English Banknotes may be advantageously changed at any of the large towns or seaports of Spain, and French Banknotes are equally available in the N. part of the country. For a long stay it will be found convenient to have a Letter of Credit, addressed to some reputable banker. Only sufficient money for immediate necessities should be changed at the moneychangers' offices at the frontier stations.

The tourist should always carry an ample supply of coppers and other small change (pp. xxvi, xxvii). It is convenient to have the money required for the day in a purse by itself. Coppers are best carried loose in the pocket.

LANGUAGE. It is quite possible to travel in Spain without a knowledge of Spanish (lengua castellana), as either English or French is pretty sure to be spoken in the hotels generally frequented by tourists. Those, however, who are entirely ignorant of the language will often be exposed to inconvenience and extortion, while they will hardly be in a position to form an adequate judgment of the country or to derive the full measure of pleasure and profit from their journey. Even a superficial knowledge of Spanish is, therefore, highly desirable. +

PASSPORTS are not essential in either Spain or Portugal, though travellers leaving Portugal by sea require a special authorisation (comp. p. 499). Nevertheless the traveller is strongly advised to provide himself with a passport before starting and to have it visé at a Spanish consulate. Post-office officials generally insist upon seeing the passport before delivering registered or money letters; and it is often useful in proving the identity of the traveller, in securing admission to collections at other than the regular hours,

+ Sauer's Spanish Conversation Grammar (5th edit.; Heidelberg, 1891) and The Interpreter Superseded (Part IV, English-Spanish; Dulau & Co., London; price 1s.) will be found useful aids for the beginner. The following notes may be serviceable.


PRONUNCIATION. In the middle of a word b often sounds like v; before e and i c is pronounced like th in thin, in other cases like k; ch sounds as in church; d final is almost inaudible; g is hard, except before e and i, when it resembles the Scottish guttural ch in loch; h is almost inaudible; j ch in loch (Quijote kichote; reloj = reloch); sounds like the Italian gl or like li in postillion (luvia lyuvia); like the French gn (doña dōnya); ", somewhat sharper than in English; s= ss; x is now used only in such Latin words as examen and sounds as in English; y between vowels as in English, at the end of a word like ee (rey re-ee, reyes re-yes); z is pronounced like c before e and i (see above). The vowels are pronounced as in Italian (a = ah, e = ay, i ee, o = oh, W = 00); u is silent between g and e or i, unless it is provided with a 'crema (Sigüenza).

ACCENTUATION. Spanish words ending in a consonant (except s signifying a plural and ez at the end of proper names) have the accent on the last syllable. Words ending in a vowel (and proper names in ez) have the accent on the penultimate, even in the case of plurals. The following terminations are reckoned as single syllables: ia, ie, io, cua, cue, cuo, gua, gue, and guo. Spanish orthography recognizes only one accent, viz. the acento agudo ('), or acute accent, which is used to indicate exceptions to the above rule. In the present Handbook the accent is shown on various words that do not require it by strict rule but that are otherwise liable to be mispronounced by foreigners (e.g. Constitución, Estación), while it is omitted in the case of other well-known words strictly demanding it (e.g. Maria, Principe).

and in many other ways. In excursions in the less-frequented regions of the interior a passport is practically indispensable; and it is obvious that the countenance of the British and American consuls can be extended only to those who can prove their nationality

The chief passport agents in London are Buss, 440 West Strand; W. J Adams, 59 Fleet Street; C. Smith & Son, 63 Charing Cross; and E. Stanford, 26 Cockspur Street, Charing Cross. Charge 2s.; agent's fee 1s. 6d.

CUSTOM HOUSE. The custom-house examination on the inland frontiers is generally lenient; but passengers by sea have their luggage examined every time they land and sometimes again at the railway-station. The chief objects sought for are tobacco and cigars, but many other articles are liable to duty if the officer does not pass them as 'used effects' (efectos usados). Bribery should not be attempted. Receipts should be preserved. In many places the luggage is subjected to a second examination by the officers of the 'octroi', either at the exit of the railway-station or at the gate of the city. This is often extended in the most ruthless manner even to the hand-bags of the tourist.


II. Travelling Season. Plan of Tour.

The best seasons for travelling in the elevated interior of Spain are from the middle of Sept. to the end of Nov. and from May 1st to June 15th; for Andalusia and the Spanish coast of the Mediterranean the best months are Oct., Nov., and (especially) from March 15th to May 15th. For Madrid the best seasons are from April 15th to May 31st and from Sept. 15th to Nov. 30th. December is the rainiest month, January the coldest.

Seville attracts an enormous crowd of English and other strangers during. Holy Week and its Feria or annual fair. Pleasant summer quarters are afforded by San Sebastián, Zarauz, Las Arenas, Santander, and other bathing-resorts on the N. coast, but these are frequented almost solely by Spaniards. The months of July and August are not favourable travelling-seasons for either Central or S. Spain. It is true that nature is then seen in her most gorgeous dress and also that the long days give unlimited scope for sightseeing, but it is no less true that the intense heat and continued dryness of the atmosphere deprive the stranger of the energy and serenity necessary for a satisfactory enjoyment of his trip.

PLAN OF TOUR. From Great Britain the quickest connection with Spain and Portugal is, of course, by railway viâ Paris. The journey from Paris to Madrid takes 32 hrs. by ordinary express, or 271/2 hrs. by the 'Sud-Express' (p. 8). Luggage can be registered only as far as Irun. From Paris to Barcelona, vià Lyons, Tarascon, Perpignan, and Port-Bou takes 32 hrs. by the morning fast train and 24 hrs. by the evening express.'For the STEAMBOAT COMMUNICATIONS with Spain and Portugal, see pp. xviii, xix.

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The following skeleton- plans will give, to those tourists who prefer not to be bound down by the limitations of a circular ticket (p. xviii), an idea of the most interesting places described in the Handbook; while they can easily be modified as the season, the weather, or the preferences of the traveller may determine.

a. Two and a Half Months in Spain and Portugal.

San Sebastián (R. 1), with journey to Burgos (RR. 1, 3)

Burgos (R. 4)

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Via Valladolid (R. 5) to Madrid (RR. 3, 6).
Madrid (R. 8), and excursions to Aranjuez, Toledo, Escorial, and

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Segovia (R. 9)


Journey via Medina del Campo to Salamanca (R. 12).


Journey to Oporto (RR. 12, 68).


To Pampilhosa (with digression to Bussaco) and Coimbra (RR. 66, 64) 11/2
Coimbra (R. 65).


To Alfarellos, Amieira, and Leiria (RR. 64, 63)


By carriage or diligence to Batalha and Alcobaça (R. 63)
Alcobaca and journey viâ Vallado to Mafra (RR. 63, 62)
Mafra, with journey to Lisbon (R. 62).

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Lisbon (R. 58) and excursions to Cintra (p. 534) and Evora
Journey viâ Badajoz to Mérida (RR. 57, 55)

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By steamer to Tangiers.

By steamer to Gibraltar. Gibraltar (R. 48)

Via Algeciras and Bobadilla to Malaga (RR. 47, 43). Malaga (R. 44)
Viâ Bobadilla to Granada (RR. 47, 45). Granada (RR. 45, 46)
To Bobadilla and Cordova (R. 43). Córdova (R. 42)

Journey to Madrid (RR. 40, 36). Madrid again (R. 8)

Journey to Saragossa (R. 16).

Saragossa (R. 17)

Journey to Tarragona (RR. 20, 26). Tarragona (R. 27)

Journey to Valencia (R. 31).

Valencia (R. 32).

Journey to Alicante (R. 33, pp. 325, 326). Alicante (p. 326) and ex

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Palma. Steamboat to Barcelona





Excursion to the Montserrat (RR. 23, 24)
From Barcelona to Gerona and Cerbère (R. 21)

As the steamers from Alicante to Palma ply on Mon. only, it may be
more convenient to proceed from Saragossa to Barcelona, thence
take the steamer for Palma, and afterwards return to Alicante,
Valencia, and Tarragona.

b. Six or Seven Weeks in Spain.

San Sebastián (R. 1) with journey to Zumarraga and Bilbao (RR. 1, 2)
Bilbao (R. 2) and journey viâ Miranda de Ebro to Burgos (RR. 2, 3)
Burgos (R. 4)

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By Medina del Campo to Avila (by day or night; RR. 1, 6)
Avila (R. 6), and thence to Escorial (R. 6)
Escorial, and thence to Madrid (RR. 9, 6)



Madrid (R. 8)

By Aranjuez (1/2-1 day) and Castillejo to Toledo (RR. 36, 9)

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By Castillejo to Cordova (night-journey; RR. 36, 40)

Cordova (R. 42).

To Seville (R. 40)

Seville, Cadiz, Tangiers, and Gibraltar as in Tour a

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Granáda (R. 46).

By carriage or diligence to Guadix and Baeza (R. 39).

By Lorca to Murcia (R. 39)

Murcia (R. 38).

By Elche (1/2 day) to Alicante (R. 37)

Alicante (R. 36).

By carriage or diligence to Alcoy, and by railway to Gandia

(RR. 35, 34)

Denia (R. 34)

By Gandia and Carcagente to Valencia (RR. 34, 33)

Valencia (R. 32).

By Sagunto (1/2 day) to Tarragona (RR. 31, 29)

Tarragona and journey to Barcelona (RR. 27, 26)

Barcelona, Montserrat, Gerona, and Cerbère as in Tour a

San Sebastián (R. 1)

To Burgos (R. 3)

Burgos (R. 4)

c. One Month in Spain.

By Medina del Campo and Avila to Escorial (night-journey; R. 6)
Escorial and journey to Madrid (RR. 9, 6)

Madrid (R. 8)

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By Algodor to Toledo (RR. 55, 36)

Toledo (R. 9)

To Cordova and Seville as in Tour b

From Seville to Utrera, La Roda, Bobadilla, and Granada (RR. 49, 45) 1 Granada (R. 46)

Viâ Bobadilla to Malaga (RR. 45, 43),


Malaga (R. 44)


Viâ Bobadilla and Cordova to Aranjuez (RR. 43, 45, 36)

Aranjuez and journey to Madrid (RR. 9, 36).

Journey to Saragossa (R. 16)


Saragossa (R. 17)

Via Puebla de Hijar and Réus (or via Lérida and Reus) to Tarragona (night-journey; RR. 31, 28).

Tarragona, Barcelona, and Cerbère as in Tour a


The above tours by no means exhaust the attractions of the Peninsula; and there are many districts lying aside from the beaten tracks of tourists that amply repay a visit; e.g. the Basque Provinces (Bilbao, Santander), Asturias, and Galicia, to which 10-12 days may well be devoted.

III. Railways.+ Tramways. Diligences. Steamers. Cycling. Railways. The unsatisfactory condition of the Spanish railways gives rise to many complaints. Their speed is very low. The express trains (tren expreso) on a few of the main lines (sometimes with

The Guia para los viajeros de los ferrocarriles de España, Francia y Portugal, y de los servicios maritimos (monthly; 50 c.) purports to give the time-tables and fares of the railways, tramways, and steamers of the Iberian Peninsula, but it is very defective and badly arranged. The Guia general de ferrocarriles (monthly; 1 p.) is better, but concerns the railways only. The Guia annunciador e indicador official dos Caminhos de Ferro e da Navegação de Portugal (120 rs.) and the Guia offcial des Caminhos de Ferro de Portugal (40 rs.) deal exclusively with Portugal.

first-class carriages oni,, the 'trains de luxe' (tren sur expreso; first-class only, with fares raised by 50 per cent) seldom run faster than 25 M. an hour; the ordinary trains (tren correo, tren mixto; 1st, 2nd, and 3rd class) neven attain a speed of more than 15 M. an hour and are often much behind time. In winter the carriages are provided with foot-warmers (caloríferos). The third-class carriages, which have sometimes seats on the roof also, are used exclusively by members of the lower classes. The second-class carriages have narrow and uncomfortable seats for 10 persons and are generally dirty and neglected. Tourists, especially if ladies are of the party. will therefore do well to select the first-class carriages, which are fitted up like those of France. They are, however, by no means so comfortable as they should be, and on the main lines they are often over-crowded. The number of seats is 6 or 8; and some of these are often occupied by the conductors of the train, and even railwaylabourers. Every train is bound to have a first-class compartment reserved for ladies (departamento reservado para señoras) and another for non-smokers (para no fumadores), but the injunction in the latter is seldom heeded by Spanish travellers.

Among the expressions that the railway traveller will find convenient to understand are the following: viajeros al tren, take your seats; se cámbia el tren (el coche, la linea), change carriages; parada, halt, stoppage; parada y fonda, halt for a meal; entrada, entrance, salida, exit, way out; despacho de billetes, ticket-office; jefé de estación, station-master.

At nearly all railway-junctions, frontier-stations, and so on there are fair railway-restaurants (fondas), where table-d'hôte luncheon (almuerzo) or dinner (comida) is ready for the passengers (3-32 p., wine included; comp. p. xxiii). Those who prefer to eat in a more leisurely fashion may provide themselves with food and wine to consume in the railway carriage. In this case Spanish custom demands the formality of asking your fellow-passengers to share with you ('Usted gusta').

Passengers by the night-trains may hire pillows (almohadas) and rugs (mantas) at the larger stations (1 p. each). These are left in the carriages when done with.

In Madrid, Barcelona, Saragossa, Granada, Malaga, and some other large towns the traveller may take his ticket (tomar el billete) and check his luggage (facturar el equipaje) at the Despacho Central, in the middle of the town, 1-2 hrs. before the departure of the train. The Omnibus General also starts from this point, but always a good deal sooner than is absolutely necessary. The ticket and luggage offices at the large stations open 1 hr. and close 1/4 hr. before the departure of the train, at smaller stations 1/2 hr. and 5 minutes. The service is so defective that it is advisable to reach the station early, though the waiting-rooms are always poor and sometimes non-existent. Passengers are generally not allowed to enter either waitingroom or platform unless they have their railway-tickets or a ticket. of admission (billete de anden, 10, 25, or 50 c.). If possible, the traveller should have the exact fare ready at the ticket-office, especially as the clerks refuse to change large banknotes. The railwayticket has to be shown in booking luggage. The fare is 6, 9, and 12 c. per kilomètre according to class, besides a surcharge of 20 per

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