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tries. The tenth is a very useful enlightened views of political science, table, containing the courses of ex- which so remarkably distinguish it. change, at a certain period, between It was indeed gratifying to observe, in London and the principal commercial the unanimous and zealous approbacities of Europe ; to which is subjoin- tion of the report, expressed by the Ased, particular and appropriate illus- sembly, the most ample acknowledgtrations, which are sufficient for en- ment of the truth of those prinabling persons to judge of the favour- ciples of political economy, which, able or unfavourable state of the ex- however they may have been admired change, by comparing the courses of in theory, have hitherto been allowed exchange given in the newspapers at to exercise but too little practical inany time with the par as given in this fluence on national measures. table, and thus to ascertain the ad- In expressing ourselves thus warmly vantages or disadvantages attending of the Report, it would be unpardonmoney transactions.
The work is able to omit the name of Principal concluded with an account of the Baird, the convener of the sub-commode of discounting bills upon Lon- mittee, who is in fact the author of it, don and other places, by the bankers and who procured and digested the of Edinburgh and Glasgow: this, vast mass of facts on which it is foundthough never before published, is a ed. He has already received the thanks subject with which the people of Scot- of the Assembly for the extraordinary land ought to be intimately acquaint- ability and the disinterested zeal he ed. The table of stamp duties on has displayed in the execution of this bills, receipts, &c. is a proper sequel great work, and we are not going too to the work.
far, when we say that this tribute of Upon the whole, we do not hesitate their approbation is truly the expresto recommend this performance as a sion of that respect and gratitude enwork of great merit, and of very gen- tertained for him by the public, which eral utility.
will be associated with his name long after he shall have ceased, in the course of nature, to occupy the station he
now holds, with so much honour to PRINCIPAL BAIRD'S REPORT ON THE himself and advantage to society.
The general report has not been printed, nor is it intended to be so,
till returns from every parish in ScotOur readers are aware that the public land be received. As yet only about attention in England has at length be- 750 parishes have made returns ; but gun to be seriously directed to the there is no doubt that they will all be subject of the poor-laws, with a view received, and their results added to the to alleviate their pressure, if not gra- report, before the next session of Parlidually to effect their abolition, and ament, when we presume it will be that inquiries into the state of the poor published. In the meantime, we prehave commenced, and are now going sent our readers with a paper circulaton, in both Houses of Parliament. ed by the committee, for the purpose
The General Assembly of the Church of enabling the Assembly more easily of Scotland, which met in 1817, in to follow the general report when it consequence of an application by the was read to them by Dr Baird. Parliamentary committees, appointed a committee of their number to inquire into the management of the poor Index to the Report of the Committee of the in Scotland. The result of their la
General Assembly (1817) on the Man. bours was laid before last Assembly,
agement of the Poor. embodied in a report (founded on re- 1. Preliminary explanation of the object turns by the clergy to queries circulated of the
committee. by the committee), which we have no 2. Summary of Scottish statutes relative to hesitation in pronouncing one of the
a provision for the poor. most interesting and important statisti- the poor by the heritors and kirk-session.
3. Sketch of the practical management of cal documents which has appeared in
4. Detail of the proceedings of the comany age or country; whether we consid- mittee of the Assembly to procure informaer the nature, and extent, and accuracy tion as to the management and state of the of the facts, or the sound sense and poor in the different parishes.
Result of Information received by the Com- parishes that are assessed their population,
mittee of Assembly on the following Points, and the proportion of the poor to the in the order of the Queries trunsmitted to 100 of the population. It shews, farther, the Ministers of Parishes.
the amount of the assessments the amount 1. Annual collections at the church-doors.
of the general session funds.--the sum total 2. Contributions by heritors.
of parish funds (as consisting of the two 3. Expense of managing the funds of the preceding items), and the average allowkirk-sessions.
ance paid to each pauper per annum. This
table shews, also, the dates of the com4. Assessments, including-their total amount, the rate or rule of levying them,
mencement of the respective assessments in the authority by which they are levied,
the different synods, their progressive intheir commencement and increase in num.
crease in number, and their total present ber,-their rise and amount, and the ex
number in each synod; and, consequently,
their whole number in Scotland, so far as pense of management. 5. Reluctance of the poor to apply for reported.
Table III.-It contains a state of the charity to the parish funds.
6. Number of the poor, and the rate of parishes in each synod that are not assessed. relief given to them.
There are seven columns in it, shewing the 7. Consideration paid to the character of total number of parishes in each synoda pauper on admission to the roll, and fixing the number of parishes in each that are not the allowance.
assessed their population, the proportion 8. Removal of paupers from parishes.
of poor in the 100 of population the whole 9. Litigations betwixt parishes as to pau- and the average allowance paid to each
amount of the parish funds for the poor pers, and the expense of them.
10. The claim by kirk-sessions to the ef. páuper per annum. fects of paupers at their death.
Table IV. There are eleven columns in 11. The enforcement by paupers of high- all the parishes reported in all the synods as
this table, which contains a summary of er allowances than kirk-sessions fix. 12. The poor of the different religious
to the following particulars, viz. the total sects.
population of each synod—the total amount 13. The practice of begging by stranger lections of general session funds of as
of contributions by heritors-of annual coland parish poor. 14. Extraordinary collections for indivi
sessments of the whole parish funds for dual cases of distress.
the poor jointly of the total number of 15. Number of the deaf and dumb.
poor in each synod, either regularly, or per16. Relief to the industrious poor in 1817. manently, or occasionally only on the roll 17. Savings banks.
the total number of poor of both these classes 18. Friendly societies.
--the proportion of poor to the 100 of po19. Sunday schools.
pulation, and the average allowance paid to 20. Mortifications for the support and
each pauper per anuum-and, by the sumeducation of the poor.
mation of the items for the synods, this 21. Means of common and religious edu
table shews the same particulars for the cation.
whole of the parishes of Scotland from 22. Conclusion.
which reports have been sent by the clergy. Appendix.-The Appendix contains the fol- It is impossible for us to enter into lowing Tables illustrative of the Report. any thing like a detail of the results
Table 1.—This table consists of seventy- of the inquiries in the Report, as it eight leaves, each leaf containing a view, ar.
could have but slender pretensions to ranged in nine columns, of the whole re- accuracy ; but some important facts, ported parishes in one presbytery, in respect taken down during the reading, may to the following particulars, viz. the amount not be unacceptable. of the population, of contributions by heri. tors, of the annual collections, of the gene. from which returns have been received,
It appears that, in the 750 parishes ral session funds, of the assessments, and of the total parish funds for the poor, as made the annual collections at the churchup of the preceding items. It contains a
doors amount to £21,730. The volview also of the number of poor regularly untary contributions by heritors to and permanently on the roll-of those only £35,438, and the assessments for occasionally on the roll—and of the total the poor to £43,317. In those parnumber of the poor. This table shews far- ishes where there are
assess ther, a separate abridged view of the above ments, the distribution of the poor's particulars, and of some others, as to the funds' is gratuitously managed by cities of Edinburgh and Glasgow.
Table 11.-It contains a state of all the upwards of 4000 persons; while in assessed parishes reported, and of their as
those where an assessment, exists, it sessments in the different synods. It shews, is done at an expense of £1400 in nine columns, the total number of par- per annum. The rapid increase ishes in each synod--the number of these in the number of these assessments is VOL. III.
now but too apparent. Prior to the There are, as will be seen from the year 1709, three only existed in Scot- Index, many other important points
in the course of last century on which ample and accurate informaninety-eight were introduced ; and tion has been procured. Of these within the present century fifty-one there is one which we own has filled have been added to the number. us with grief and astonishment, and Their introduction seems to have pro- which must serve to lower that tone duced the usual consequences,-the of exultation in which our countryassessments, in some instances, doub- men have hitherto been accustomed to ling themselves in ten years, in others boast, of the universal facilities affordin four. The numbers of the paupers ed to the lower orders of Scotland for have, of course, gone on in similar ra- the acquisition of common and relitios, and the collections at the church- gious education. It now appears from doors are diminished, and in some incontrovertible evidence, that while given up as altogether unproductive. in the Lowland districts of Scotland
Nothing can afford a more decisive there are ample provisions for educaproof of the ruinous tendency of as- tion, there are many parishes in the sessments than the result of Tables Highlands and Islands where one2d and 3d. From these it appears, third, one-half, and three-fourths of the that the number of poor in those par- inhabitants cannot read; and who, it ishes where assessments are not re- may be almost literally said, have not sorted to, is 21 in the hundred ; and the gospel preached to them. In one the average cost for maintenance of parish, containing 5000 inhabitants, each £3:6:9. While in those par- there are absolutely eleven-twelfths in ishes where the practice of assessment this wretched condition. A Bible is obtains, the number of paupers is 3} even of difficult acquisition to many in the hundred, and the cost of main- who can read, and though some fatenance £5, 14s. These facts are in- milies are possessed of one, they have deed important, and their weight is none for their children to take to increased by the universal report of school ;-and this has been, and still the clergy, that in the assessed par- is, the state of extensive districts in ishes the spirit of honest pride and Scotland. While thousands and tens independence, which once characteris- of thousands of pounds are obtained, ed their inhabitants, is rapidly giving from a zealous and religious people, to way to the baneful influence of this carry the Scriptures to every nation ruinous system.
The total number on the earth, thousands of our own of
paupers in the 750 parishes is about countrymen are destitute of these in30,000, of whom one-third are males. estimable treasures; and while even There are no instances of forced re- the lowest menial is called
from moval from one parish to another, and the pulpit to contribute his mite to the expense of litigation is extremely send the gospel of Christ to the Montrifling, amounting, within the last golian Tartars, his brethren of the ten years, to about £1640, of which Hebrides are allowed to remain in sum the assessed parishes are charge darkness, utterly destitute of those able with £1230. During the same consolations which the Scriptures alone period, the expense of litigation in can impart. Yet these poor people are England has amounted to about two thirsting for knowledge, and many millions.
affecting instances are given in the ReAlthough the original and chief ob turns, of their anxiety to obtain for ject of the committee was to inquire their children those blessings which into the situation of the poor, they have been denied to themselves. In availed themselves of this favourable more than one remote parish, where opportunity for collecting information the lower orders are so poor as to be on other important subjects relative unable even to send one of every
fato the general condition of the lower mily to a distance to be educated, a orders. Thus it is stated, that the subscription is entered into, and some number of blind persons is 745, and clever boy is maintained at school till he of deaf and dumb 542: that there can read the Scriptures ; after which are 130 savings banks (exclusive of he returns home and repays the friends Edinburgh and Glasgow), whose funds who had supported him, by teaching are stated at £30,000, and that there their children at his leisure hours, or are 7000 depositors.
by reading during the long nights of of the year.
winter to an audience collected from tainments, or unsettled principles. I the adjoining country, many of whom, rely, however, upon the liberality of indeed, come from a distance of se- your professions; and doubt not that veral miles. Without resorting to you will give a place in your pages this expedient, old and young must to my opinion of this great author, be almost entirely ignorant of the gos- although it should chance to be more pel; for in those remote and stormy different from your own, than, after a regions, the most zealous pastors (and little more serious reflection on your none are to be found more zealous part, I expect it to be. than those in the Islands) cannot ven- The notion which I had long ago ture far from home, during six months formed of Lord Byron's true charac
ter, has lately received confirmation, In stating these facts, we would not more than I ever looked for, from the be understood to convey censure on publication of his Beppo. The basethe Bible Societies. They have not ness of his principles is there repreknown the true state of things, else sented in a manner not indeed more would they have long since directed a open, but, I doubt not, infinitely more portion, and a large one too, of their dangerous, than before ; and I cannot immense funds to objects of such pa- help wondering very much at the conramount importance as those now laid duct of the ingenious critic, who, in before them. Here there can be no the last number of the Edinburgh Redoubt as to the result of their exer- view, entertained us with a little, tions, for the people are imploring lively, flimsy dissertation on ludicrous assistance, and they have the most poetry in general, and with many exunexceptionable assurance of the pro- pressions of admiration for the ease, per management of their bounty in grace, and vivacity of this Venetian the zeal and intelligence of a resident Story, without thinking himself bound and enlightened Clergy, and in the pat- to express a single feeling of indignariotic exertions of the Highland So- tion at the wickedness of those topics cieties. Indeed, after the melancholy on which so much of all this ease, pictures which the returns from many grace, and vivacity has been wasted. Highland parishes present to us, it One should have thought that no Eng. is not to be expected that any Scot- lishman, who understands so well as tish Bible or Missionary Society will Mr Jeffrey does the value of that pure direct a shilling of their funds to fo- domestic morality on which the public reign objects, till satisfactory assure prosperity of his country is founded, ances are received that the
would have failed to think " foul of common and religious education" scorn,” that a great English poet in the Highlands, are on a level with should degrade his genius, by writing those of the most favoured Lowland a series of cool sarcasms in ridicule of districts.
the fidelity of English wives. But my business is with the poet, not with
his reviewer; although I think the NOTE TO THE EDITOR,
latter has, on this occasion, laid himEnclosing a Letter to the Author of
self quite as open to a serious rebuke
as the former. If it should seem worth Beppo.
while to honour his misconduct with MR EDITOR,
any more formal notice, I leave that The mode in which the critics of your business to those who have already so Journal have, on all occasions, express- severely chastised him in your Magaed themselves concerning the poetry zine, and rendered both you and it of Lord Byron, convinces me, that they the horror of all the infidels in Edinhave not as yet considered its tenden- burgh, -I mean the German Baron, cy in the same point of view with and Idoloclastes. myself. Borne away by a pardonable enthusiasm in favour of its genius, they have overlooked, for otherwise I do not imagine your correspondents would have failed to condemn, MY LORD, the effect which it is likely to pro- It has for many years been almost duce upon readers of superficial at impossible that any thing should ina
TO THE AUTHOR OF BEPPO.
crease my contempt for the profes- this was indeed a high and noble ambisional critics of this country, otherwise tion, and the envy of kings might have the manner in which these persons been due to its gratification. Such were have conducted themselves towards the proud aspirings that a few years ago your Lordship, would, most certainly, possessed your mind, and your counhave produced that effect. The hy- trymen were eager to believe and to perboles of their sneaking adulation, proclaim the probability of your sucin spite of the far-off disdain with Alas! my Lord, when you rewhich you seem to regard them, have flect upon what you have done, and probably reached, long ago, the vanity upon what you are, when you reof the poet, and touched, with a chilling member with what wanton hypocrisy poison, some of the better feelings of you have tortured our feelings, and the man. I have formed, however, a with what cool contemptuousness you very mistaken opinion of your charac- have insulted our principles-you canter, if, conscious as you still are of the not scruple to confess, that the people full vigour of youthful genius, you of England have been shamefully can allow yourself to be permanently abused, and are, with justice, disapsatisfied, either with the subjects or pointed. the sources of the commendation which I admire the natural splendour of has been poured upon you. If you your genius as much as the most viofeel not within yourself a strong and lent of your slavish eulogists. I do more tormenting conviction, that as yet you -I reverence it; and I sigh with the have done little more than exhibit to humility of a worshipper, over the dethe world, the melancholy spectacle of gradation of its divinity. The ideas a great spirit, self-embittered, self- which you must have of the true greatwasted, and self-degraded, --if, in your ness of a poet, are, doubtless, very difsolitary moments, there shoot not ferent from those of ordinary mortals. sometimes across your giddy brain, the You have climbed far up among the lightnings of a self-abhorrent and un- crags and precipices of the sacred hill, hypocritical remorse, the progress of and have caught some glimpses of their the mental paralysis has been more glory, who repose amidst the eternal deadly than I had been willing to be- serenity of its majestic summit. It is lieve ;—but even then, a friend of not necessary to tell you by what an Charity and of Virtue may expect a immeasurable space your loftiest flights ready pardon for having hoped too have as yet fallen short of the unseen much, and for having spoken to you soarings of the illustrious dead. You in vain.
know and feel your superiority to the To few men, either in ancient or herd of men ; but the enviable elevain modern times, has been afforded an tion which enables you to look down opening destiny more fortunate than upon them, convinces you at the same yours. Sprung from a long line of time of your inferiority to those, who generous cavaliers, and inheriting from sit together in unapproached greatness, them a name to which no English ear the few peerless spirits, alone among could listen without respect,-and, men and among poets,-HOMER, adding to se, the advantages of a Dante, and the British graceful person and a powerful ge- Distances and distinctions which are nius, --where was that object of wor- lost to weaker and remoter optics are thy ambition which could have ap- seen and penetrated by your more fapeared to be beyond the wishes or the voured eye. Beholding, as you do, hopes of Byron? You chose to build Alps on Alps rising beyond you, even your fame upon poetry, and your choice the gratification of your self-love canwas wise.
The names of Marlbo- not prevent you from contemning their rough, Nelson, Chatham, Pitt, Fox, voice, who would extol you as having and Burke,—what, after all, are these already reached the utmost limit of when compared with those of Spenser, ascension. Nor will this contempt for Shakspeare, and Milton ? To add their foolish judgment be lessened by another name to the great trio of the consciousness, which I believe you English Poets, and to share the eter- feel, that your progress might have nal sovereignty which these majestic been more worthy of their admiration, spirits exert over the souls of the most had you not clogged your march with free, and the most virtuous of people, needless fetters, and loitered perverse