world, that I know of. But I will catch myself once in my life, and in spite of nature speak one truth, to wit, that I am

Your humble servant, &c.' STEELE*.


N° 137. TUESDAY, AUGUST 7, 1711.

At hæc etiam servis semper libera fuerunt, timerent, gaudlerent, dolerent, suo potius quam alterius arbitrio,

TULL. Epist. Even slaves were always at liberty to fear, rejoice, a id

grieve, at their own rather than another's pleasure It is no small concern to me, that I find so many complaints from that part of mankind whose portion it is to live in servitude, that those whom they depend upon will not allow them to be even as happy 24 their condition will admit of. There are, as these unhappy correspondents inform me, masters who are offended at a cheerful countenance, and think a servant is broke loose upon them, if he does not preserve the utmost awe in their presence., There is one who

says, if he looks satisfied, his master asks him, ' what makes him so pert this morning ;' if a

* Hark ye, sirrah, are not you paid your wages ?". The poor creatures live in the most extreme misery together: the master knows not how to preserve respect, nor the servant how to give it. It seems this

is of so sullen a nature, that he knows but little satisfaction in the midst of a plentiful fortune, and secretly frets to see any appearance of content in one that lives upon the hundredth part of his income, while he is unhappy in the possession of the whole. Uneasy persons, who cannot possess their own minds, vent their spleen

little sour,


* Steele had seven years before this produced his comedy of “ The Lying Lover," from which Foote afterwards borrowed the chief incidents of his “ Lyar."


upon all who depend upon them; which, I think, is expressed in a lively manner in the following letters:


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August 2, 1711. I have read your Spectator of the third of the last month*, and wish I had the happiness of being preferred to serve so good a master as Sir Roger. The character of my master is the very reverse of that good and gentle knight's. All his directions are given, and his mind revealed, by way of contraries : as when any thing is to be remembered, with a peculiar cast of face he cries, 6 Be sure to forget now.” If I am to make haste back, “ Do Hot come these two hours ; be sure to call by the way upon some of your companions.” Then another excellent way of his is, if he sets me any thing to do, which he knows must necessarily take up half a day, he calls ten times in a quarter of an hour to know whether I have done yet. This is his manner; and the same perverseness runs through all his actions, according as the circumstances vary. Besides all this, he is so suspicious, that he submits himself to the drudgery of a spy. He is as unhap-py

himself as he makes his servants: he is constantly watching us, and we differ no more in pleasure and liberty than as a gaoler and a prisoner. He lays traps for faults, and no sooner makes a discovery, but falls into such language, as I am more ashamed of for coming from him, than for being directed to me.

This, Sir, is a short sketch of a master I have served upwards of nine years; and though I have never wronged him, I confess my despair of pleasing him has very much abated my endeavourto do it. If you will give me leave to steal a sentence out of my master's Clarendon, I shall tell you my case in a word, Being used worse than I deserved, I cared less to deserve well than I had done."

I am, sir,
. Your humble servant,


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* NO 107,



and am


DEAR MR. SPECTER, “I am the next thing to a lady's woman, under both my lady and her woman. I am so used by them both, that I should be very glad to see them in the Specter. My lady herself is of no mind in the world, and for that reason her woman is of twenty minds in a moment. My lady is one that never knows what to do with herself ;-she pulls on and puts off every thing she wears, twenty times, before she resolves upon it for that day. I stand at one end of the room, and reach thingş to her

When my lady asks for a thing, I hear, and have half brought it, when the woman meets me in the middle of the room to receive it, and at that instant she says,

No, she will not have it.” Then I go back, and her woman comes up to her,

I and by this time she will have that, and two or three things more in an instant. The woman and I run to each other; I am loaded, and delivering the things to her, when my lady says she wants none of all these things, and we are the dullest creatures in the world, and she the unhappiest woman living, for she shall not be drest in any time. Thus we stand not knowing what to do, when our good lady with all the patience in the world tells us as plain as she can speak, that she will have temper because we have no manner of understanding; and begins again to dress, and see if we can find out of our. selves what we are to do. When she is dressed, she goes to divner, and after she has disliked every thing there, she calls for her coach, then commands it in again, and then she will not go out at all, and then will go too, and orders the chariot. Now, good Mr. Specter, I desire you would, in the behalf of all who.serve froward ladies, give out in your paper, that nothing can be done without allowing time for it, and that one cannot be back again with what one was sent for, if one is called back before one can go a step for that they want. And if you please, let them know that all niistresses are as like as all servants.

I am your loving friend,



These are great calamities; but I met the other day in the Five-fields, towards Chelsea, a pleasanter 1yrant than either of the above represented. A fat fellow was passing on in his open waistcoat; a boy of fourteen in a livery, carrying after him his cloak, upper coat, hat, wig, and sword. The

The poor lad was ready to sink with the weight, and could not keep up with his master, who turned back every half furlong, and wondered what made the lazy young dog lag behind.

There is something very unaccountable, that people cannot put themselves in the condition of the persons below them, when they consider the commands they give. But there is nothing more common, than to see a fellow (who, if he were reduced

would not be hired by any man living) lament that he is troubled with the most worthless dogs in nature.

It would perhaps, be running too far out of common life to urge, that he who is not master of himself and bis own passions, cannot be a proper master of another. Equanimity in a man's own words

a and actions, will easily diffuse itself through his whole family. Pamphilio has the happiest household of any man I know, and that proceeds from the humane regard he has to them in their private persons, as well as in respect that they are his servants. If there be any occasion, wherein they may in themselves be supposed to be unfit to attend their master's.concerns by reason of any attention to their own, he is so good as to place himself in their condition. I thought it very becoming in him, when at dinner the other day, he made an apology for want of more attendants. He said, “One of my footmen is

gone to the wedding of his sister, and the other I do not expect to wait, because his father died but two days ago.'.


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NO. 158. WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 8, 1711.

Utitur in re non dubiâ testibus non necessariis.



Ile uses unnecessary proofs in an indisputable point. One meets now and then with persons who are extremely learned and knotty in expounding clear cases. Tully tells us of an author that spent some pages to prove that generals could not perform the great enterprizes which have made them so illustrious, if they had not had men. He asserted also, it seeins, that a minister at home, no more than a commander abroad, could do any thing without other men were his instruments and assistants. On: this occasion he produces the example of Themistocles, Pericles, Cyrus, and Alexander himself, whom he denies to have been capable of effecting what they did, except they had been followed by others. It is pleasant enough to see such persons contend without opponents, and triumph without. victory.

The author above-mentioned by the orator is placed for ever in a very ridiculous light, and we meet every day in conversation such as deserve the same kind of renown, for troubling those with whom they converse with the like certainties. The

per. sons that I have always thought to deserve the highest admiration in this kind are your ordinary storytellers, who are most religiously careful of keeping to the truth in every particular circumstance of a narration, whether it concern the main end or not. A gentleman whom I had the honour to be in company with the other day, upon some occasion that he was pleased to take, said, he remembered a very pretty repartee made by a very witty man in king Charles's time upon the like occasion. I

61 remember, (said he, upon entering into the tale) much about the time of Oates's plot, that a cousin german of mine and I were at the Bear in Holborn ;

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