 1762, the empress Catharine of Russia invited him to undertake the education of her son, the grand-duke, accompanying the invitation with an offer of a salary of an hundred thousand livres, and other considerable privileges. This flattering proposal D'Alembert's attachment to his friends and his country, and his fondness for literary leisure, would not permit him to accept. The next year the king of Prussia invited him to meet him at Wesel, after the peace of 1763, and, on the first interview, affectionately embraced him. The king's first question was, "Do the mathematics furnish any method of calculating political probabilities?" To which the geometrician replied, "That he was not acquainted with any method of this kind, but that if any such existed, it could be of no use to a hero, who could conquer against all probability." The king made him an offer of the presidency of the Academy of Berlin, vacant by the death of Maupertuis. D'Alembert, however, chose to decline the offer; and the king, far from being displeased at the refusal, maintained

a friendly correspondence with him as long as he lived. In 1772, after the death of Duclos, he was chosen secretary of the French Academy. His aversion to superstition carried him into the region of infidelity; and his enmity to the Jesuits and the Popish clergy produced in him a degree of hostility against the religion of his country, which occasioned uneasiness to his friends, and gave a keener edge to the rancour of his enemies. He died on the 29th of October, 1783, in the sixty-sixth year of his age. Perhaps no character has ever appeared which has more completely exemplified the rare union of superior mathematical genius with an elegant taste for polite literature.

DALEN, (Cornelius van,) an engraver, born at Antwerp in 1620, and called the younger, to distinguish him from his father, who was a printseller in that city. He adopted the style of his master, Vischer, and his works are remarkable for taste and freedom.

DALENS, (Dirk, or Theodore,) a painter, born at Amsterdam in 1659. He was instructed by his father, but soon surpassed him. He principally painted landscapes of a large size, which may be found in many of the collections in Holland. He died in 1688. DALGARNO, (George,) a learned and ingenious Scotchman, author of the Ars Signorum, vulgo Character universalis et Lingua philosophica, London, 1661, born at Old Aberdeen in 1627, and educated at the university of New Aberdeen. Wood says that he taught a private grammar-school for about thirty years in the parishes of St. Michael and St. Mary Magdalen, in Oxford. He wrote also Didascalocophus, or the Deaf and Dumb Man's Tutor. From his works, it may be concluded that he was a man of original talent, and of great acquirements; his speculations concerning a universal language-a favourite subject with the learned men of his time-undoubtedly preceded those of bishop Wilkins, at that time dean of Ripon, and he received the testimony of Dr. Seth Ward, the bishop of Salisbury, Dr. John Wallis, and others, that he had discovered a secret" which by the learned men of former ages had been reckoned among the desiderata of learning." The Didascalocophus develops views on the instruction of the deaf and dumb, both comprehensive and practical. The author shows that the art of teaching this class of persons requires the exercise of common

sense, perseverance, and ordinary patience, under a teacher fertile in expedients, and one who is able to turn even disadvantages and difficulties to a good account. Dalgarno's works have been privately reprinted by lord Cockburn and Mr. Thomas Maitland, and presented to the Maitland Club of Glasgow. He died in 1687.

DALIBARD, (Thomas Francis,) a French botanist, who lived about the middle of the eighteenth century, and published Flora Parisiensis Prodromus, 1749, 12mo, the first treatise by a Frenchman which adopted the system of Linnæus, who has given the appellation of Dalibarda to a species of plant from Canada. The experiments of Franklin on electricity, and the preservation of buildings from lightning by conducting-rods, were first repeated in France by Ďalibard.

DALIN, (Olof von,) a Swedish historian and poet, born in 1708, at Winberga, in Halland. About the year 1735 he published, anonymously, a weekly paper, entitled the Swedish Argus, which gave so much satisfaction, that the writer was appointed librarian at Stockholm in 1737. In 1739 he visited various cities on the continent, and on his return he published, in 1743, his poem called Swedish Liberty, which is considered one of the best poetical productions that has ever appeared in Sweden. Next year he was engaged by the diet to write The History of Sweden, from the earliest Period to the present Time, with the promise of 2000 ducats reward. The first part of this history was published in 1747, and the author afterwards gave a continuation down to the end of the reign of Charles IX. In 1749 he was entrusted with the important charge of instructing the hereditary prince; and in 1751 he was ennobled, and assumed the name of Von Dalin. In 1753 he was appointed a counsellor of the chancery, in 1755 historiographer to the king, in 1761 knight of the Polar Star, and in 1763 a counsellor of the court. He died on the 12th of August the same year, at the palace of Drotlingholm. He also wrote Brunchilda, a tragedy, and A Translation of Montesquieu's Causes de la Grandeur et de la Décadence des Romains. A collection of his poems, fables, and other small pieces, was published in 1767, 6 vols.

DALLAMANO, (Giuseppe,) was born at Modena in 1679. So great was the force of his genius, that, without instruction or being acquainted with the first

rudiments of education, he displayed such skill as to render his name distinguished in the arts. He excelled in architectural views, and many of his works are in the palace at Turin. He died in 1758.

DALLANS, (Ralph,) a clever English organ-builder, who was much employed at the period of the Restoration in restoring or repairing the church organs that had been destroyed or injured during the civil wars. He built new instruments for St. George's chapel, Windsor; New College Chapel, Oxford; and many others. He died in 1672.

DALLAS, (Alexander James,) an American lawyer and statesman, born in Jamaica, in 1759, where his father was an eminent physician. He received his education partly at Edinburgh and partly at Westminster. In 1783 he settled in Philadelphia. In 1785 he was admitted to practise as an advocate in the supreme court of Pennsylvania; and in the course of four or five years he became a practitioner in the courts of the United States. He was editor of the Colombian Magazine, and his contributions are said to have displayed considerable ability. In 1791 he was appointed secretary of Pennsylvania; and in December 1793 his commission was renewed. In December 1796 he again obtained the post of secretary of state; and while in office he published an edition of the laws of the commonwealth, with notes. In 1801, on the election of Jefferson to the presidency of the United States, Dallas was appointed attorney of the United States for the eastern district of Pennsylvania. In 1814 he was made secretary of the treasury of the United States; and in March 1815 he was secretary at war. He died

in 1817.

DALLAS, (Sir Robert,) an eminent lawyer, the eldest son of Robert Dallas, Esq., of Kensington. He was educated, along with his brother George, at Geneva, under the care of M. Chauvet. He then entered at the Temple, and was called to the bar; where he displayed singular ability. It was his good fortune to be employed on the side of Mr. Hastings; and here his talents obtained for him a silk gown, as king's counsel. In 1802 he was returned to Parliament for St. Michael's, in Cornwall; but, on succeeding Sir Vicary Gibbs, as chief-justice of Chester, his seat became vacant, and he was returned for Kirkaldy. In 1813 he was appointed one of the puisne judges of the Court of Common Pleas; and in 1818 he succeeded his friend,

Gibbs, in the presidency of the same court. He resigned his situation in the court of Common Pleas in November 1823, and died on the 25th of December in the following year.

DALLAS, (Sir George, Bart.,) an eminent political writer, brother of the preceding, born in London, in 1758. He was educated principally at Geneva, under the care of M. Chauvet, a distinguished minister of the Swiss church. At the age of eighteen he sailed for Bengal, as a writer in the service of the East India Company. He shortly afterwards published, at Calcutta, a clever and popular poem, entitled The India Guide. He was soon promoted, at the desire of Mr. Hastings, to the post of superintendent of the collections at Raageshay-an office for which he was eminently qualified by his integrity, sagacity, and knowledge of the native languages. After six years he was obliged, by the failure of his health, to solicit leave to return to England, when he was deputed by the inhabitants of Calcutta to present at the bar of the House of Commons a petition against Mr. Pitt's India Bill. In 1789 he published an able pamphlet in vindication of Mr. Hastings; and in 1793 he published Thoughts upon our present Situation, with Remarks upon the Policy of a War with France, in which he vehemently denounced the principles of the French Revolution. This work speedily went through several editions, and excited the admiration of Mr. Pitt, at whose suggestion it was reprinted for general distribution. The critical condition of Ireland at this time led to the publication of his Observations upon the Oath of Allegiance, as prescribed by the Enrolling Act, which were followed by A Letter from a Father to a Son, a United Irishman. In the same year appeared the first of his celebrated Letters to Lord Moira, on the Political and Commercial State of Ireland, published in the Anti-Jacobin, and were afterwards, at the particular request of Mr. Pitt, embodied in a separate work. These papers were republished in a volume entitled, Beauties of the Anti-Jacobin. In 1798 he published another Address to the People of Ireland, on the present Situation of Public Affairs. In the same year he was raised to the dignity of a baronet. In 1799 appeared his Considerations on the Impolicy of treating for Peace with the present Regicide Government of France; and soon after he was returned to Parliament for the

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borough of Newport, in the Isle of Wight. He next published A Letter to Sir William Pulteney, Bart., Member for Shrewsbury, on the Subject of the Trade between India and Europe; and in 1808 he published A Defence of the Wars undertaken by the Marquis Wellesley in the Deccan and Hindostan. In 1813 he published, anonymously, a tract on the religious conversion of the Hindûs, under the title of A Letter from a Field-Officer at Madras. He died in 1833.

DALLAS, (Robert Charles,) a miscellaneous writer, born, in 1754, at Jamaica, and educated, first at Musselburgh, in Scotland, and next under Mr. Elphinston, at Kensington; after which he studied the law in the Inner Temple. On coming of age he returned to Jamaica; but, after a residence of three years, he returned to England, and gave himself up to literary pursuits. He wrote several novels, A History of the Maroons, and Recollections of Lord Byron. He died in Normandy, in 1824.

DALLAWAY, (James,) an English divine, poet, and miscellaneous writer, born at Bristol, in 1763. He was educated at the grammar-school of Cirencester, and at Trinity college, Oxford. In 1789 he was elected a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries; and in 1792 he published, in 4to, Enquiries into the Origin and Progress of Heraldry in England, with Observations on Armorial Ensigns, dedicated to the duke of Norfolk, through whose influence he was appointed chaplain and physician to the British embassy at the Porte. After his return he published, Constantinople, Ancient and Modern, with Excursions to the Shores and Islands of the Archipelago, and to the Troad, 1797, 4to. In 1802 he communicated to the Society of Antiquaries an Account of the Walls of Constantinople; which is printed, with four plates, in the Archæologia, vol. xiv. In 1797 he was appointed secretary to the earl marshal; and in 1799 the duke of Norfolk presented him to the rectory of South Stoke, in Sussex; and in 1801 he obtained the vicarage of Letherhead, in Surrey. In 1800 he published, in 8vo, Anecdotes of the Arts in England, or comparative Remarks on Architecture, Sculpture, and Painting, chiefly illustrated by Specimens at Oxford. In 1803 he edited, in five volumes, 8vo, The Letters and other Works of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, from her original MSS., with Memoirs of her Life. In 1816 he published a work entitled, Of

Statuary and Sculpture among the Ancients, with some Account of Specimens preserved in England, 8vo. In 1806 he superintended an embellished edition of Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting, which includes Vertue's Memoirs of the English Painters and Engravers. He died in 1834.

DALLINGTON, (Sir Robert,) according to Fuller, was born at Gedington, in the county of Northampton, and bred a Bible-clerk in Corpus Christi college, Cambridge; but Wood says he was a Greek scholar in Pembroke hall. He published A Book of Epitaphs, made upon the Death of the right worshipful Sir William Buttes, knt. in 1583. After travelling in Italy, he published Survey of the Great Duke's State of Tuscany in the year 1596; and in the same year appeared his Method of Travel, showed by taking a view of France as it stood in 1598, 4to. He next became secretary to Francis, earl of Rutland, then one of the privy chamber to prince Charles, and master of the Charter-house, where he introduced into the school the custom of versifying on passages of Scripture. About this time he was knighted. He was incorporated A.M. at Oxford in 1601, and published Aphorismes, Civil and Military, amplified with authorities, and exemplified with history out of the first quaterne of Fr. Guiccardini, Lond. 1615, fol. in which he is said to have "shown both wit and judgment." He died in 1637, and was buried in the Charter-house chapel.

DALMASIO, (Lippo Scannabecchi,) a painter, born at Bologna about 1370. He painted heads of the Virgin with such remarkable grace and beauty, that he was called Lippo dalle Madonne. Some assert that he painted in oil; but this is not the fact, as it is admitted that to John van Eyck we are indebted for the discovery of that mode of painting.

DALMATIN, (George,) a learned Lutheran divine, who flourished in the sixteenth century. In 1658 he translated Luther's German Bible into the Sclavonian or Carniolan language; which work the states of Styria, Carinthia, and Carniola determined should be printed for the benefit of the people in their respective countries. Their design, however, alarmed the bigotry of Charles, archduke of Austria, who issued an order to prohibit its impression in any of the Austrian dominions. In these circumstances they sent Dalmatin, accompanied by Adam Bohoritsch, evangelic rector at

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