Ecology and Biogeography of High Altitude Insects

Voorkant
Springer Science & Business Media, 14 mrt. 2013 - 527 pagina's
In my book Introduction to High Altitude Entomology, published in 1962, I summa rized the results of eight years' studies, mainly on the Himalaya. I have since then had the opportunity of studying the collections of high altitude insects from the Alps, Carpathians, Caucasus, Urals, Alai-Pamirs, Tien Shan, Altai and other im portant mountains of the world in different museums and institutions in Europe. Through the courtesy and generosity of the Academy of Sciences of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, I was also able to personally collect insects and make valuable field observations on the Caucasus, the Alai-Pamirs, Ala-Tau and the Tien Shan mountains. Through comparative studies I have tried to synthesize the fundamental principles of high altitude entomology. I have described here the distinctive characters of the high altitude environment, the ecological specializations of the high altitude insects, their ecological inter relations and the outstanding peculiarities of their biogeography. I have also pre sented here an outline of the high altitude entomology of the principal mountains of the world, with brief accounts of their orogeny, geology and vegetation. This book differs from all other contributions in the field in its comparative ecological approach and in the fact that the main emphasis is throughout on the evolution of the high altitude ecosystem as an integral part of the orogeny. High mountains are, in all parts of the world, important and independent centres of origin and differ entiation of distinctive and highly specialized ecosystems and faunas.
 

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Inhoudsopgave

The East African mountains and the Rift Valley system
1
THE HIGH ALTITUDE ENVIRONMENT
9
Mt Kilimanjaro
21
variations of atmospheric temperature d Annual variations of atmo
30
ECOLOGICAL SPECIALIZATIONS OF HIGH ALTITUDE
51
ECOLOGICAL INTERRELATIONS AT HIGH ALTI
75
SOME TYPICAL HIGH ALTITUDE INSECTS
99
B Other Arthropoda
125
The Japanese mountains
362
Biogeographical affinities of the European and Angaran mountains
363
THE MOUNTAINS OF THE NORTH TEMPERATE REGIONS OF THE NEW WORLD
365
Ecological characters of the White Mountains
366
Altitudinal biotic zones on the North American mountains
368
Characters of the high altitude insect life of the Appalachian Region
371
The Western Highlands
373
Ecological characters of the Cordilleran mountains
375

3
150
OTHER TROPICAL MOUNTAINS
176
THE HIMALAYA
196
THE ALAIPAMIRS AND THE TIEN SHAN
229
Page
254
THE ALPS AND THE CARPATHIANS
275
THE BOREOALPINE INSECTS 3
313
OTHER MOUNTAINS OF THE NORTH TEMPERATE
336
The Atlas Mountains
344
The Apennines
346
The Balkan Mountains
348
The Caucasus
349
The Armenian Highlands 3 54
354
The Ural Mountains
355
Io The Altai and other mountains of the AngarBeringea
356
General ecological characters of the Altai
357
The insect life of the Altai
358
Other mountains of AngarBeringea
360
The SikhoteAlin mountains
361
Insect life of the Cordilleran mountains
376
Biogeographical characters of the North American mountains
380
SUBARCTIC AND ARCTIC MOUNTAINS
381
Fennoscandian mountains 38I 2 Ecological characters and altitudinal biotic zonation on Fennoscandian mountains
383
Characters of the insect life of Fennoscandian mountains
385
The Timanskii Mountains
389
Alaskan mountains
390
Ecological characters of the Alaskan mountains
392
Characters of the insect life of the Alaskan mountains
393
25
396
The southern Andes
400
Australian and New Zealand mountains
402
Antarctic mountains
403
BIBLIOGRAPHY
408
48
426
54
435
INDEX
456
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