568. compositis] 'laid to rest', cf. Hor. Sat. 1. ix. 28, Omnes composui.

570. venientes comminus] 'meeting in the shock of battle'.

572. cingebat] 'made the circuit of the city', cf. IX. 373, terra cingere Syrtim, and below 594.

573. excutiens] 'shaking', cp. Plin. H. N. x. 116. gallinae inhorrescunt edito ovo excutiuntque sese.

pronam] 'turned downwards'.

574. stridentes]=anguineas.

577. Megaeram] The story will be found in the 'Hpakλîs μaivóμevos of Euripides.

580. Campo] Sulla was buried in the Campus Martius, cf. II. 222, his meruit tumulum medio sibi tollere campo.

582. Anienis] The corpse of Marius was disinterred by order of Sulla and thrown into the Anio.

584. Tuscos] Cf. Tac. Ann. XI. 15, Liv. I. 56.

588. pennae] Cf. Verg. Aen. III. 361. praepetis omina pennae. 590. sterili] This is to be understood of a mule according to the Scholiast.

591. infaustis] Brouk ap. Oud understands this of certain unlucky kinds of wood, cp. Catull. xxxvI. 8. infelicibus ustulanda lignis. Plin. H. N. XIII. § 116.

593. ambiri] In an amburbium the victims were led round the city's boundaries as we know from Festus, p. 5 M.

595. pontifices] The chief of the four great religious colleges: the the other three were the augures, XV viri sacrorum and VII viri epulones. 596. minor] 'inferior'.

Gabino] The cinctus Gabinus appears to have been a primitive fashion of wearing the toga kept up on sacred occasions, cp. Verg. Aen. VII. 612, and Conington's note.

598. Cf. IX. 993, nullique adspecta virorum Pallas.

599. qui fata] i.e. the xv viri, who had charge of the Sibylline books, cf. Tac. Ann. VI. 12.

600. Almone] Cf. Ovid Fast. IV. 337 foll.: Mart. III. 47; Stat. Silv. v. i. 223, quaque Italo gemitus Almone Cybebe ponit et Idaeos

iam non reminiscitur amnes.

602. Titii] A college whose rites probably represented some of the primitive worship of the Titienses. They are mentioned in Varro

L. L. v. § 85, and Tac. Ann. I. 54.

604. apicem] Cf. Virg. Aen. VIII. 664, and Conington's note. generoso] This refers to the 3 maiores flamines who were always chosen from among the patricians.

605. effusam] 'spread out in long windings'.

607. terrae]= in terram, so vi. 115 utero demittere. Verg. Ecl. H. 30, viridi compellere hibisco. Hor. Carm. I. XXIV. 18, nigro compulerit gregi.

608. nomen] i.e. bidental. Oud says that 2 MSS. read numen, which would mean 'sanctity' and has been accepted by himself, Weber and Cortius. Weber cf. Claud. Proserp. III. 353, inde timor numenque


609. electa cervice marem]= electum taurum. to secure an animal with a fine neck for sacrifice.

It was held important Cf. Juv. xii. 14. salted meal on the

610. cultro] probably ablative, to spread the victim's forehead with the knife held sideways. Forc. quotes Sen. Thyest. 688, tangensque salsa victimam culter mola.

611. non grati] the struggles of the victims were interpreted as showing the anger of the gods.

612. premerent] 'were holding down'.

613. deposito] i. e. the victim sank on its knees. Cf. Eur. Hec. καθεῖσα πρὸς γαῖαν γόνυ.

616. feralibus] 'ill-omened'. Cf. 112.

618. color] Cf. Aesch. Prom. Vinc. 493 foll., omλáyxvwv te λειότητα καὶ χροίαν τίνα ἔχοντ ̓ ἂν εἴη δαίμοσιν πρὸς ἡδονὴν χολῆς λοβοῦ τε ποικίλην εὐμορφίαν.

619. gelido lukewarm and clotted: the clots are denoted by adsperso.

622. hostili de parte] two parts of the liver were called hostilis and familiaris pars. Here the hostilis pars is that of Caesar, the other that of Pompeius. Cf. Cic. de Div. II. § 28. Weise.

623. fibra] appears to mean one extremity of the lungs: here latet, i. e. the lung was imperfect.

623. limes] That limes means some membrane is clear, but whether the diaphragm or some other be meant we are unable to determine, and the notes of the Scholiast and Grotius throw no real light on the subject.

624. iacet] 'does not throb'.

625. produnt] The caul exposes the intestines it should hide', i. e. it was split.

626. impune] 'without ill consequence'.

627. increscere] i.e. of the two lobes, probably of the liver, one was swollen and had overgrown the other.

opimum pingue.

Cf. Pers. III. 32, fibris increvit

628. aegra et marcida] 'sickly and flabby'.

629. 'the other beats and keeps the veins astir with rapid throb, as if possessed.'

630. fata] 'the destined approach'.


633. que]=sed, cf. VI. 756, where we have nec......que in the same

637. Tages] The founder of the art of divination in Etruria; cf. Cic. de Div. II. §§ 50, 51; Ov. Met. XV. 558 foll. Weise cf. also Mommsen Bk. 1. chap. 12.

639. P. Nigidius Figulus was a Pythagorean philosopher and astrologer of Cicero's times. From the circumstances of Octavius' birth he is said to have predicted his future greatness; cf. Suet, Aug. 94. Weise, 640. stellarum visu] 'astronomy'.

641. numeris] 'the harmonies that guide the stars'. Perhaps this refers to the relative velocities of the heavenly bodies in their orbits, which the ancient astronomers believed themselves able to ascertain by computation. These differences of speed produced the different notes in the music of the spheres; cf. Cic. de Rep. VI. § 18, where numerus refers to the seven notes mentioned before.

642. This is the Epicurean theory; cf. Hor. Epp. 1. xii. 17, stellae sponte sua iussaene vagentur et errent.

cum] Cf. Verg. Aen. VI. 359, madida cum veste gravatum, 645. longa cum veste obloquitur.

644. This is the Stoic view; cf. Manil. IV. 49, hoc nisi fata darent nunquam fortuna tulisset.

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646. Will the air grow hot and banish all coolness?'

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650. Many men's days of doom have met at one point of time,' i.e. many are doomed to die at once in this war.

651. Had the baleful star of Saturn, cold in the height of heaven, kindled its deadly fires, &c.' For frigida cf. Verg. G. 1. 336, frigida Saturni sese quo stella receptet.

For nigros cf. Verg. G. IV. 407, atra tigris. 656. premeres] if thou wert now close upon', i, e. wert in the

constellation Leo.

fluerent] 'overrun',

658. cessant] 'are at peace', i. e. portend no ill.


Thou who kindlest the Scorpion menacing with his fiery tail and scorchest his claws with heat;' cf. Verg. G. I. 33.

660. 'Kindly Jupiter is sunk deep below the horizon;' or perhaps mitis placatus as Weise takes it.

664. Journey through the sky invisible.' Mundus is here the aether; cf. Verg. Ecl. VI. 34; Lucr. I. 73 and elsewhere.

665. ensiferi] Cf. Eur. Ion, 1153, ὅ τε ξιφήρης Ωρίων.

668. nomen erit] Cf. 174-5; Thuc. III. 82.

exibit] 'shall have free course for many a year'; cf. Plin. Epp. 11. xi. 18, in tertium diem probationes exierunt.

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duc] 'draw out an unbroken chain of miseries'.

672. 'free henceforth through civil war alone'.

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674. premunt] are upon us'; cf. Verg. Aen. X. 375, numina nulla premunt.

675. Ogygio] i. e. Theban; cf. Ov. Heroid. X. 48, qualis ab Ogygio concita Baccha deo.

680. Cf. note on line 1.

681. quo] 'to what purpose"? cf. Hor. Sat. I. i. 73, nescis quo valeat nummus quem praebeat usum? and see Mr Roby's Grammar vol. II preface page xxx ('of the predicative dative' § 5).

682. hoste] a foreign foe'; cf. Cic. de Off. 1. § 37, hostis enim apud maiores nostros is dicebatur quem nunc peregrinum dicimus.

684. mutatur] Cf. Catull. XI. 7, sive qua septemgeminus colorat aequora Nilus. For the history see chronological table.

686. Syrtin] For the accusative of motion to, without a preposition see Madv. § 232 obs. 4.

691. bella] i.e. the murder of Caesar.

692. iterum] i. e. under Octavian.

693. Grant me to see new shores of Pontus and a new land. I have already seen Philippi,' i. e. having seen with the eye of prophecy the battle field of Philippi (Pharsalus) I am shocked to think that it will be again the scene of civil war. Lucan confuses Philippi and Pharsalus, and imagines that both are situated on the shores of the Pontus Euxinus; cf. VII. 847 foll. and Verg. G. I. 491, nec fuit indig num superis bis sanguine nostro Emathiam et latos Haemi pinguescere campos.

695. defecta]'exhausted'. Oud cf. III. 625, defectis robore membris; IV. 600, defecta membra.

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