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“ His Majesty laments that he Kingdom; and others appear to be is unable to announce to you the necessary preliminaries to a reprospect of a reconciliation be- vision of the practice and proceedtween the Princes of the House of ings of the Superior Courts. Braganza

“ We are commanded to assure Majesty has not yet you, that his Majesty feels contideemed it expedient to re-establish dent that you will give your best upon their ancient footing his attention and assistance to subjects Majesty's diplomatic relations with of such deep and lasting concern the kingdom of Portugal; but the to the well-being of his people. numerous embarrassments arising “ His Majesty commands us to from the continued interruption of inform you, that the export in the these relations, increase his Majes- last year of British produce and ty's desire to effect the termination manufactures has exceeded that of so serious an evil.

of any former year. - Gentlemen of the liouse of “ His Majesty laments that, Commons,

notwithstanding this indication of “ His Majesty has directed the active commerce, distress should estimates for the current year to prevail among the agricultural and be laid before you. They have manufacturing classes in some parts been framed with every attention of the United Kingdom. to economy, and it will be satis- " It would be most gratifying to. factory to you to learn, that his the paternal feelings of his Majesty Majesty will be enabled to make to be enabled to propose a considerable reduction in the consideration measures calculated amount of the public expenditure, to remove the difficulties of any without impairing the efficiency of portion of his subjects, and at the our navalor military establishments. same tine compatible with the

“We are commanded by his general and permanent interests of Majesty to inform you, that, his people. although the National Income, “ It is from a deep solicitude during last year, has not attained for those interests that his Majesty the full amount at which it had is impressed with the necessity of been estimated, the diminution is acting with extreme caution in not such as to cause any doubt as reference to this important subject. to the future prosperity of the “ His Majesty feels assured that

vou will concur with him in asMy Lords and Gentlemen, signing due weight to the effect of “ His Majesty commands us to unfavourable seasons, and to the acquaint you, that his attention has operation of other causes which been of late earnestly directed to are beyond the reach of legislative various important considerations control or remedy. connected with improvements in the “ Above all, his Majesty is general administration of the law. convinced that no pressure of

“ His Majesty has directed temporary difficulty will induce that measures shall be submitted you to relax the determination for your deliberation, of which which you have uniformly manisome are calculated, in the opinion fested to maintain inviolate the of his Majesty, to facilitate and public credit, and thus to uphold expedite the course of justice the high character and the perin different parts of the United manent welfare of the country.”


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In the House of Lords the Ad- it did admit to unfavourable dress was moved by the duke of seasons. Unfavourable seasons did, Buccleuch, and seconded by lord of course, operate upon grain; but Saltoun, but it was not carried was their effect usually visible without a debate and a division. in a reduction of price-did a bad

а The opposition came from the harvest make corn cheap? The former friends of the ministry, who evil was so notorious, that nobody maintained that the expressions in but his majesty's ministers doubtthe speech referring to the ex- ed its existence; and how could istence of partial and tempo- even they feasibly pretend to deny rary distress, were untrue and it, if they only cast their eyes delusive, and that the country was around, and saw the counties entitled to an immediate inquiry spontaneously pouring on them into the causes of the sufiering every kind of sollicitation for which every where prevailed. Earl relief. Why, then, was inquiry Stanhope, accordingly, moved, as evaded or denied? It was not an amendment, “ That this House true that the causes of distress views, with the deepest sorrow were placed beyond the reach of and anxiety, the severe distress parliament. It was parliament which now afflicts the country, that had produced them, and yet and will immediately proceed to ministers now wished parliament to examine into its cause, and into disregard the effects, and treat the the means of effectually providing public distress with indifference, the necessary relief.” His lord- as a matter which did not concern ship said, that a speech more inap- them. He would not now enter propriate and unsatisfactory had into any specific details of those never been addressed to any public causes, because he meant, at an assembly. It spoke of the pre- early day, to bring forward a valence of distress “in some parts”, special motion for inquiry, and of the country: but what part of therefore he had offered an amende the country was it, in which minis- ment which pledged the House to ters had not found distress pre- nothing more than inquiry, giving vailing, and that, too, general, not the House an opportunity of regainpartial? The kingdom was in a ing its character with the country, state of universal distress, one and of preventing the present feeling likely to be unequalled in its of distress from being converted, by duration, as it was intolerable in the supineness of parliament, and its pressure, unless parliament its vacillations corresponding with thought fit to inquire for a re- the vacillations of ministerial necesmedy. It was not confined to agri- sity or expediencies, into a deep and culture ; it had extended to manu- dangerous feeling of disaffection. factures, to trade, and commerce. Lord Goderich, in opposing the All these great interests had never amendment, said, that the true before, at one time, been at so low object of its noble mover plainly an ebb, nor in a condition which enough was, to get rid of the demanded more loudly the prompt alterations lately introduced into and energetic interference of par- our coinmercial system, and to liament. The speech found not only unsettle the basis on which the mere partial distress in some parts currency now stood. For the first, of the country, but ascribed what he had never been able to extract


from the opponents of what was in their numbers it was indifferent called “ free trade," what that which was the true explanationwas which they denounced under as made up for the reduction in that obnoxious name. The noble the duties. Errors like these, in mover of the amendment seemed matters of fact, lay at the bottom of to mean by it, the refusal to foster the amendment, and, therefore, domestic agriculture by prohibit- he would support the government ing the importation of foreign against hostility founded on such wool. But that refusal, be it mischievous delusions. That right or wrong in itself, was no government he did not wish to modern invention ; for it was not embarrass, or to see embarrassed, till 1819 that the importation of although he had no connection foreign wool had been at all pro- with it. If he ever had entertainhibited, and the duty then laid on ed any personal feelings in regard was imposed merely for purposes to the present ministry—and he of revenue, not as a protection to was sure he had never entertained trade. On the currency question, angry ones—they had all been again, the theory of those who buried by the passing of the thought with earl Stanhope was, Catholic bill. that the return to a metallic

The duke of Richmond, the rency had, in effect, added to earl of Carnarvon, and the earl of our taxation. But here, too, facts Winchilsca spoke in favour of the were the other way. In 1815, amendment. In reply to lord the taxes amounted to 80,000,0001. Goderich's statements regarding the Taking the depreciation of the cur- wool-trade, the former said, he rency at its highest rational esti- would repeat what he had often mate, viz. 30 per cent, the same before urged, that wool was made taxes should, in a restored cur- an exception, and the only exrency, amount

to 56,000,0001. ception, to the system of protectUnless they exceeded that sum, ing our native produce. The they

had not been added to. farmers had, at this moment, three Now, in point of fact, the eighty years' stock of wool upon hand, millions of the depreciated currency which they could not dispose of of 1815, did just amount to fifty- except at ruinously low prices; six millions in the restored cur- and wasit any satisfactory answer to rency of 1826, being the very their complaints, that the system, ratio of 30 per cent in which by which they were ruined, had the currency had been restored. been part of the system of their Therefore, the taxes had not in- ancestors. Neither

the creased with the return to a metal- farmers the only sufferers. The lic currency.

Between 1823 and distress had laid hold of the manu1827, nine millions of taxes had facturers; and, above all, the conbeen reduced; yet the loss in 1827 dition of the labourers was one had been only three millions, and of alarming deprivation. Their but one million in the amount of wretched existence, if existence it taxes collected last year, shewing could be called, through the aid of such an increased consumption of parish-officers, was a subject which taxed articles, that was, such an would force itself on the notice of improvement in the condition of the legislature; and though he the consumers, or such an increase laid his account with being in a



minority, he would vote for the longer commensurate with the amendment, were it only to con- demand. In no other country was vince the distressed manufacturers gold exclusively a standard ; nor and labourers, to whom govern- did he believe that it could at this ment, it appeared, had no answer moment be obtained, in any quarto make but patience,” that ter of the world, to meet an ima there were some members of their mediate and general demand. lordships' House by whom their There had been a reduction of interests were not neglected. taxation from eighty-four to about

The earl of Carnarvon declared, fifty-six millions, and yet the that the Address called upon them pressure was found to be the same to pledge themselves to statements as before. If a silver standard which were inconsistent with were adopted, keeping gold for truth, and that he would never circulation only for convenience, lend his countenance to the falla- the resources of the country would cious and cold-blooded representa- be emancipated from the artificial tions of mere partial distress set fetters in which they were now forth in the speech. That speech bound, and the political economists said not one word about the true would find, to their no small causes of what the country was suf- surprise, that these fering; butit gravely desired them to were sufficient to feed the populatake into consideration “the state tion which was now starving of the seasons !” The seasons of It was impossible that the poorer 1816 and 1817 had been much classes could be allowed to continue worse than that of 1829. Accord in the state in which they were ing to this doctrine, therefore, the now suffering. If the nation distress of 1818 ought, at least, to had no confidence in the ministry, have equalled that which existed they had confidence in parlianow. Yet that year was one of ment; but even that confidence great prosperity ; commerce and would not long continue, unless agriculture were rapidly on the they saw some serious attempt increase ; for the government of made to relieve the distress under that day were wise and practic- which they laboured. al; and, alarmed for the effect of To refuse even to take that their own operations, they had distress into consideration, said issued 7,000,0001. of Exchequer lord Winchilsea, would force on bills to meet the exigency, while the country the opinion that the three millions of small notes were

House was

unable to legislate issued by the Bank of England. for the public good.

A spirit The cause of the apparently hope- was springing up in different less continuance of the present parts of the country, for forming distress lay much deeper, and no associations, not to lay the grievsmall part of it, he was convinced, ances of the people before parliahad been owing to the changement, but to propose remedies of in the currency. There had been their own, and redress their own many periods of distress formerly, wrongs; and to that spirit their but they had soon passed away ; lordships would be supplying ennow, however, the kingdom was couragement if they refused to inplaced in very different circum- stitute an inquiry into the nature stances, as the circulation was no and causes of the existing distress.

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The duke of Wellington said, the new houses which were everyini answer, that much more had where springing up.

Pressure been made out of the expressions upon the country there certainly in the speech, concerning the was; but not so great as to preeffect of bad seasons, than they vent it from rising, though slowly. could be fairly made to mean. The country was not stationary ; It was not there set down as the much less was it falling; it was only cause of distress; it was improving. alluded to as one circumstance, not Neither, said his grace, could he to be lost sight of; and as there agree with the supporters of the certainly had been one bad harvest, amendment, that the distress, such and another which had not been as it was, was to be ascribed to the got in without unusual expense, supposed restriction of the circulatthese, undoubtedly, were facts to being medium by the return to a taken into consideration. The metallic currency. There was no speech said no more. Another foundation in fact for such an opicause of distress was to be found in nion: the largest circulation, which the state of our manufactures, and had ever been known in this coun. it was to this his majesty alluded, try during the Bank restriction, when he spoke of the operation of was 64,000,000l. The sum was causes beyond the reach of legis- thus made up: lative control. Were not com- Bank of England notes i. £30,000,000 petition at home and abroad, the Country bank notes 23,000,000 introduction of machinery, and the Gold

4,000,000 Silver..

7,000,000 general adoption of steam, calculated to produce distress among

L 64,000,000 our manufacturers ? Yet could par

The circulation now amounted liament prevent

competition ? Could it prohibit the use of

to 65,100,0001. ; and the sum was machinery, and the application of thus made up :steam, all of which, by throwing Country bank notes

Bank of England notes £19,900,000

9,200,000 labourers out of employment, pro- Gold

28,000,000 duced distress? He was satisfied, Silver..

8,000,000 moreover, that the distress was not universal--that there were parts

£65,100,000 of the country entirely free from Thus the circulation was greater it. Theexports of last year had been now than during the Bank restricgreater than they had ever been be- tion, and consequently the distress fore; and there was not a canal or a was not properly attributed to a rail-way in the country, which did deficient circulation. But the not present an increase of traffic. It truth of the matter was this, it was true, no doubt, that all this was not extended circulation, but had been done at small profits; unlimited circulation, that the noble but profits there must have been, lords desired. In other words, they otherwise the traffic would not wanted to give to certain indiviexist. He would ask, too, if any duals---not to the Crown-an undistress existed among the retail limited power of coining in the dealers, who formed a very large shape of paper, and of producing a class ?


those distressed fictitious capital. He begged their persons, who could pay the rents of lordships to recollect how


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