he would go." Mr. Brougham, would be able to devise some plan while he thought that the dura- by which the voter was to be able tion of parliaments might advanta- to vote in such a manner as that geously be shortened, provided that mortal could not discover, except other measures for removing impro- from himself, how he voted ; that per influence were adopted, declared he was to be placed in some kind himself both against universal suf- of sentry-box, and provided with frage and against vote by ballot, and some kind of stamped pellet, the he entered into a full statement of forgery of which would, no doubt, the grounds on which he held, that be made an offence, -it being the secrecy of voting, supposed to assumed all this while, that, notbe attained by the ballot, would withstanding all his promises to his produce most mischievous conse- landlord, and the candidate, and quences, without securing the his friends, the elector intendobject which it had in view. ed to give his vote against the man We deem it right to state the to whom he made the promise. learned gentleman's sentiments on The vote was given, and against this topic more at length, because his promise. Well, he went afterthe ballot now made a principal wards to the candidate-congratufigure in the shows of the re- lated him upon his prospect of sucformers, and because on no other cess, not failing to add, that his occasion had its merits been min vote was one of the items which nutely examined. Mr. Brougham contributed to increase the prospect. observed, that a county election But then see the moral—see how could not be managed like an elec- far the concealment of what was tion at a club, where the box was done could be continued-how far handed round, and the pellet thrown the knowledge of it could be kept in, and there was an end of it. To from the landlord, to secure whose go to a contest for a county or ex- interest in retaining him in his tensive city, a man must be con- farm he had made the promise. stantly amongst the people. His Nobody could see what passed in friends and himself should be the sentry-box, or how the stamped unremittingly engaged in active pellet was disposed of. But were canvass ; committees, and sub

there no such things as converdivisions of committees, must be sation amongst friends going to occupied in parcelling out the seve- church, or coming from it, or at ral districts, and ascertaining how the club, or at the alehouse,- for their strength stood in this part it was barely possible that an and the other; landlords were to elector might visit such a place. be sought out, and they, of course, Was nothing of the nature of the would exercise an influence over vote to be allowed to transpire ? their tenants.

The tenant was Was a man to keep such a watch then applied to, and he gave his and guard over his words and solemn promise,—" I mean to vote actions for three years—until the for you, sir; you may rely upon me

next election came that no morwith confidence. God forbid that tal could discover what he did ? I should not vote for you, under He must not tell it to his wife or whom I and my family have thri- his child; he must keep it locked ven." He would suppose that up from his bosom friend he must those who advocated this system not broach it to his pot companion,


but be as dumbas the tankard which cions: there would still be the they had emptied between them; watchings and questionings of and this state of silence must be friends and of agents-- for no act observed for three years. Thus far that could be framed could prefor the elector: now how far was vent these. In the course of these, this concealment to be operated something would turn up to fix upon by the candidate? He had the suspicions on which bad landalready found out that he was un- lords would be ready to act against successful, that where he had been their tenants; and it was on the promised 500 votes he had not assumption of bad landlords, who got 50, the seed giving back one would visit the refusal to vote for for ten, instead of yielding ten for them on their tenants, that the one, as a good husbandman had a necessity of vote by ballot was at right to expect. Inquiries were all defended. The bad landlord set on foot as to where the defi- would act upon suspicion; and ciency was. It might be a mis- the more so, as there being only take of the poll-clerks: the poll- 50 votes, where 500 had been books were examined, and all was promised, the chance was ten to right still. Then the lord Johns one that any one of the 500, who and sir Roberts, who had promis- said he kept his word, was stating ed their interest, were questioned, a falsehood. Examples would but the lord Johns and sir Ro- then be made of a few, and what berts insisted that it could not be would be the result?-why, that amongst their tenants, for they at the next election, a vast number had all promised, and had all, no would not vote at all. Some even doubt, religiously kept their words. of those who had kept their word Each defended his own tallies. would take that as the surest way But one had not voted for every to prove that they were not in the tally promised. Suspicions were pay of the opposite party. The excited, and some of the voters landlord would compel others, were questioned.

The man so whom he strongly suspected, not questioned had only one of three to vote, as the only way of preanswers to give: he must say, that venting their accession to the other he voted against the candidate, side ; or he might persuade some by which he was sure to lose his of those, who, he knew, if they farm; or he must refuse to say voted at all, would vote against how he voted, by which his loss him, to pair off with those whom of the farm would be equally cer- he suspected, and thus deprive tain; for the refusal would natur- his adversary of the whole. But ally enough be construed into an was there no other way of discounwillingness to confess that hevering—of coming at the fact of had voted the wrong way; or he how a voter had kept his word ? must insist, and solemnly call God If, in voting against bis promise, to witness that he had voted as he he acted for his principles, he had promised-a course which would be likely to make it known would not tend much to self-con- for the sake of those principles ; gratulation, or to a comfortable if from friendship, he would profeeling within himself, if he had bably tell it to gratify his friend ; any feeling at all. But even this or if he gave it from motives of would not completely lull suspic interest, nothing was less likely


than that he should conceal it, motion had been negatived, were for the attainment of the object to the effect,-1. “That it was exwould render the disclosure use- pedient the number of representaful, and in this way the secret tives in the House should be inwould come out, and the offend- creased.” 2.“ That it was expeed landlord at last get at it, and dient to give members to the large the visitation upon him, which the and manufacturing towns, and vote by ballot was intended to additional members to counties of avert, would follow. But was this great wealth and population.” the only evil which resulted from Under the latter clause of the rethis system? Was there not a solution, it was meant to divide far worse remaining behind ? Did large and populous counties, such not all this study at concealment as Yorkshire, into two parts, and of a solemn promise violated—this give to each of them two memlong watching and guard over a bers. Among the towns which man's words and actions, so as were proposed to be comprehendconstantly to appear that which ed were, Macclesfield, Stockport, he was not-tend to make bim Cheltenham, Birmingham, Brighlead the life of a hypocrite—that ton, Whitehaven, Wolverhampton, character of whom it was so just- Sunderland, Manchester, Bury, ly and eloquently said, that his Bolton, Dudley, Leeds, Halifax, life was one continued lie. What Sheffield, North and South could be expected from a man Shields; and it was stated, that who had deceived those who had the same principle would apply trusted him, and, from one elec- to extend the representation of tion to the other, was obliged to such large cities as Edinburgh, keep a constant watch on his words, Glasgow, and Belfast. To ob lest, in an unguarded moment, he viate the inconvenience which should betray the secret, the dis- would result from such an addicovery of which would not be more tion to the number of members, it injurious to his interests than fatal was proposed that a certain numto his character ? What must be ber of the smaller boroughs, which the opinions of those who could at present returned two members, believe, that a man, who was for should be allowed to return only years,-nay, even for months or one,--this curtailment being limitweeks-habitually false on one ed to boroughs where the populasubject, which was dear to him, tion did not exceed 2,500. His third could be true on all others ? Such resolution accordingly would be an opinion was founded in utter “ That, to obviate the inconveniignorance of the human mind; ence from the increased numbers false such a man was, and false of members, it is expedient that a he must be, until human nature number of boroughs, not exceedbecame totally changed, or until ing 60, and not containing more men's opinions of each other were than 2,500 inhabitants, shall setotally subverted. Thus the ballot verally return for the future only would have but little efficiency, one member to serve in parand that little would be most liament.” The last resolution dearly purchased.

referred to the compensation to The resolutions moved by lord be given to those boroughs for John Russell, after Mr.O'Connell's the privilege of which they would

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be thus deprived. There was a the Jews had received from the precedent to be found for that in Conquest down to the last cenwhat was done in a similar case at tury, when the act for naturalizing the time of the Union with Ireland. foreign Jews was repealed, within The fourth resolution, therefore, a few months after it had been was to this effect:-" That it is passed, by what he termed “a puexpedient that compensation be sillanimous legislature," in consegranted to those boroughs that quence of the public commotions have been reduced to one member which the measure had excited. to serve in parliament, by means From that time nothing had been of a fixed sum to be paid to them done respecting the Jews; from all annually for a certain number of the growing liberality of legislation years." This last proposal was they had derived no benefit; they the only part of the scheme to alone were still placed beyond the which Mr. Brougham could not pale of the constitution. They were accede. He saw great difficulty excluded from holding any offices, in the plan of pecuniary compen- civil or military, under the governsation,-greater difficulty in dis- ment. They were excluded from covering whence the money was to practising law and physic, from be derived, -and greater difficulty holding any corporate office, and still in determining to whom the from being members of parliament; money should be paid. As at and they might be prevented from present advised, therefore, he dif- voting for members of parliafered from this part of the plan; ment, if the oath were tendered but the other portions of it ap- to them. Besides these general dispeared to him reasonable, desir- abilities, they were subjected to able, and eminently practicable. additional local grievances. It was The resolutions were negatived by true that, in some large towns, for a majority of 213 to 117,-a much instance, Liverpool and Exeter, larger majority than that which they were allowed to enjoy all civil had thrown out the more limited rights; but in the metropolis, they proposal for extending the fran- could not obtain the freedom of any chise to three of the manufactur- of the companies, nor exercise any ing towns.

retail trade. The number of JewThe only other measure, affect- ish subjects in London appeared to ing the constitution of the legis- be about 18,000 or 20,000, and lative body, brought forward dur- in the kingdom about 30,000 or ing the session, was proposed by 40,000. They formed a commuMr. R. Grant, who moved, on nity of peaceable and industrious the 5th of April, for leave to persons ; they were less stained bring in a bill to repeal the civil with political offences than any disabilities affecting British-born other body of men that could be subjects professing the Jewish re- named; by their wealth they added ligion,-a bill which seemed to to the opulence of the country; follow naturally enough on the act they asked in return to be admitted of last session, for repealing the to the benefits of the constitution ; civil disabilities affecting British- and the House had nothing to do, born subjects professing the Ca- but follow" the glorious example" tholic faith. Mr. Grant narrated presented by the Catholic bill of to the House the treatment which last year. As that very bill, indeed,

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required the declaration which it enactments. The proposition could provided as a qualification for office, stand only upon the principle, that to be given “upon the word of a no regard at all should be held to a Christian,” it seemed to contain a man's religion : it would apply to recognition, and a very recent re- Turks and Mahometans as well cognition, of a principle fatal to as to Jews; and it would only Mr. Grant's intended measure. teach the people that parliament But this, according to Mr. Grant's held Christianity a matter of inlogic, was merely a "collateral and difference, though Christianity was fortuitous” incident. There was bound up as part and parcel of

" . nothing, he said, in the body of the the constitution. The Catholic Re. declaration which the Jews ob- lief bill was no precedent; for jected to take, but they were de- there was a broad distinction beprived, by a collateral and inci- tween admitting to power in a dental effect, of the advantages Christian state, those who were the which the law had placed within sworn enemies of all Christianity, their reach. The law which require and those who were merely Christed the oath of allegiance to be ians of different denominations. The taken upon the Gospel, had been Catholic bill had been rested by enacted at a tinie when there those who introduced it on the were no Jews in the realm, and ground of expediency; the numbers therefore could not have been and importance of the Catholics directed against them. The oath were such as to render it justifiable, of abjuration was introduced at a forthe attainment of a great nationtime when the country was divided al object, to offend the feelings of by political parties; and the obvious another large body of the people. intention of the introduction of the But in a work lately published, words “upon the faith of a Chris- under the authority of the Jews tian” was, not to apply a test to themselves, their number was stated those who were not Christians, but to amount to only 28,000 ; and to those who were. The form had thus there was not the same inbeen introduced into the declara- ducement to run counter to the tion now required to be taken by religious belief, or even prejudices, the House of Lords. It had cer- of the people. Jews were aliens, tainly been adopted by the House not indeed in the legal sense, but of Commons, but only for the sake in the popular and substantial of peace, and not to disturb the sense. They had another country, great measure then in progress. and an interest, not merely distinct Under those circumstances, the in- from, but hostile to, that of the troduction of the words, "upon the country which they might happen word of a Christian,” could not be to inhabit

. In one of the wars of considered the deliberate act of the the last century, the Jews had legislature.

been expelled from Bohemia, beSir Robert Inglis and the Chai- cause they had assisted an invadcellor of the Exchequer opposed ing army against their lawful soveeven the introduction of the bill, reign. The Jews, too, materially as inconsistent with what had been assisted the retreat of Napoleon's the constant practice of the legis- army from Russia. Gentlemen Jature, viz., to protect Christianity connected with commerce would under some of its forms in all their recollect also, that, while we were

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