Fungal Strategies of Wood Decay in Trees
Springer Science & Business Media, 2000 - 185 pagina's
Wood-destroying fungi play an important role in nature, because they are the only forms of life capable of reducing wood to its initial constituents. However, they can also be dangerous for people and property, as they can impair the stability and fracture-safety of trees.
This book gives detailed information, based on new and original scientfic findings, on the examination and effects of the most important species of fungi associated with failure of infected urban trees. In addition, new ways are presented for predicting the advance of decay in the living tree. The subject is illustrated and made easily accessible by numerous colored photos of fungus fruit bodies, defect symptoms, and macroscopic and microscopic pictures of wood decay. A detailed introduction to the fundamentals of wood pathology provides a way into the subjects of applied mycology and tree care for readers without previous special knowledge. Francis W.M.R. Schwarze, National Diploma of Arboriculture at Merrist Wood College, UK (1991), Master of Science in Pure, Applied Plant and Fungal Taxonomy, University of Reading, UK (1992), doctorate at Freiburg University (1995), since 1996 assistant at the Institute for Forest Botany and Tree Physiology at Freiburg University, concentrating on research into wood-destroying fungi and host-fungus interactions.
Julia Engels, Diploma Forester at Freiburg University (1995), doctorate on root fungi at Freiburg University (1998). Since 1998 active in tree care and mycology in Luxembourg.
Claus Mattheck, born 1947, doctorate in theoretical physics (1973), qualified as lecturer on damage studies at Karlsruhe University (1985), and now teaches there as Professor. Since 1991 he has been an officially appointed and attested expert on tree mechanics and fracture behaviour. Has been awarded numerous prizes for research and publication. Head of the Biomechanics Department at the Karlsruhe Research Centre.
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appear Armillaria arrows beech wood birefringence bore holes Breitenbach and Kranzlin broad-leaved trees broken brown rot cambium caused cavities cell wall cell-wall cellulose chlamydospores colonization compound middle lamella conifers contrast decayed wood discoloration early stage earlywood exhibit fiber tracheids Fistulina hepatica Fomes fomentarius fracture fruit bodies fungus fungus species Grifola frondosa heartwood hemicellulose Heterobasidion annosum hyphae hyphae grow Inonotus dryadeus Inonotus hispidus Laetiporus sulphureus late stage latewood libriform fibers lignin lime wood London plane longitudinal parenchyma lumen Meripilus giganteus microscope mycelium occurs parenchyma cells Pattern of Wood pedunculate oak Phellinus robustus pinicola polyphenolic Polyporus squamosus preferential degradation radial structures reaction zone regions roots S2 layer sapwood Schwarze and Fink secondary wall section of naturally selective delignification simultaneous rot soft rot spores spread spruce stage of decay stem base substrate symptoms tangential section Transverse section tree species upper side Ustulina deusta vessels wood decay wood-decay fungi xlOOO xylem rays
Pagina 178 - The fine structure of the fibres of normal and tension wood in beech (Fagus Sylvatica L.) as revealed by X-rays.
Pagina 177 - Nilsson, T. 1973. Studies on wood degradation and cellulolytic activity of microfungi.
Pagina 171 - ... their toxicity against fungi and bacteria. Holzforschung 31, 1-7 BAUCH, J., P. KLEIN, A. FRUHWALD, & H. BRILL, 1979: Alterations of wood characteristics in Abies alba Mill, due to "fir-dying" and considerations concerning its origin. Eur. J. For. Pathol. 9, 321-331 BAUCH, J., AL SHIGO & M. STARCK, 1980: Wound effects in the xylem of Acer and Betula species. Holzforschung 34, 153-160 BAUCH, J., H. GOTTSCHE-KUHN & P. RADEMACHER, 1986: Anatomische Untersuchungen am Holz von gesunden und kranken...
Pagina 177 - Pearce, RB (1990). Occurrence of decay-associated xylem suberization in a range of woody species.
Pagina 177 - W 1985 Electron microscopic demonstration of a suberised layer in the tylosis wall of beech and oak. IAWA Bull...
Pagina 174 - DE, and HM Craig. 1976. Factors influencing infection and initiation of decay by the Indian paint fungus (Echinodontium tinctorium) in western hemlock. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 6:299-318.
Pagina 177 - Holloway PJ 1984 Suberin in the sapwood of oak (Quercus robur L.): its composition from a compartmentalization barrier and its occurrence in tyloses in undecayed wood. Physiol Plant Pathol...
Pagina 171 - ... structural and chemical components of wood delignified by fungi. Wood Sci. Technol. 19, 35-46 BLANCHETTE, RA, L. OTJEN & MC CARLSON, 1987: Lignin distribution in cell walls of birch wood decayed by white rot basidiomycetes. Phytopathology 77, 684-690 BLANCHETTE, RA, JR OBST, JI HEDGES & K. WELIKY, 1988: Resistance of hardwood vessels to degradation by white rot basidiomycetes. Can. J. Bot. 66, 1841-1847 BLANCHETTE, RA, AR ABAD, RL FARRELL & TD LEATHERS, 1989a: Detection of lignin peroxidase and...
Pagina 177 - Bat., 33, 144-158, 235-254. PEACE, TR (1938). Butt Rot of Conifers in Great Britain. Quart. J. For., 32, 81-104. PERCTVAL, WC (1933). A Contribution to the Biology of Fames pini (Thore) Lloyd. Tech. Publ. Jf.T. St. Coll. For, No. 40. REA, C. (1927). Appendix to "British Basidiomycetae.
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