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take to my busines in one street, some unfore seen misfortune, or a desire of trying my luck elsewhere, has removed me, perhaps a whole mile away from my former customers, while some more lucky cobler would come into my place, and make a handsome fortune among friends of my making; there was one who actually died in the stall that I had left, worth seven pounds seven shillings, all in hard gold, which he had quilted into the waistband of his breeches."

I could not but smile at these migrations of a man by the fire-side, and continued to ask, If he had ever been married?" Ay, that I have, master (replied he), for sixteen long years; and a weary life I had of it, Heaven knows. My wife took it into her head that the only way to thrive in this world was to save money; so, though our incomings were but three shillings a-week, all that ever she could lay her hands upon she used to hide away from me, though we were obliged to starve the whole week after for it.

"The first three years we used to quarrel about this every day, and I always got the better: but she had a hard spirit, and still continued to hide as usual; so that I was at last tired of quarrelling and getting the better, and she scraped and scraped at pleasure, till I was almost starved to death. Her conduct drove me at last in despair to the ale-house; here I used frequently to sit with people who hated home like myself, drank,

while I had money left, and run in score when any body would trust me; till at last the landlady coming one day with a long bill, when I was from home, and putting it into my wife's hands, the length of it effectually broke her heart. I searched the whole stall, after she was dead, for money; but she had hidden it so effectually, that, with all my pains, I could never find a farthing."

By this time my shoe was mended, and satisfying the poor artist for his trouble, and rewarding him besides, for his information, I took my leave, and returned home to lengthen out the amusement his conversation afforded, by communicat ing it to my friend.-Adieu.

LETTER LXVI.

From Lien Chi Altangi to Hingpo, by the way of Moscow.

GENEROSITY, properly applied, will supply every other external advantage in life, but the love of those we converse with; it will procure essteem, and a conduct resembling real affection; but actual love is the spontaneous production of the mind no generosity can purchase, no rewards increase, nor no liberality continue it: the very person who is obliged has it not in his power to force his lingering affections upon the object he

should love, and voluntarily mix passion with gratitude.

Imparted fortune and well-placed liberality may procure the benefactor good-will, may load the person obliged with the sense of the duty he lies under to retaliate: this is gratitude; and simple gratitude, untinctured with love, is all the return an ingenuous mind can bestow for former benefits.

esteem.

But gratitude and love are almost opposite affections: love is often an involuntary passion, placed upon our companions without our consent, and frequently conferred without our previous We love some men we know not why; our tenderness is naturally excited in all their concerns; we excuse their faults with the same indulgence, and approve their virtues with the same applause, with which we consider our own. While we entertain the passion, it pleases us; we cherish it with delight, and give it up with reluctance; and love for love is all the reward we expect or desire.

Gratitude, on the contrary, is never conferred but where there have been previous endeavours to excite it; we consider it as a debt, and our spirits wear a load till we have discharged the obligation. Every acknowledgment of gratitude is a circumstance of humiliation; and some are found to submit to frequent mortifications of this kind; proclaiming what obligations they owe,

merely because they think it in some measure cancels the debt.

Thus love is the most easy and agreeable, and gratitude the most humiliating affection of the mind; we never reflect on the man we love without exulting in our choice, while he who has bound us to him by benefits alone rises to our idea as a person to whom we have in some measure forfeited our freedom. Love and gratitude are seldom, therefore, found in the same breast, without impairing each other: we may tender the one or the other singly to those we converse with, but cannot command both together. By attempting to increase, we diminish them; the mind becomes bankrupt under too large obligations; all additional benefits lessen every hope of future return, and bar every avenue that leads to tender

ness.

In all our connexions with society, therefore, it is not only generous but prudent to appear insensible of the value of those favours we bestow, and endeavour to make the obligation seem as slight as possible: love must be taken by stratagem, and not by open force: we should seem ig-. norant that we oblige, and leave the mind at full liberty to give or refuse its affections; for constraint may, indeed, leave the receiver still grateful, but it will certainly produce disgust. If to procure gratitude be your only aim, there is no great art in making the acquisition; a be.

nefit conferred, demands a just acknowledgment, and we have a right to insist upon our due.

But it were much more prudent to forego our right on such an occasion, and exchange it, if we can, for love. We receive but little advantage from repeated protestations of gratitude; but they cost him very much from whom we exact them in return exacting a grateful acknowledgment is demanding a debt by which the creditor is not advantaged, and the debtor pays with reluctance.

As Mentius, the philosopher, was travelling in the pursuit of wisdom, night overtook him at the foot of a gloomy mountain, remote from the habitations of men. Here, as he was straying, while rain and thunder conspired to make solitude still more hideous, he perceived a hermit's cell, and, approaching, asked for shelter: "Enter (cries the hermit, in a severe tone); men deserve not to be obliged; but it would be imitating their ingratitude to treat them as they deserve. Come in: examples of vice may sometimes strengthen us in the ways of virtue."

After a frugal meal, which consisted of roots and tea, Mentius could not repress his curiosity to know why the hermit had retired from mankind, the actions of whom taught the truest lessons of wisdom." Mention not the name of man (cries the hermit with indignation): here let me live retired from a base ungrateful world; here among the beasts of the forest, I shall find no flat

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