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P. 132, 1. 2. This story found in the Life of Sixtus V by Gregorio Leti, published in 1669, a work, says Baron Hübner, full of silly tales, of contradictory statements, and of palpable falsehoods.' This eminent diplomatist, in his Life and Times of Sixtus V,' a work of great interest and ability, adds that the caricatured and bad portrait which [Leti] drew of Sixtus V has unfortunately survived the memory both of himself and of his book.' That Sixtus V governed with terrible severity is an undoubted fact, and few would undertake to defend the justice of all the punishments which he inflicted; yet ideas of public good and even-handed justice seem to have been at the bottom of all his administrative acts, even the harshest. The foundation of the story repeated by Addison may probably be found in the account of a terrible execution recorded by Baron Hübner (i. 277, Jerningham's Translation). An ecclesiastic, who had been for many years a newsmonger and pamphleteer, was executed on the bridge of St. Angelo. Before he ex

pired on the gibbet, he had his hands and his tongue cut off. A list of his crimes was written up on a board, stating that he had during many years spread about false news, calumniated people of all ranks, insulted the worship of saints by exhihiting obscene statuettes, and corresponded with heretical princes.' Mr. Morley, in his note on the passage, assumes the truth of Leti's story, and quotes from him additional particulars; probably he had not seen Baron Hübner's work.

P. 132, 1. 2. This is the famous, or rather infamous, Pietro Aretino (14921557), a native of Arezzo in Tuscany, who employed himself a great part of his life in writing satires and ribald poetry of all sorts.

1. 32. For as' is used in the sense of inasmuch as.'

1. 36. Sir Roger L'Estrange, an ardent Royalist, wrote a pamphlet entitled No Blind Guides,' in 1660, in reply to Milton's Ready Way to Establish a Free Commonwealth.' His Fables are translated from Æsop, with a Life prefixed.

P. 134, 1. 31. Among these scurrilous publications may be reckoned the Female Tatler, conducted by T. Baker, and the Weekly Review, conducted by Defoe. Swift's organ, the Examiner, was not particularly scrupulous. As the century wore on, the evil did not diminish; witness the violence of the Terra Filius, the pertinacious scurrility of the Craftsman, and the intolerable licence of Wilkes' North Briton.


1. 39. Cic., De Republica, iv. 10: Nostræ contra duodecim fabulæ, perpaucas res capite sanxissent, in his hanc quoque sanciendam putaverunt, quis occentavisset sive carmen condidisset, quod infamiam faceret flagitiumve alteri.'

P. 135, 1. 34. Valentinian and Valens were emperors, the one of the West, the other of the East, in the second half of the fourth century after Christ.

1. 38. From Bayle's Dissertation upon Defamatory Libels. (Morley.) P. 136, 1. 14. That is, anticipates, is beforehand with. So the word is used in the Collect, beginning- Prevent us, O Lord, in all our doings.'

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P. 137, 1. 19. Cicero, De Amic. ch. vi.: 'Nam et secundas res splendidiores facit amicitia, et adversas, partiens communicansque, leviores.'

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1. 31. The term apocryphal (which, though its etymological meaning is merely hidden,'' kept secret,' had come to be used in malam partem before the age of Athanasius), is not properly applicable to the book of Wisdom, nor to any of the books which, though not contained in the Hebrew canon, are included in the Septuagint version of the Old Testament. See Smith's Bible Dictionary.

P. 140, 1. 12. Seneca, Dial. x. De Brevitate Vitæ, § I.

P. 143, 1. 20. There is evidently something omitted in this sentence, through oversight either on the part of Addison or of the printers. To make sense of it, we must read, "The skills,' or 'The industries of the florist, the planter,' &c.

1. 31. Robert Boyle (1627–1691) was a celebrated natural philosopher of the seventeenth century. The saying, according to Prof. Morley, is that of an old alchemist concerning antimony, quoted by Boyle in his Usefulness of Natural Philosophy.

P. 144, l. 31. Locke's Essay on the Human Understanding, Book ii. ch. 14. P. 145, 1. 21. There is no such passage in the Koran, where it is simply said that Mahomet made a night journey to Jerusalem, and thence to Paradise, passing through the seven heavens on his way. But the passage, nearly as quoted by Addison, is in the Turkish Tales (published by Tonson in 1708), and forms the introduction to the History of Chec Chahabeddin, the learned doctor who figures in the story presently related about the Sultan and the tub.

P. 147, l. 4. Landskip' is less divergent from the old Anglo-Saxon form of the word,landscipe,' than the 'landscape' of our modern orthography. P. 149, 1. 38. These lines are considered in treatises on Conic Sections; they are called asymptotes.

P. 152, l. 12. It seemed unnecessary to quote in extenso the long passage from Horace which follows in the original editions of the Spectator; it will be found in the third satire of the first Book, ll. 3-19.

1. 14. This well-known passage is in the first book of Dryden's Absalom and Achitophel; the satire was aimed at the Duke of Buckingham.

P. 153, 1. 2. George Saville, Marquis of Halifax (1630-1695), wrote several clever political pamphlets, e.g. The Character of a Trimmer, besides the tract mentioned in the text.

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P. 163, 1. 19. Gallies' in all the old editions. But if gallies' be the proper plural of galley,' we should write chimnies' and 'donkies' instead of chimneys and donkeys.

1. 34. The violence with which the Swiss Radicals, and the freethinking partisans of Kultur' in Germany, are now, and have been for some time past, persecuting the Roman Catholic Church in their respective countries, supplies a curious illustration of the passage in the text.

P. 164, 1. 8. This passage may remind the reader of some lines in Pope's Dunciad (Book iv.), where the fanatical opponents of fanaticism are introduced as assisting to extend the empire of Dulness :

"Be that my task!" exclaimed a gloomy clerk,
Sworn foe to mystery, yet divinely dark;
Whose pious hope aspires to see the day
When moral evidence shall quite decay,
And damns implicit faith and holy lies,
Prompt to impose, and fond to dogmatize.'

P. 166, 1. 7. The English Deists were at this time represented by John Toland, author of Christianity not Mysterious, Dr. Tindal, who figures in Pope's Dunciad, Thomas Chubb, and Anthony Collins, author of a Discourse on Free-Thinking. Lord Bolingbroke was not known to belong to them till a later period.

P. 167, 1. 18. The "Golden Verses' of Pythagoras (the authorship of which cannot be ascribed to the philosopher, but is of uncertain origin and date) extend to seventy-one Greek hexameter lines. They consist of moral, social, and religious maxims, and commence with the line, inculcating reverence to the gods as man's first duty, which forms the motto of No. 112. They may be found in the Florilegium of Stobæus, and have been edited by Orelli (Opuscula Græca), and other moderns.

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1. 22. Phædo, ch. lxvi.: Throwing off the covering, he (Socrates) said, and it was the last word he uttered, "O Crito, we owe a cock to Asclepius; pay it then, and do not neglect it."

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1. 27. Immediately therefore he [Cyrus] took victims, and offered them in sacrifice to the ancestral Zeus, and to the Sun, and to the other gods, upon the mountain peaks, as the Persians sacrifice.' (Xen. Cyri Discipl. viii. 7. But Xenophon himself is a remarkable instance of a man of robust intelligence and great force of character, deliberately, and even earnestly, conforming to the religion of his country and making the best of it, though its many weak and corrupt places must have been well known to him. It is impossible to read through the Anabasis without perceiving that Xenophon believed that that wonderful march was made from first to last under divine direction, obtained and merited by prayer and sacrifice; and that its successful issue was due to the constant, and in some cases miraculous, interposition of an over-ruling Providence.

P. 169, 1. 4. The story is told of the Spartans and their Helots.

1. 10. Of Congreve's comedy of Love for Love (1695) Dr. Johnson remarks, that it is of nearer alliance to life, and exhibits more real manners, than either the Old Bachelor or the Double Dealer.'

P. 170, 1. 26. Addison probably quotes from the English translation of the interesting work of the Jesuit missionary Father Le Compte, which appeared in London in 1697. The translation is entitled The Present State of China.' The Jesuit writes (Part ii. Letter 1): If it should happen that a son should be so insolent as to mock his parents, or arrive to that height of

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fury and madness as to lay violent hands on them, it is the whole empire's concern, and the province where this horrible violence is committed is alarmed. The Emperor himself judges the criminal. All the Mandarins near the place are turned out, especially those of that town who have been so negligent in their instructions,' &c.

P. 173, 1. 24. Il. viii. 549.

1. 34. II. v. 127.

1. 35. Diomedes his eyes.' So again, in the last paragraph of this paper: 'Socrates his rules.' An erroneous notion prevailed in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, that the s of the English genitive case singular-man's, woman's, Cato's-which is really the relic of the old Anglo-Saxon genitive termination -es, represented the personal possessive pronoun his. Hence such forms of speech as those in the text.

P. 174, 1. 6. The authenticity of the dialogue known as Alcibiades the Second is very doubtful, and it is on this account excluded by Prof. Jowett from his translation of the works of Plato.

P. 177, 1. 12. See note to page, 89, 1. 1.

P. 178, 1. 24. This letter was written by Mr. Hughes, of whom an account is given in the Introduction, page xxiv.

P. 179, 1. 17. The opera of Almahide, of which the music is attributed to Buononcini, while the story is probably founded on Mdlle. de Scudéry's romance of the same name, was produced in 1710, and was the first work performed entirely in the Italian language on the English stage. Nicolini, who had made his first appearance in England shortly before, in the partly English partly Italian opera of Pyrrhus and Demetrius, sang a soprano part in Almahide. The female parts were taken by Margarita de l'Epine and Isabella Girardeau. (Sutherland Edwards' History of the Opera.) I do not know on what authority Prof. Morley, in his edition of the Spectator, states the name of the bashful débutante to have been Mrs. Barbier.'

P. 180, 1. 17. Il. i. 225:


'O monster! mix'd of insolence and fear,

P. 181, 1. 10.

Thou dog in forehead, but in heart a deer !'-POPE.
Seneca, Epist. Moral. i. 11.

P. 182, 1. 5. Out of all the honours decreed to him by the senate and people, there was none that Cæsar more gladly accepted and used than the privilege of continually wearing a laurel crown,' in order to hide his baldness. Suetonius, De Vitâ Cæsarum, i. 45.

P. 183, 1. 3. Similar meditations, aided by a more exact knowledge of facts, led Mr. Malthus, a hundred years later, to somewhat different conclusions. 1. 23. A story in many respects similar is told of St. Bruno, the founder of the Carthusian order.

P. 184, l. 1. Dr. Sherlock (1641-1707) preached and wrote vigorously in favour of passive obedience under Charles II, and refusing to take the oaths after the Revolution, was suspended from all his offices of emolument. While under suspension, he wrote the work mentioned in the text, 'A Prac

tical Discourse on Death; ' it has passed through some forty editions. Before the end of 1690 he had decided to conform to the new Government. Of the circumstances attending this tergiversation, and of the controversy to which it led, Lord Macaulay has given an amusing account in his History, vol. iii. pp. 102, 253.

1. 19. See Meineke's Fragmenta Comicorum Græcorum, vol. iii. p. 29. The lines which Addison translates are a fragment of the lost play of Aphrodisius, by Antiphanes, a writer of the Middle Comedy, who did not live a 'hundred years before,' but at the same time with Socrates or rather later.

1. 32. In the Travels of Sir John Chardin into Persia and the East Indies ' (1686), I can find no such anecdote as that quoted by Addison.

P. 185, 1. 20. The Epistles of Phalaris were believed in the time of Addison to be the genuine work of the tyrant of Agrigentum; it was reserved for Bentley, in his masterly Dissertation, to demonstrate that they were the forgery of a later age.

P. 186, 1. 8. Epaminondas, the great Theban, who broke the power of Sparta, and the Athenian generals Chabrias and Iphicrates, flourished in the first half of the fourth century before Christ.

1. 21. The witty St. Evremond (1613-1703) exiled by Louis XIV for the freedoms of his bitter tongue and satirical pen, repaired in 1662 to the court of Charles II, was well received there, and lived to the end of his days, which were prolonged to ninety years, in England.

1. 38. Who put his beard out of the way as he was laying his head on the block, saying pleasantly to the headsman, that it at least had never committed treason.

P. 187, 1. 29. This expedition of King Sebastian (the subject of Dryden's finest play) took place in 1579. He was killed after the battle; but rumour averred for many years afterwards, and the Portuguese people readily believed, that he had escaped with life from the battle, and would some day return to restore to Portugal her old prosperity.

P. 198, 1. 12. A Greek word signifying divine vengeance or retribution. 1. 27. A sword with one sharp edge.

P. 200, 1. 3. This story told of Diagoras by Cicero in the De Natura Deorum, iii. 37. Addison might also have found it in Bayle's Dictionary.

1. 25. Addison, though few men had a more capacious memory, sometimes trusted it too far. The name of the young Greek mentioned in the well known story of Herodotus (i. 31) is not Clitobus, but Cleobis.

P. 201, I. 10. A note in Tegg's edition of the Spectator, taken probably from Bishop Percy, names one Anthony Henley as Addison's informant, and Dr. Thomas Goodwin, President of Magdalen College, Oxford, during the commonwealth, as the Independent minister here referred to. Upon what authority this statement rests, does not appear. Two other Independent ministers, John Owen, Dean of Christ Church, and Thankful Owen, President of St. John's, were heads of Oxford Colleges at the same time with Goodwin; however the circumstance of the half-dozen night-caps' agrees so well

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