The Impact of Mining on the Landscape: A Study of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin in Poland
Springer, 21 apr. 2016 - 209 pagina's
This book investigates the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB), one of the oldest and largest mining areas not only in Poland but also in Europe. Using uniform research methods for the whole study area, it also provides a summary of the landscape transformations. Intensive extraction of hard coal, zinc and lead ores, stowing sands and rock resources have caused such extensive transformations of landscape that it can be considered a model anthropogenic relief. The book has three main focuses: 1) Identifying anthropogenic forms of relief related to mining activity and presenting them from a spatial, genetic and age perspective; 2) Determining the changes in the morphometric characteristics of relief and the conditions for matter circulation in open systems (drainage basins) and closed systems (land-locked basins) caused by the extraction of mineral resources; and 3) Estimating the extent of anthropogenic denudation using two different methods based on raw-material output and morphometric analysis. In Poland, no other mining area has undergone such intensive mining activity as the Upper Silesian Coal Basin during the last half century. Its share in the total extraction of mineral resources was as high as 32%. The total extraction of hard coal in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin from the mid-18th century until 2009 was the sixth largest in the world, and the permanent, regional effects of mining anthropopressure on the relief are among the most severe in the world. The anthropogenic denudation rate in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, as well as the Ruhr Coal Basin (Ruhr District) and the Ostrava-Karvina Coal Basin, ranges from several dozen up to several hundred times higher than the rate of natural denudation, irrespective of the calculation method used. It would take the natural denudation processes tens of thousands of years to remove the same amount of material from the substratum as that removed through human mining activity.
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2 A Brief History of Mining in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin
3 Anthropogenic Landforms in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin
4 Changes in Morphometric Parameters of Terrain Caused by Mining
5 Changes in the Circulation of Matter in Drainage Basins
6 Changes in the Circulation of Matter in Landlocked Basins
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The Impact of Mining on the Landscape: A Study of the Upper Silesian Coal ...
Geen voorbeeld beschikbaar - 2016
anthropogenic landforms average Brynica Bytom Carboniferous catchments century changes Chrzanów coal mining Czarna Przemsza deposits depth discontinuous deformations dolomite drainage Dulias eksploatacji erosion excavations exploitation extraction forms Geogr Geol geomorphological geomorphological units Górn górnictwa górniczych Gostynia Hills impact of mining Jankowski Karvina Katowice Kłodnica Kraków landlocked basins landscape lignite located Miechowice Upland Mikołów million m3 million tonnes mining activity mining areas mining impact mining subsidence Miocene Miocene zone mm/year morphometric Murcki Murcki Plateau Mysłowice open-pit mining overburden period pits Podstokowa Zone Poland powierzchni Przemsza przykładzie quarries raw materials relative heights relief result river rock mass Ruhr Rybnik Plateau Rzętała sandpits sediments Siemianowice Upland Silesian Coal Basin Silesian Upland sinkholes Śląskiego slope inclination Sosnowiec spoil tips stowing sands Stream subsidence troughs surface lowering surface subsidence Szczypek terenu Triassic Triassic zone Uniw Upper Silesian Coal USCB valleys volume Wach Warszawa waste rock water reservoirs węgla kamiennego zinc and lead