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roit, et que la presque totalité des administrations civiles prenoit part à la conspiration. Des cris d'indignation s'élevoient de toutes parts contre les Préfets et ces cris parvenoient jusqu'au Ministère qui les dédaignoit, qui sembloit méme braver le mécontentement de jour en jour plus marqué que faisoit naître son incroyable sécurité.
At length the departure of the foreign troops left Louis XVIII. defenceless in the midst of his enemies. No expedient of slander or of treachery was neglected to render him unpopu lar, and the number of his enemies was swelled by the return from different countries of the prisoners of war, who were strangers to the reinstated government.
The departure of the king in March last renewed the distinctions of party among those whose enmity to legitimate power had combined them against him; and Buonaparte, who soon found he might take quiet possession of the throne, was himself but an instrument in the hands of faction. The celebrated protest of the allies, proclaiming among other things, the doctrine of legitimacy, would, however, have united them once more against their common enemy; and, in the author's opinion, the pretended advantages of the newly fabricated constitution would have rallied all parties round Napoleon, had not the battle of Waterloo driven them from the political field, and saved the numerous victims who were marked out over the whole country for destruction.
The author severely censures the choice of ministers on the king's second restoration, and addresses them in a mingled strain of earnestness and irony. We add his exposure of the revolu tionary brotherhood; and of the unnatural union of opposite principles and qualities, exemplified in the toleration of Buonaparte's ministerial arrangements.
"L'association révolutionnaire peut tout braver; et toute puissance que l'on aura essayé d'élever contre elle, ne cherchant à la combattre que par des mutations timides et partielles, ne pourra jamais avoir qu'une: existence fragile et passagère. En effet, que l'on donne à cette machine ...« politique et mystérieuse, des chefs qui lui soient étrangers, aussitôt ses chefs veritables s'établissent dans l'ombre, et au moyen d'une simple communication avec quelques principaux sous-ordres, les rapports directs' se trouvent immédiatement rétablis; qu'on essaie de rompre ses rangs en y jettant des intermédiaires dont l'action soit en sens contraire: ses agens subalternes, habiles à dissimuler, cherchent à l'inst int même, parmi leurs frères, et j'oserois dire presque d'instinct, le point de contact le plus. prochain pour s'y rattacher et rentrer par-là dans le mouvement commun qui doit tout entraîner. C'est par cet enchaînement si habilement combiné de tant de ressorts, tous dirigés vers le même point, que, pendant l'année de la première restauration, Rovigo a pu gouverner la police, Maret ou Carnot, l'intérieur, aque préfet dévoué à Buonaparte le departement voisin du sien, où l'on avoit placé par dérision un préfet roy
liste. Ainsi, l'exécrable araignée répare avec une activité continuelle les moindres altérations qu'éprouve son tissu meurtrier, et cachée au centre de ce piége inextricable, reçoit l'ébranlement le plus léger de ses fils les plus imperceptibles, y enveloppe sa proie, l'assassine lachement et la dévore sans danger. p. 46, 47.
"Dans l'année mémorable qui vient de s'écouler, dès qu'une partié quelconque de l'administration tomboit entre les mains d'un royaliste, tous les ressorts sembloient s'en détraquer; quelles que fussent sa vigia lance et son activité, le désordre, la lenteur, les fausses mesures en altéroient l'ensemble, en dérangeoient la marche; et comme le disoit naïvement un ministre dont les bévues prodigieuses vivront éternellement dans l'histoire: il n'y avoit que les anciens Préfets qui altassent bien. Politiques ministériels, triompherez-vous de cet aveu? J'en retournerai les conséquences contre vousmêmes, et j'en fortifierai tous mes raisonnemens." P. 60, 61.
"La France se divise aujourd'hui en deux partis sans doute très-opposés, les victimes et les bourreaux. Dans la plus petite bourgade, tout ce qui avoit un rang, de l'éducation, de la fortune, tout ce qui avoit conservé quelque sentiment de probité, d'humanité, quelques idées d'une justice divine et de la différence qui existe entre le bien et le mal, a été opprimé, dépouillé, assassiné: j'ai dit inille fois ce qu'étoient les assassins et les oppresseurs. Et l'ou conçoit le projet de réunir des élémens aussi opposés entre eux que le ciel etila ferre! Et ce projet, on prétend l'exécuter au moment même où nous sortons d'une crise qui vient de faire éclater l'endurcissement, la férocité incurable des uns, en redoublant la haine, T'horreur et le mépris des autres! Qu'on ne l'espère pas; il y de la folie a l'espérer-Il n'y a sur ce point, dans la France entier, qu'un cri, qu'un sentiment, qu'une volonté, et la différence est ici du crime à la vertu." P. 54.
The anonymous writer points out several errors in the policy. of the present administration; and the various artifices of the revolutionists, among which are the imputation to the royalists of exploded and obsolete opinions, and the allegation of their pretended incapacity for the management of affairs. The latter topic has been noticed in one of our extracts: the former may justly be suffered to sink into contempt.
The army requires to be managed with considerable caution; since it still seems to be a focus of cabals against the govern-, ment; and since many of its emissaries are known to be clandes finely at work in Paris, under fictitious names, and furnished with passports,
veq mayempis p
"qu'ils obtiennent sans difficulté dans une foule de municipalités où l'ordre secret est sans doute déjà donné de protéger leur voyage Grâce à ces précautions, échappant à l'oeil de la police et peut-être même, en dépit de son chef, protégés par ses agens subalternes, ils pourront, placés au centre de tous les mouvemens, correspondre simultanément avec tous! les corps, et peut-être rattacher les fils de l'association fraternelle jusque dans la maison du Roi, qui est menacée de perdre toutes les garanties qu'offreit son ancienne composition." p. 70.
The author points out those classes who may possibly be active in a new change of affairs, and he even conceives, though he anticipates the failure of the experiment, that the revolutionists may endeavour, by the offer of the crown, to ally themselves with some member of the present royal family.
The latter part of the work is occupied in recommending the punishment of delinquents, and the protracted stay of the allied troops; and in inculcating the doctrine of legitimacy. Gratefully acknowledging the forbearance at all times exercised by the allies, the essayist earnestly cautions them against those seductions which may lead to their disunion; and exhorts them to maintain and cherish those principles of public and private virtue, which have so recklessly been violated by the French revolution.
The preliminary memoir on Fouché of Nantes is very curious. We shall not now track this titled ruffian through all the robberies and butcheries in which he has been concerned, at Nantes, at Lyons, at Rome; nor yet describe the impious, blas phemous spirit that could prompt him to call upon the convention to decree, That Death is an eternal sleep!
The editor towards the close of the article states that he had been apprised of his dismissal; and wishes, as many others had before done and still continue to do, that justice may speedily overtake him. Of Fouché, of the execrable Davoust, and divers others their most worthy compeers, we trust that history will yet be enabled to observe,
Ως ἀπόλοιτο καὶ ἄλλος, ὅτις τοιαῦτά γε ῥέζον
ART. VI. A Guide to the Reading and Study of the Holy Scriptures, by AUGUSTUS HERMAN FRANCK, A. M. late Professor of Divinity, and of the Greek and Oriental Languages, in the University of Halle. Translated from the Latin, and augmented with Notes; Distinct Notations of some of the best editions of the Greek and Hebrew Scriptures; and a copious but select List of the most valuable Commentaries and Biblical Works; exhibiting also in each book the Criticisms of able Divines: together with an interesting Life of the Author: by WILLIAM JAQUES, Private Teacher, and Editor of Arndt's true Christianity, &c. Second Edition. 12mo. pp. 365. London, Hatchard, 1815. Price 5s. 6d.
THAT the memory of Professor Franck, the author of the treatise of which the work before us is a translation, should be held in high esteem in Germany, in every country, indeed, in which his labours are known, is perfectly natural: he was the original projector, and the founder of one of the most useful institutions which modern times have produced-the Orphan House at Halle. While, however, we attribute all due praise to the energy of his mind, to the ability with which he planned his undertakings; to the zeal with which he prosecuted them; and while we admire the success of his projects, begun in adversity, followed up in the midst of difficulties, and completed in defiance of various persecutions; we must take care not to ascribe to him merits which he did not possess; and to prefer his writings to those which have appeared at a later period, and been enriched with juster opinions.
The work now under consideration is divided into 2 parts: the first regards the Letter, the second, the Spirit of the Scriptures. It is to the first that our objections have reference, for we must offer some objections, or we could not justify ourselves either to ourselves, or to others.
The first chapter treats of grammatical reading, and the first section contains directions to the student how to make himself acquainted with the Greek of the N. T. and the Hebrew of the Old: and these directions, we have no hesitation in saying, rank among the most injudicious ever committed to paper. It is stated, (p. 4.) that the Greek language with the theological student, is not to be studied as it would be by the professed grammarian:" and that "so much of it, as is really essential, may be easily acquired by attending to the following observations :"
"The first seven chapters of St. Matthew's gospel should be read with an accurate, collated version (as that of Beza or Erasmus), until the learner be able to translate the Greek text, without difficulty, into his own, or any other language. He ought not however in this, his first attempt, to be anxious to comprehend all the principles of grammatical construction; nor, on account of partial ignorance in this particular, should he forego the improvement which must ever attend a frequent translating of the text. Yet, in order that no delay may be occasioned through a want of some acquaintance with the grammar, it will be proper to read and review frequently, the paradigms of the declensions and conjugations, with other grammatical rudiments; and thus gradually impress them on the mind. When the study of these accompanies a perusal of the seven chapters, theory and practice mutually assist each other. It remains, notwithstanding, to devote more time to the latter, than to the former; to reading the New Testament, than to studying the grammar. Practice may prove a substitute for theory; but theory can avail nothing without practice.
When the seven chapters in question have been thoroughly studied, and the requisite paradigms are familiarised, the New Testament should be read through in its natural order, with a collated and accurate version and the signification and grammatical nature of words may be sought in Pasor's larger Lexicon."
When Greek has been acquired in this loose unmethodical way, the student is to be launched into the eastern ocean of Hebrew. We will communicate the Professor's directions on this subject also, and then make a few remarks on the whole.
"The method which I shall propose for acquiring the Hebrew language, resembles that prescribed for the Greek. The first four chapters of Genesis should be studied and collated with an accurate version, until the learner be capable of rendering the Hebrew text into his vernacular idiom, without the aid of a translation...... The versions of Junius and Tremellius merit a preference; and this is likewise due to the version of the first four chapters of Genesis, prefixed by Opitius to his Atrium." The version of Genesis by Pagninus, enriched with short annotations, and accompanied with the Hebrew text, will prove useful to beginners.
"It will next be proper to commit to memory some rudiments of the grammar, so as to enable the learner to know what are Prefixes and Affixes, as well as the more necessary paradigins. More time must however be allotted to reading the text itself, than to studying the grammar; which will undoubtedly be attained with greater facility and pleasure, when the language is become, in some measure, familiarised. Experience has repeatedly and clearly evinced, to the conviction of many beside myself, that, in the course of only four days, these chapters may be perfectly known; so known, as that the student shall be able to translate the text into another language; to ascertain the roots and their significations; and to separate from them the prefixes and affixes with which they stand connected. The great assistance which this must afford in a se cond reading, is very evident. Surely a week so employed, is calculated to improve a learner more than three months spent over the grammar, and in the practice of analyzing alone; through a dislike to which, many persons have totally given up the study of the Hebrew tongue.
"The significations of words should be written in the margin or inter line the text, until, by means of repetition, they become familiar. Numbers have testified, from experience, the utility of this mode; though I' would allow every one to enjoy his private opinion. No person can, however, learn bare, unconnected words with either pleasure or profit: nor would I advise the reader to make use of a Lexicon, unless indeed it be that of Opitius; for, not being advanced in grammatical knowledge, much of his time would, in consequence, be irrecoverably lest. It will prove more beneficial to have a Bible with all the roots expressed in the margin, such as that of Montanus; or, otherwise, to write those roots which are not known, and ascertain their significations from a friend. Besides, it is of little moment, if, in a first reading, some words remain unexplained: many have protracted their advancement by yielding to the unreasonable desire of knowing all at once.
"While thus employed, in reading the Original Scriptures, the Hebrew grammar, under the direction of a master, will be gradually acquired, for when a person is daily engaged in studying the Text, most grammatical difficulties will be overcome in one or two weeks. They, however,