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intestinal wall, having had all the organic matter digested out, and consisting only of the inorganic remains which do not stain.
In the fore part of the intestinal canal the mass contains great numbers of food-organisms, such as radiolarians, foramenifera, minute crustacea, and microscopic vegetable organisms, and it takes staining almost as readily as the walls of the gut itself, seeming to merge into the illy-defined epithelium of the latter, and it is scarcely possible to say where the food-bearing mucous thread ceases and the intestinal epithelium begins, especially as this has a rugous arrangement.
That we have here to do with a form of digestion entirely anomalous and unprecedented I cannot believe, for I have several series of sections from animals which must have been without food for some time previous to death, in which the lumen of the intestine is not only free of food but of any obliterating mass of cells or plasmodium. The only protoplasmic bodies, not food, are certain Gregarina-like organisms adhering to the walls in various parts of the intestine, and which I consider to be parasites. These give, in sections, the appearance of the large "scattered cells entirely free from their surroundings" which Korotneff figures, and regards as "analogous to the great stomach-cell of Anchinia."
I am therefore forced to conclude that he has endowed the food-bearing mucous thread with a power it does not possess, and that Salpa does not exhibit any unusual form of digestion, and that there is no reason, on this account, for questioning the high genetic place occupied by the Tunicates.
Note on the Structure and Affinities of Phytoptus (Duj.). By J. PLAYFAIR MCMURRICH.
The genus Phytoptus was established by Dujardin in 1851 (Ann. d. Sci. Nat.) for two forms of mites which he found on the Linden and Willow respectively, and which he characterized as possessing only two pairs of legs, an annulated abdomen and degenerated mouth-parts. These mites had been previously mentioned by Réaumur (Mem. pour servir á l'Histoire des
Insectes, 1737), and by Dugés (Ann. d. Sci. Nat., 1834), who considered them larval forms of Dermanyssus, holding that all adult Acarina never possessed less than four pairs of legs. Dujardin perceiving ova in the abdomen considered the mites adult forms, but his observations were later called in question by Scheuten (Arch. f. Naturg., 1857), who agreed with Dugés that they were larval. It was left for Landois (Zeit. f. wissen. Zoöl., 1864), to set at rest the question as to their adult nature by a complete study of a form occurring on the leaves of the vine, but at the same time he confirmed Dugés' views that all adult mites possess eight legs by showing that two almost aborted limbs were present in addition to those described by earlier authors. So the matter remained for ten years, the additions to our knowledge of the Phytopti made in the interval being altogether faunistic, but in 1874, Löw disputed the presence of the rudimentary legs.
By a careful examination of P. pyri, Sch., I have been able to confirm Landois' statments. A pair of small tubercles may be seen on either side just anterior to the genital plate. They are smaller in the form observed than they are represented in Landois' figures, but nevertheless decidedly larger than the wart-like structures which support the body-setae. That these tubercles exist I have no doubt, but that they represent rudimentary legs is not quite so clear though, on a priori grounds, they must be supposed to be of that nature.
In classifications of the Acarina the Phytoptide have usually been placed close to the Trombididæ probably from the mode of life being in both cases similar. Morphologically, however, great differences exist between these two groups which can hardly be explained by degeneration. It appears to me that the Phytopti are much more closely allied to Demodex than to any other forms. In both there is the annulated cuticle of the abdomen; in Demodex the tracheal system is only very slightly developed, while in Phytoptus it is absent; the mouth-parts of the latter may be compared to the maxillæ and unpair stylet-like structure of the former, the mandibles having disappeared in accordance with the mode of life. Demodex differs in being less degenerate as shown by the presence of eight equally developed legs, and the occurrence of eyes, but on the whole the resemblance is greater than obtains between the Phytoptidae and other Acarina.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE ARCHEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY.
[Reprinted from the Ninth Annual Report of the Johns Hopkins University].
To the President of the Johns Hopkins University:
SIR: In accordance with your request that I would prepare a connected statement of what has been done during the past year in this University to encourage the study of Archæology, I send you the following report:—
A course of public lectures on Classical Archæology was given in Hopkins Hall during the spring months. The opening lecture, (January 14), by Dr. Waldstein, director of the Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge, (England), treated of the Influence of Athletic Games on Greek Art, from the time of its transition from the archaic stage to a closer study of the human form, until finally professional athleticism signalled a decline in the standard of taste and of art.
Mr. Joseph T. Clarke, who was in charge of the American archæological expedition to Assos, began his course (March 10) with a Plea for Practical Archæology, showing how the practical work accomplished in the present century has raised this study to the rank of a science; whereas, in the past, the immense material at hand could not be put to its proper use from the want of critical spirit. His two following lectures (March 12 and 14) were devoted to an account of the city of Assos, as disclosed by the excavations carried on for more than two years by the Archæological Institute. Besides the well known temple, with its interesting reliefs, the buildings of the Agora or market-place are unique for the insight they give us into the Greek methods of construction. They comprise the immense Stoa, the Bouleuterion, and the Bath. The series is completed by the Theatre, the Gymnasion, and the interesting street of tombs. The concluding lecture (March 17) on the Cyrenaica showed the exceptional advantages which would attend excavations in this early Greek colony, as yet almost unex
plored. The city of Cyrene, with its extensive ruins above ground, offers peculiar attractions to the explorer.
Mr. W. J. Stillman, late U. S. Consul in Crete, lectured on March 19, 21 and 24. Prehistoric Research in the Classical Field formed the subject of his first lecture. He expressed the view that the ruins in Italy and Greece, that are commonly called Cyclopean or Pelasgic, were the work of a Pelasgic civilization which, having its seat in lower or central Italy moved southward leaving traces of its passage in Sicily, along the Illyrian shore, and especially through the Peloponnessus and Crete. The second lecture treated of the State of Research in Greece, and the great harm done to Art history and investigation by repressive laws concerning archæological researches. A well organized American school—not exciting like those of other nations the susceptibilities of the Greeks-would be the most potent possible agency to bring about a modification of the present law. In his third lecture, on the Relations of Art to Archæology, Mr. Stillman argued that true art was not imitation of nature, but the expression of an ideal of the human mind.
Dr. A. Emerson, Fellow in Greek, gave six lectures on Olympia, (March 26 to April 7.) He first gave an historical sketch of the Olympic festival, and described the various contests which took place on each of the five days during which the festival lasted. The people of Elis were the managers of the games, and this curatorship preserved to Elis its early independence. The character of the games declined greatly during the Roman period, until they were finally prohibited by Theodosius in 394. Although burned in 426, the temple of Zeus does not seem to have been fully destroyed until the great earthquake of 551. Of the architectural monuments of the Altis, the Heraion and the temple of Zeus were the most important. The former building, of uncertain but early date, establishes the wooden derivation of
the Doric style. The temple of Zeus was founded in the 77th Olympiad by the Eleian architect, Libon. Paionios was the author of the sculptures of the Eastern pediment, and Alkamenes filled the Western pediment; the whole being under the direction of Paionios, who was awarded the prize in the competition. The sculptures of both pediments have been so far recovered by the German explorers that restorations in general unessential have been sufficient to complete them. Two chefs d'œuvre of free sculpture were also found in the excavations: the colossal marble Victory, by Paionios, and the Hermes holding the infant Dionysos, an early work of Praxiteles.
The concluding lecture (April 9) was by Professor Gildersleeve on the Relations of Literary and Plastic Art. The history of both these incorporations of national life shows many points of resemblance which were dwelt on in some detail. Our age has a better appreciation of both literature and art and these studies ought not to be dissociated.
In February, an Archæological Society was formed at the University for the voluntary prosecution of this study. Its meetings, which took place monthly, included the reading of papers on Ancient and Christian Art and reports on recent discoveries and investigations. At the first meeting (February 16), Dr. Frothingham discoursed on the study, past and present, of Christian Archæology, and its importance for obtaining a comprehensive view of history. Dr. Emerson reviewed the history of the study of Classical Archæology among civilized nations, especially during the last forty years. Maj. J. W. Powell, Director of the U. S. Bureau of Ethnology, gave an address on the Archæology of the Aboriginal Races of the United States, sketching the condition of handicraft among the different tribes. The meeting of March 14 was addressed by Mr. Clarke on the subject of the Entasis in Greek architecture, giving the results of original researches on the nature of the curved outlines of columns, employed by the Greeks to overcome an optical deception. Mr. Hoskins made a report on the collection of casts in the Peabody Institute. Mr. Stillman addressed the next meeting (March 22) on the Acropolis of Athens, describing its site, the means of access, and the principal buildings (the Parthenon and the Erechtheum); the lecture was illustrated by numerous photographs. A report on the works regarding ancient art contained in the Peabody Library was made by Dr. Emerson. At the last meeting (May 9) Dr. Frothingham read a paper on the history of Mosaic-painting since the Christian era, emphasizing the important place it holds in art-history, as it furnishes an almost unbroken series of well-preserved works during a period of twelve centuries. Dr. Emerson showed the interest of a well-organized and classified collection of electrotype reproductions of ancient coins.
In connection with the Society, Dr. Frothingham organized several circles for the study of various phases of Art, illustrated by photographs and artbooks. At weekly meetings the following subjects were examined: Romanesque Architecture. (March 1).
Gothic Architecture. (March 8).
Italian Sculpture during the XIII-XIV centuries. (March 22).
The object of these informal lectures was to give a general idea of the subject studied, supported by such numerous representations as should give familiarity with the most characteristic works of the period.
The Archæological Institute of America which was founded five years ago for the promotion of archæological research and discovery on classical and American soil, has been during this time centred in Boston, although New York also furnished a considerable number of members. Feeling the danger of an interest too much centralized to be long efficient, the Council of the Institute at its meeting in Boston (May 17, 1884), proposed a new constitution by which the Institute should consist of affiliated societies in various cities. Wherever at least ten members organize they may form an affiliated society and send a member to the general council; a membership of fifty gives the right to a second delegate. Beside sharing in the general advantages of the Institute and influencing the work undertaken by it, these societies may create local interest by meetings, publications, etc. In order to further the formation of such a society in Baltimore, the
University Archæological Society appointed Drs. Emerson and Frothingham as a committee. In a short time an organization of twenty-four members was formed and the "Baltimore branch of the Archæological Institute of America" was organized on June 5, with Mr. J. W. McCoy as president, and Drs. Emerson and Frothingham as recording and corresponding secretaries
This newly formed society is quite distinct, both in its organization and in its aims, from that of the Johns Hopkins Archæological Society. The object of the University society is to excite among students in the various departments, an interest in the subject of art history and the first manifestations of early civilizations. It aims to attract the student of psychology by aesthetics, the student of history and philology by the valuable aid and suggestions it affords to both these departments.
The Baltimore branch of the American Institute, on the other hand, if it continue the custom which has hitherto been followed, will have but two meetings in the year. It consists both of those who take an active part in archæological work and of the patrons of art who are interested in furthering the efforts of American workers in a field so well cultivated by other nations. There can be no doubt that Baltimore will take, as is its due, an important share in giving this encouragement.
The valuable Cohen collection of Egyptian Antiquities, which has recently been acquired by the University, will be of great interest, not only for art, but for the historical study of the customs and laws of Egypt. It was begun in 1832 by Col. M. I. Cohen during his travels in Egypt, and consists of six hundred and eighty nine objects procured mainly in the localities where they were originally discovered. A number of objects, however, belonged to the famous collection of Mr. Salt, H. M. consul in Egypt, which was sold in 1835. The collection consists chiefly of small works illustrating the history of the minor arts in Egypt from the xvIII dynasty to that of the Ptolemies.
The University has also purchased plaster casts, on a reduced scale of 1:10, of the two pediments of the temple of Zeus at Olympia. They had recently been executed at Berlin, under the direction of Curtius and Hirschfeld, by the sculptor Grüttner.
The University, in connection with other American institutions, has continued for several years its subscription for the maintenance of the school of Classical Archæology at Athens.
A word may be now said on future work. One great difficulty in giving an educational impulse to studies in art history, especially for beginners, is the lack of reproductions from the originals. A systematic collection of photographs would be a most efficient and practical means of education, producing that familiarity with the monuments which is the first requisite towards gaining an insight into the study. This system was tried with success at the art circles described above. For the sum of three hundred and fifty dollars, a fine collection of about one thousand good sized photographs could be procured, which should illustrate all art periods, e. g.: Assyria, 60 ($35); Egypt, 60 ($35); Greece, 125 ($65); Rome, 100 ($25); Early Christian (Arch. Sculp. Paint.), 100 ($30); Romanesque and Gothic (Arch. Sculp. Paint.), 200 ($50); Renaissance, 150 ($35); Italian Painting, 200 ($60). Such a collection would be in continual use for the illustration of lectures or the inspection of art circles.
Most necessary also for classical archæology—as Dr. Emerson has shown —is a select collection of electrotype reproductions of ancient coins. It would illustrate admirably the history and literature of Greece and her colonies, and often also the condition of art in various provinces at the same period. The British Museum has, under the direction of Mr. Barclay V. Head, made such a collection of electrotypes divided into chronological and geographical sections. Specimens of the most important of these sections, consisting of a hundred and fifty coins, could be procured for the sum of $125; these would represent chronologically the history of the numismatic art from its beginnings in Greece (c. 700) to the age of Alexander, and geographically, the East, Greece proper, and the West.
REPORTS OF LECTURES, PAPERS, ETC.
Dr. Billings on the Place of the Science of Hygiene in a Liberal Education.
[On the sixth of November, 1884, Dr. J. S. Billings, U. S. A., Lecturer on Hygiene in the Johns Hopkins University, delivered a lecture before the officers and students of the University on the subject above named, and he has kindly furnished, in compliance with a request, the following abstract of his remarks.]
The lecturer commenced by stating what a course of study in Hygiene should include if established as part of the general course of instruction in the University. It would not include such detailed technical instruction as would be required by one proposing to become a sanitary engineer, or a medical officer of health, but it should include much more than mere general disquisitions on the laws of health, or than the so-called popular text books on Hygiene intended for the common schools. It would not include instruction in what is ordinarily called personal hygiene, because, to be of real value, advice on this subject must refer to individual cases and their wants, and because such instruction is already given in the department of Physical Training.
The course of instruction proposed would include an account of the principal causes of disease, including heredity, meteorology, the present position of the germ theory, etc., of water supply and its impurities, water analysis, methods of obtaining and storing water for use, water waste and its prevention, the pollution of streams, the disposal of water after it has been fouled by household use; of scavenging, including methods for the disposal of house refuse and sewage, the general principles of the so-called combined and separate systems of sewerage, and their modifications, house drainage and plumbing, heating and ventilation, and of the practical application of the general principles of sanitary construction, in both private habitations and public buildings.
Every well educated man should be able to form an intelligent opinion as to the sanitary condition of a house, a school building, or a hospital. He is liable at any time, as a citizen, to be concerned in the construction or management of some of these institutions, and must act in a judicial capacity upon the recommendations of people having opposing opinions, and sometimes, opposing interests. The habitations of the poorer classes, and especially tenement houses, and the best means of regulating these so that they shall not become causes of disease and immorality-and to do this without interfering unduly with private rights, which involves not only sanitary considerations but also some of the general principles of sociology and political economy, should also be a subject of instruction.
Food and its adulterations, the special dangers and nuisances connected with certain occupations, the proper modes of caring for the dead, the subject of vital statistics, including methods for taking a census, for registration of births, marriages and deaths, and of classifying, tabulating, and publishing the information derived from these, methods of preparing life tables, and of calculating expectation of life, and so much of the jurisprudence of hygiene as would enable the student to understand his own relations as an individual in this respect and those of the people to the State, and of the latter to the nation, including the general principles of laws establishing Boards of Health, the methods of checking the spread or importation of contagious or infectious diseases, quarantine, and the common law of nuisances were suggested as other proper subjects for instruction in such a
The special instruction given in certain foreign universities to those who are to become medical officers of health was then briefly described, and it was stated that the course proposed would include about twenty lectures, which should be fully illustrated, and a certain amount of reading, and working out of problems by the students occupying about as much time as the lectures, that is, that in all about forty hours would be devoted to the subject. Special laboratory work would not be necessary on the part of the students, but the teacher would require a room and some apparatus.
The arguments in favor of the establishment of such a course were briefly stated as follows: First, that the subject is worthy of study for its own sake without reference to utilitarianism. Second, that the knowledge thus gained would be decidedly advantageous to every professional man, and enable him to form an intelligent opinion as to the influence which his sur
roundings would have upon the health of himself and his family, enable him to take timely steps for prevention, and to protect himself from being unnecessarily alarmed or unduly swindled by charlatans in the guise of sanitarians. If he is to become a teacher, a manufacturer, or head of a large business of any kind, a leader in any capacity, he must make use of other men as material, as assistants, as tools, and his success will depend in no small degree upon the intelligent care with which he keeps such material and tools in the best possible condition as regards physical health. Those motives, however, which depend mainly on the desire for the gratification of personal taste and wishes, or for what is calculated to advance one's personal well being and interest are not the highest motives which can be presented in favor of a given course of investigation or study. Under the existing conditions of civilized life in which we find ourselves,—and especially under the conditions in which a liberally educated citizen of the United States is placed, there are incumbent upon him certain duties in his relations to his fellow man which are of great importance, and to properly fulfil which he should endeavor to prepare himself. Of the importance of health to the community, or the nation, of the desirability that we should have among us the largest possible number of healthy men, of men who live long and vigorously, and who when they die leave healthy offspring there is no need to enlarge. Much has been done in other countries within the last twenty-five years to improve the public health, to diminish sickness, and to prolong life. There is need of improvement in this respect in this country and this need will rapidly increase with the growth of population. The possibility of making such improvements depends on the growth and development of enlightened public opinion, on the education of the people, and this education must extend to all classes and to all professions.
While the training of specialists is important, we have also great need for intelligent, well educated men in the general occupations of life, who shall be bankers, business men, railroad men, clergymen, lawyers, judges, and legislators.
Every well educated man is in his own circle the leader of others, who will be governed by his opinion in matters of public policy such as involve legislation affecting the public health, the preservation of pure water supply, the propriety of introducing a system of sewerage, etc. Such a course as is proposed would also be valuable to the specialist, if for no other purpose than to give a certain amount of breadth to the foundations of his special knowledge, in which such knowledge is too often lacking.
In the medical profession the tendency at present is to begin to specialize too soon, and this is a danger which should receive consideration in planning for the higher education of the young men of this country.
The objections to the establishment of such a course were summed up as follows: First, that there is no existing demand on the part of students for it. Second, that the subject is not yet on a scientific basis. Third, that the present course of instruction given in the chemical, physical, and biological departments of the University include all that a well-educated man need know of this subject unless he proposes to make it a specialty. Fourth, that the students have no time for any studies additional to the course already supplied.
To the first objection the reply was that the same might be said as to other branches of the curriculum-that the majority of students do not know what they ought to study-and that the question is whether the time has not come to create the demand and for the University to lead the way in the matter. The second objection is only partly true. The general rule holds good in man as it does in the laboratory, that like causes under like circumstances will produce like effects. When it has been shown in a number of well-marked cases that polluted water has been the means of spreading typhoid fever, that overcrowding and foul air precede epidemic typhus, that scarlet fever or diptheria has been conveyed to a village by infected clothing from a distance, we have enough information to enable us to advise in similar cases, although we also know that men have drunk sewage with impunity and that unprotected children have slept in the same bed with a scarlet fever case and have not taken the disease.
The two last objections the lecturer did not discuss, saying that his audience (the professors and students) could better judge of their importance than himself, but expressing the hope that they would not be found to be very serious ones in practice,
Mr. A. M. Elliott on a Philological Expedition
[Abstract of a paper read at the meeting of the University Philological Association, October 3, 1884].
The object of this communication was to give some details with reference to the French Canadians of the Province of Quebec, among whom the writer passed about two months of last summer for the purpose of studying the local customs, traditions, and language of the people. The territory chosen for work was that represented by the valley of the St. Lawrence, between Montreal as the western, and Quebec as the eastern end of the line. To the west of the former, as far as Ottowa, I was able to collect a few data bearing upon the gradual mixture of the French and English, which will be shown elsewhere to have special interest for the philologian, while to the east of the latter, my observations were extended to a few points down the river as far as the small village St. Tite, about forty miles below Quebec. The distance between the two extremes of my working line measures exactly one hundred and eighty miles, and will doubtless appear to those unacquainted with the linguistic territory as far too extensive to be characterized with even a moderate degree of accuracy. To this doubt I must reply that, acting the part of pioneer, my chief object was to gather the leading features of the language and thus establish the main local characteristics which it is necessary to know before individual centres can be worked out with profit. In doing this, to my great surprise, I found a uniformity of speech for this whole district which must impress, as little less than wonderful, every one who has been accustomed to note the great and often puzzling differences of idiom that exist in European countries. The causes that produced this sameness of word-form and expression are too complex to be more than hinted at here, but their effects are easily traceable in the community of language of the habitant and the city bred, of the uneducated and the learned. My plan of operation for the above named territory was to select certain localities that would serve as bases to move from. These were naturally the ends of the linguistic line and its middle point, that is, Montreal, Three Rivers, and Quebec, which cities I took as so many centres and worked out towards the circumference or limits of the region examined, extending back in some cases to more than fifty miles from the St. Lawrence River.
To understand the present institutions and the language of this tract of country, we must know something of the peculiar history of the branch of the French people, who have inhabited it, and who from many points of view (ethnological, social, religious and linguistic) are certainly one of the most interesting of modern civilization.
Although Jacques Cartier discovered the St. Lawrence in 1535, it was not till about three quarters of a century later (1608) that the first settlement was made by the "True Father of Canada," Samuel de Champlain, on the present site of Quebec. A little more than three decades later (1642) the foundations of Ville-Marie de Montreal were laid by Paul de Chomedey, Sieur de Maisonneuve. Champlain was sent out by a company of associated noblemen of France with the distinct purpose, in addition to the establishment of commercial relations, of opening a new field for the Christian religion. Duty was the guiding star of Maisonneuve's life, and in this original name of the city of Montreal we have an indication that the early settlement was the result of religious enthusiasm. "It shows an attempt to found in America a veritable Kingdom of God, as understood by devout Roman Catholics." * We must keep steadily in mind this deep religious sentiment that animated the founders of the colony if we would understand the extraordinary faith of the people to-day, for nowhere else, perhaps, has belief a stronger living power than with these our neighbors of the North. Here the Angelus continues to practically solve the labor question that is vexing the rest of Christendom; here the dictum of the Priest or Bishop is sufficient in many places to make the people forego the pleasures of the dance and other innocent amusements; here is the land of miracles where the earnest, faithful pilgrim, whether halt or blind, is restored to the full vigor of his bodily functions under the quickening energy of some saint; where the rich and the poor, the well and the sick flock by tens of thousands to holy shrines to receive the rewards of their
* Dawson: Handbook for the Dominion of Canada. Pages 123, 149. Montreal, 1884.
piety in greater personal comfort or in other temporal blessings. The necessity thus arises for the clergy to constantly mix with the masses, which has a direct and notable influence upon the speech both of the former and of the latter.
For more than two hundred years New France remained in possession of the French, and the unity of the province was not molested till thirty years after the British Conquest (1760). Ontario was then set apart for the exiled loyalists of the revolted colonies. At the time Canada passed to the British crown she barely numbered 60,000 souls, and now, after only a century and a quarter, she counts within her own borders about 1,500,000 people, produced entirely by natural increase (for there is no immigration from France), and has sent to the United States 500,000 inhabitants within the last twenty years. It is a most common thing to find families of twenty-five to thirty children by the same mother, and it has been very properly suggested that "if at this present time the French race manifests a vitality in Canada as mysterious to its enemies as to the Frenchman of the France to-day, it is because of the imperishable power, of the self-sacrifice and heroism of so many of those men, laymen as well as clerics, who planted the standard of France on the shores of the St. Lawrence."
As a natural effect of this rapid increase in population we find a gradual uprooting of the weaker race in point of numbers, that is, the English. The wonderfully absorbing power of the French element in Lower Canada has produced the curious phenomenon of a people in certain sections of the country bearing all the racial characteristics of the English or Scotch (the blue eyes, light hair and florid faces), and having the name of Warren, Fraser, McDonald, McPherson, etc., but still unable to speak a word of the mother tongue. The English names of roads, of towns, of counties give evidence as to who were the occupants of the soil a few years ago. To-day it is the offspring of the Gallic stock who possess the land.
Not only this; the French are running over their territorial boundaries in both directions, east and west, and from the province of Upper Canada, the peculiar heritage of the English, they have already one representative in the National Assembly. Their unswerving purpose, encouraged by the clergy, is to take back their old domains by the peaceful process of repopulating them with descendants of their own blood, and, at the present rate of increase, we may safely predict that it will not be many generations before they shall have accomplished this unique feat.
Another feature of external influence upon the language must be noted in the original seigniorial tenure which prevailed throughout Lower Canada. The Seigneurs were the second sons of noble families who chose the better class of peasants to accompany them to their homes in the New World, and here each ruler laid out on the river his little kingdom (generally x 3 leagues in dimensions), which he divided among his colonists in concessions of 3 x 30 arpents. This arrangement produced a series of centres of civilization in which the lord and his educated friends were brought into more or less intimate contact with the common people; in truth, we have abundant evidence to show that the relation of the Seigneur to his people was much more intimate in these early settlements of Canada than in the mother country. After the conquest (1760) nearly all the nobles fled the country, and the different classes of society were more thoroughly mixed than they had ever been before. They united against a common enemy who made more than one unsuccessful attempt to deprive them of their dearest heritage after their religion, that is, their language. Passionately attached to both these, their national existence found expression in literature (History, Fiction, Poetry), but their children to-day, as descendants of ante-revolutionary France, are separated in thought and feeling by a great gulf from modern France.
The influence of long and constant contact with a Teutonic race has had the effect to temper the rash impulses of the Gaul, and this is in no respect more marked than in his speech, where a quiet monotony largely prevails and strikes the stranger immediately as one of its leading characteristics. It has not the rhythm, the inexhaustible variety and rich cadence of the Gallic tongue as it is spoken to-day in France. The people are intensely proud of their language all the same, yet in their literature there is no servile imitation of French models. The motives for it are drawn from the rich sources of their own history, popular tradition and social life, and the treatment of these subjects often impresses the reader as having something of the verve and manly diction of the old chroniclers, coupled with the polish of the modern schools. Their popular songs are very numerous and
constitute a large body of literature in themselves. Many of them were transplanted to the soil of the North more than two hundred years ago, from Brittany and Normandy, and represent that common genus of minstrelsy, or folk-song, so frequently found in North Spain, Provence, France, etc.; many others, again, are of native growth, illustrating themes of popular sympathy or individual experience in the history of the early settlers. Nowhere more than in Canada does this species of literary composition better serve the important purpose of strengthening a feeling of common interest and fortifying the national spirit, and in the full consciousness of this living power the leaders of this people to-day may well accept the aphorism of old Fletcher: "Give me the making of songs for the people and I care not who makes the laws."
In point of language the Canadian French is certainly one of the most interesting topics for a philologian. Here we find that time has stood still, especially for the more remote rural districts, and the scholar could easily imagine himself holding intercourse with the subjects of Louis XIV. This means that we have the unique privilege in this age of steam and travel of studying in them a form of speech that has scarcely known change for the past two centuries. But this idiom is not a dialect of that remote period, and the greatest surprise to a student of language arriving in Canada is to find that, contrary to the general impression of scholars, the vernacular does not bear any specific dialectic character, but is the Middle (sixteenth century) French with those natural changes which would be produced by the intimate fusion into a whole of all the different species of language that were originally brought from the mother country. The commonest Habitant understands French and the stranger will easily follow him in conversation, provided he knows the terms and forms of the old language. The next most general characteristic of this striking type of speech is the colorless uniformity of pronunciation referred to above. Displacement of accent (Láreau), the sonant character of final consonants, especially the t in proper names (Nicolet); the imperfect articulation of the r-all these are more or less noticeable everywhere and are doubtless due to the influence of contact with the English. The further general syncopation of emutum, as in j'f'ra, t'nez, v'nez and the extensive application of the "Law of Least Action" in strong contractions, such as j' m' a (a in English father) for je m'en vais are common and make the language, for a short time, rather difficult to be understood by the uninitiated.
For the Phonetics the most notable deviation from the modern French usage is found in the variety of sound-shading given to one and the same graphic sign where the Parisian often has but one or at most two species to offer us. This holds true for the vowel, and more particularly for the diphthongs; for example, in the oi and eu combinations. In both of these we have three distinct nuances of sound, namely, for the former, 1, oi ea in English wear, swear; 2, oi= French oé (moć); 3, oi the abnormal modern French wa; for the latter, 1, eu the ordinary French phonetic equivalent (German ö); 2, eu simple French u (German ü); 3, eu= a sound midway between these two and which I designate by ü. The a, too, gives us three distinct kinds, viz: 1, a=a in English all; 2, a a in English father; 3, a the common flattened French a. The Norman ar for er (travarser, sarvant, etc.,) is universal, and the strengthening of i to a most common, e. g., shallin (shilling), Ballé (Billy), etc.
For the consonants the palatalization of the guttural mutes is one of the first and most striking peculiarities that a stranger is likely to notice; for example, trankjille (tranquille), kjeu (queue), vainkjeur (vainqueur). Cf. Virginian kjar (car), gjirl (girl). Again, the interchange of palatalized t and k as in moikjé (moitié), and the substitution of the former for simple guttural tenuis as in tjuré (curé), or the replacing of simple dental by palatalized guttural, e. g., kjuer (tuer). The syncopation of a palatalized dental sonant and the development afterwards of the palatal vowel into its corresponding semi-vowel state is found everywhere, as in Canayen (Canadian). R frequently undergoes the same vocalization, e. g., cayottes (carottes). Prosthetic, epenthetical and epithetical elements abound, especially for strong dentals, as in tsour (sous), tsur (sur), i n'y a t officiers, léjart (une voiture léjart). The morphology gives us more interesting examples of Folk-treatment, as, for example, the article ili, ils iz; all adjectives in if are invariable (une femme vif); the numerals ending in s have feminine forms (troises femmes); all new creations of verbs on English stems are thrown into the A-conjugation, e. g., in bit-er (beat), scrép-er (scrape), slak-er (to slack), leugh-er (log) = to roll logs together, while in the formative period of
French those hybrid compounds were distributed between the A-and I-forms, as is seen in modern French garnir (= A. S. varnian); Old French gandir (=Goth. vandjan). Among the older inhabitants especially we hear j'avions, j'étions, etc., similar to the custom of verb-usage in rural districts of France. For the syntax I will note here only one general characteristic, that is, the universal omission of the real negative particle in the combination ne-pas, e. g., j'pense pas (for ne pense pas), j'aime pas, etc. This phenomenon is interesting in that it simply carries one degree further the tendency of the classical language to make the Latin passus share the burden of negation with its legitimate representative ne. The supplementary particle finally comes to take the place of the primitive element altogether. Old French words and expressions are naturally found everywhere in the greatest abundance and original French terms, with special uses peculiar to the Canadians, are numerous. Among the latter we may cite cailler s'en dormir, butin = Norman for "clothes", mouiller (taking effect for cause) = pleuvoir, poudr-er (from poudre) to snow a fine, mealy snow; embarquer, débarquer, for monter, and descendre with reference to a vehicle, mouver="to move household effects," etc., etc. But it is not alone old words and new uses of modern terms that meet us here. The special formations in Canadian French are very extensive and often serve to show how the classical language was probably built up by adding one analytic product to another. From the Latin quasi we have the adverb casiment, and so, too, from the modern French presque (pressum quod), the Canadian, in generalizing his adverbial categories, produces presquement. After the manner of the early creations in the language he has no scruple in producing a simple verb venter="to blow" (used of wind) from the substantive vent and from gens he strikes out engenser in the same mould which his ancestors used for the production of similar verbal parasynthetics with the relational en.
Following again in the footsteps of the early makers of his language in adapting Latin flexions to Gothic and German stems, he says, sidez les chars (= to run cars off the main on to the side track of a railroad), le cheval a bolté ("the horse bolted"), blackballer, etc., etc. It is, however, in the province of proper names where we find to-day the most extraordinary phenomenon, perhaps, in the whole range of creations with which the French Canadian has enriched his native tongue. We are so accustomed to think the supply of material sufficient for the demand in this department of wordformation and, therefore, the name-book has been closed, that we can scarcely believe the evidence of our senses when we suddenly face a people with whom the process of proper-name creation is in full force and of daily occurrence. Such is the case in Canada. A single example will suffice to illustrate one phase of this procedure. Monsieur Guérin has two sons named, respectively, Charles and Jacques. The former is a special favorite of his father and receives the soubriquet la joie, that is, Charles Guérin dit La Joie. As said Charles grows up he drops entirely the name of his father (Guérin) and is only known as Monsieur Charles La Joie, his brother all the time continuing to bear the original designation of his father's family. It thus constantly happens that two persons or two households most closely connected in blood relationship have wholly different names, and these new soubriquets serve again in their turn for the production of other appellations.
In the above résumé I have tried to give simply a few salient points along the line of investigation which I have followed in collecting material for a scientific treatment of the Canadian French language. I hope in a few months to begin to publish the results of my work.
Mr. Mendes Cohen on "the Cohen Collection of Egyptian Antiquities," and its Collector, Colonel Mendes I. Cohen.
[Read at a meeting of the University Archæological Society, November, 1884].
In view of the recent transfer to the Johns Hopkins University of the collection of Egyptian Antiquities, formed by Colonel Mendes I. Cohen, and from which we have a few objects before us to-night, it has been thought fitting by the president of the University, that I should present a few notes in regard to the collector, and briefly narrate how it came about that there should have been gathered here the ancient relics, which for the