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ed in Henry a willing ally; for he was then in the construed as envy of his sudden elevation, or as bright morning of his youth,—sanguine, inex- an insolent reflection upon the discrimination of perienced, sincere, chivalrous, and inspired at the the king, and served, in either case, but to rivet same time with an earnest zea) to protect the pope him faster in Henry's confidence. Wolsey himself against the “ saerilegious aggression" of the king was too well acquainted with the king's temper, of France, and to assert his own claims upon that and, as we have before observed, too artful, not to kingdom ; and thus indulge the national enmity conceal the absolute ascendant he had acquired ; of his subjects, and his own passion for military and while he secretly directed all public councils, he renown. War håving been duly declared against ever pretended a blind submission to the will and Louis, Henry, surrounded by the martial portion authority of his sovereign. In the same year that of his subjects, who were eager to display their he was promoted to the see of Lincoln, Bambridge, valour on a foreign soil *, and thus emulate the archbishop of York, died, and the vacant see was fame of their ancestors' continental victories, and at once made over to Wolsey. Nor was he content attended by Wolsey, as victualler of the forces, with the honour of the archbishopric of York; for, set sail from Dover in June, 1512. The victory

besides the rich see of Tournay, he farmed on his of Guingette, better known by the name of the own terms the bishoprics of Bath, Worcester, and “ battle of spurs,” and the successful sieges of Hereford, filled by foreigners, who gladly comTerouenne and Tournay, though of little utility pounded for the indulgence of residing abroad, by to England, gratified the warlike ardour of its yielding up a large share of their English incomes. monarch and his subjects, and confirmed the idea He held in commendam the abbey of St. Albans entertained of his power by the contemporary and many other church preferments, and was even princes of Europe. The first opportunity that allowed to unite with the see of York, first, that of presented itself during the campaign of rewarding Durham, and next that of Winchester. Even his favourite was eagerly embraced by Henry. this is not the list of his new sources of wealth When Tournay had surrendered to his arms, he and influence. Wolsey was promoted to the found the bishopric not entirely filled up. The archbishopric of York in October, 1514. In the bishop had lately died ; a new one had been

ensuing September he was, with a view to purelected by the chapter, but not installed. The chasing his influence with the king, created a cardiking bestowed the administration of the see on nal by pope Leo X.; and in three months after, Wolsey, and put him in immediate possession of upon the resignation of archbishop Norham, made its revenues. The new pastor immediately ten- lord high chancellor of England. “In fact,” dered, on the part of his flock, an oath of allegi- says the historian, “ there seemed to be no end to ance to the king of England. On his return to his acquisitions.” Neither was his influence nor England, the see of Lincoln, just vacant by the were his revenues, great as they were, confined death of bishop Smith, was added to Wolsey's to these numerous and munificent proofs of the honours and revenues.

favour of his sovereign. He was courted with inWolsey's talents, as he rose in power, unfolded credible attention and obsequiousness by the great themselves in all their native splendour and versa- monarchs of Europe who sought the friendship and tility; but in a still greater degree did prosperity alliance of the court of England.* The youthful, devolve and mature the vices of his character. Each step in his ascent to power seemed but to the examination to my lord cardinal at Guildford, when swell his arrogance, while each addition to his

he commanded me to wait on him to the court. I fol

lowed him to thc court, and there gave attendanco, large revenues but made him more rapacious.

and could have no answer. Upon Friday last hé Scarcely was the ceremony of his consecration at

came thence to Hampton Court, where he lieth. The Lincoln over than he laid hold of the goods be- morrow after I besought his grace that I might know longing to his predecessor; and Cavendish tells his pleasure. I could have no answer. Upon Monus, that he has frequently seen, with sharne, some

day last, as he walked in the park at Hampton, I be

sought his grace I might know if he would command of the stolen furniture of the late bishop in the me any service. He was not content with me that I house of his master. As might be supposed, such

spoke to him. The Sunday before I delivered the

letter which R. Leid brought. I can have no answer conduct, aggravated by his haughty deportment,

to neither of the letters ; so that who shall be suitor to made him many enemies t; but their ill-will was him may have no business but to attend upon' i plex

He that shall do so has needful to be a wiser * Machiavel remarks upon this invasion, that, man than I am. I had rather your lordship col. “though England had had no wars for thirty years manded me to Rome than deliver him letters ang before, and had neither officers nor soldiers who had bring answer to the same. When he walks in the ever seen a battle, they ventured to attack a kingdom park, he will suffer no servant to come nigh unto him, where the officers were excellent, and the soldiers but commands them away as far as one may well shooi very good, and who had been trained up for several an arrow.”-Fiddes' Lord Herbert's Life of Henry years together in the Italian wars."--His. Liv. quoted VIII. by Mr. Turner.

* Even the doge of Venice addressed him as an | Erasmus speaks of him as “ non passim comis integral portion of the royal power. See Fiddes. aut facilis.” In a letter published in Fidde's Collec- And Bellay speaks as an eye-witness, when he tells tion from a sir T. Allen, a priest to the earl of Shrews- us that“ in all things the cardinal was honoured like bury, we have a striking instance of his haughty inso- the king's person, and sat always at his right hand. lence of deportment. * I delivered your letter with In all places where the king's arms were put the car.


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enterprising, and chivalrous Francis I., and his great rival the emperor Charles V., vied with each other by bribes and flattery to work upon his growing avarice and ambition. The former employed Bonnivet, the most skilful of his courtiers, to win him over to his interest; and, besides settling on him a yearly pension of 12,000 livres, laboured with incessant assiduity to secure his friendship by every mark of respect and confidence, and by every possible expression of regard, bestowing on him, in all his letters, the honourable appellations of father, tutor, and governor. Charles, on the other hand, soon after his accession to the throne of Castile, sought to ingratiate himself with Wolsey, by settling on him a pension of 3000 livres ; to which he added 7000 ducats more on his visit to England, for the purpose of detaching his “good friend” and his “most dear friend” (as he designated the cardinal) from the interests of Francis.

Great as was the revenue which Wolsey derived from these exorbitant acquisitions, it did not keep pace with the magnificence of his household, and the ostentatious state and pomp with which, under colour of exacting respect to religion and the legal tribunals, he supported his dignity as cardinal and lord chancellor. His domestic establishments were on a royal scale, his train consisting of not less than 500 servants*, of whom many, according to the usage of the times, were knights and gentlemen, and sons of noblemen. Three great tables were daily laid out in the cardinal's hall for this numerous retinue, each presided over by a dignitary bearing a white staff of office. Conformably with the custom of the age, many of the nobility placed their children in his family as a place of education; and, for the purpose of winning his favour, allowed them to act as his servants. They boarded, however, at a separate table, then called the “mess of lords,” and had numerous menials to attend them; the earl of Derby and lord Henry Percy (the lover of Anne Boleyn) having five each, and the other young noble inmates not less than two. The kitchen of the cardinal was on the same magnificent scale, being ruled over by a master cook, “ who went about daily in garments of damask satin, wearing a chain of gold round his neck,” as an emblem of his authority and importance. There was a regular master of the horse presiding over the stable department, with a suitable revenue of dinal's had the same rank, so that in every honour they were equal." Mem. v. 18. p. 42. quoted by Turner. But it was reserved for the universiły of Oxford to outstrip all precedent in its

base obsequiousness, by repeatedly addressing Wolsey as “ your majesty :" " Consultissma tua majestas ;--severendissimă majestas ;-inaudita majestatis tuæ benignitas;-vestra illa sublimis et longe reverendissima majestas.

* Lord Burghley, in a state paper to queen Elizapeth about favourites, says of Wolsey, that he had a family equal to that of a great prince. There were in it, he says, one earl, nine barons, and about a thousand knights. Burnet gives the same number; but we follow Cavendish in the text.

yeomen, grooms, sumpter-men, muleteers, sad. dlers, and farriers. The barges, gardens, larder, scalding-house, wafery, bakehouse, scullery, buttery, pantry, ewery, chandlery, cellar, laundry, and wardrobe of beds, had each their distinct grooms, yeomen, and pages, in suitable numbers. The personal servants of the cardinal amounted to forty-six, and formed, with his chaplains and attendants upon the ceremony of the mass, a body of not less than 143 persons.

His procession in public was still more imposing, and more indicative of that love of the externals, and parade of the trappings of dignity," the tailor's heraldry,” as it has been quaintly characterised, remarkable in men of lowly origin. It would appear to have been his aim to dazzle the eyes of the populace by the gorgeous lustre of his garments, and the splen did costly embroidery of his equipage and liveries, and thereby reconcile them to his newly acquired but unlimited authority. He was the first clergyman in England that wore silk and gold, not only on his habit, but also on his saddles and the trappings of his horses. A priest, the tallest and most comely he could find, carried before him a pillar of silver, on whose top was placed a cross: but not satisfied with this parade, to which he thought himself entitled as cardinal, he provided another priest of equal stature and beauty, who marched along, bearing the cross of York* even in the diocese of Canterbury.f It is in allusion to this circumstance that Cavendish, in his metrical piece of autobiography, makes Wolsey say:“ My crossis twayne of silver, long and greate,

That dayly before me were carried hyghe,
Upon great horses, opynly in the streett;
And massie pillers gloryouse to the eye,
With pollaxes gylt, that no man durst come nyghe
My presence,

was so pryncely to behold; Ridyng on my mule trapped in silver and in golde."

The ceremony of “high mass,” so imposingly magnificent at this day in catholic countries, was performed by Wolsey in a style of splendour which astonished even in that age of pomp and ceremony. His attendants were bishops and abbots; and such was his haughtiness, that, says Hall, “he made dukes and earls to serve him with wine, and to hold the bason and the lavatories," -offices which catholic superstition rendered honourable, if not sacred.

His daily procession to the court of chancery was equally ostentatious, and jarring with our

* The people, in that spirit which so much accelerated the Reformation, on this occasion made merry with the cardinal's ostentation; saying, they were now sensible that not less than two crucifixes would be sufficient for the expiation of his sins and offences.

† Mr. Hume and others err in supposing that Wolsey's taking precedency of the archbishop of Canterbury was an usurpation dictated by his arrogance, As cardinal, he had the right of usage to precede him; the point having been mooted in the case of a cardinal Kemp, also archbishop of York, preceding the then archbishop of Canterbury, and decided by the pope in favour of the cardinal,

modem notions of the deportment becoming a judge and a clergyman. The reader, accustomed to the plain attire and dignified simplicity of bearing of our Eldons and Broughams and Tenterdens, as they wend their way, generally on foot, to Westminster Hall, and unattended, will be amused by the contrast afforded by Wolsey's love of pageantry. We shall quote the narrative of Cavendish, for its minute and graphic fidelity :

“Now will I declare unto you his order in going to Westminster Hall, daily, in the term season. First, before his coming out of his privy chamber, he heard most commonly every day two masses in his privy closet; and there then said his daily service with his chaplain : and as I heard his chaplain say, being a man of credence and of excellent learning, that the cardinal, what business or weighty matters soever he had in the day, he never went to his bed with any part of his divine service unsaid, yea, not so much as one collect; wherein I doubt not but he deceived the opinion of divers persons. And after mass he would return in his privy chamber again, and being advertised of the furniture of his chambers without, with no blemen, gentlemen, and other persons, would issue out into them, appareled all in red, in the habit of & cardinal; which was either of fine scarlet, or else of crimson satin, taffety, damask, or caffa, the best that he could get for money; and upon his head a round pillion, with a noble of black velvet set to the same in the inner side; he had also a tippet of fine sables about his neck ; holding in his hand a very fair orange, whereof the meat or substance within was taken out, and filled up again with the part of a sponge, wherein was vinegar, and other confections against the pestilent airs ; the which he most commonly smelt unto, passing among the press, or else when he was pestered with many suitors. There was also borne before him, first, the great seal of England, and then his cardinal's hat, by a nobleman or some worthy gentleman, right solemnly, barehead. And as Boon as he was entered into his chamber of preBence, where there was attending his coming to await upon him to Westminster Hall, as well noblemen and other worthy gentlemen, as noblemen and gentlemen of his own family; thus passing forth with two great crosses of silver borne before him; with also two great pillars of silver, and his pursuivant at arms with a great mace of silver gilt. Then his gentlemen ushers cried, and said, “On, my lords and masters, on before; make way for my lord's grace!” Thus passed he down from his chamber through the hall; and when he came to the hall door, there was attendant for him his mule, trapped all together in crimson velvet, and gilt stirrups. When he was mounted, with his cross bearers, and pillar bearers, also upon great horses trapped with [fine) scarlet. Then marched he forward, with his train and furniture in manner as I have declared, having about him four footmen, with gilt pollaxes in their hands ;

and thus he went until he came to Westminster Hall door. And there alighted, and went after this manner, up through the hall into the chancery; howbeit he would most commonly stay awhile at a bar, made for him, a little beneath the chancery (on the right hand), and there commune some time with the judges, and some time with other persons. And that done he would repair into the chancery, sitting there till eleven of the clock, hearing suitors, and determining of divers matters. And from thence he would divers times go into the star-chamber, as occasion did serve ; where he spared neither high nor low, but judged every estate according to their merits and deserts."

Cavendish, whose style warms when he has a pageant to describe, next proceeds to give us an account of the mode in which the “king's majesty" was wont to amuse himself at the mansion of the cardinal. The passage is curiously illustrative of the chivalrous manner of the monarch and the age:

“ And when it pleased the king's majesty, for his recreation, to repair unto the cardinal's house, as he did divers times in the year, at which time there wanted no preparations, or goodly furniture, with viands of the finest sort that might be provide ed for money or friendship. Such pleasures were then devised for the king's comfort and consolation, as might be invented, or by man's wit imagined. The banquets were set forth, with masks and mummeries, in so gorgeous a sort, and costly manner, that it was a heaven to behold. There wanted no dames, or damsels, meet or apt to dance with the maskers, or to garnish the place for the time, with other goodly disports. Then was there all kind of music and harmony set forth, with excellent voices both of men and children. I - have seen the king suddenly come in thither in a mask, with a dozen of other maskers, all in garments like shepherds, made of fine cloth of gold and fine crimson satin paned, and caps of the same, with visors of good proportion of visnomy; their hairs, and beards, either of fine gold wire, or else of silver, and some being of black silk ; having sixteen torch bearers, besides their drums, and other persons attending upon them, with visors, and clothed all in satin, of the same colours. And at his coming, and before he came into the hall, ye shall understand, that he came by water to the water gate, without any noise; where, against his coming, were laid charged many chambers, and at his landing they were all shot off, which made such a rumble in the air that it was like thunder. It made all the noblemen, ladies, and gentlewomen to muse what it should mean coming so suddenly, they sitting quietly at a solemn banquet ; under this sort : First, ye shall perceive that the tables were set in the chamber of presence, banquet-wise covered, my lord cardinal sitting under the cloth of estate, and there having his service all alone; and then was there set a lady and nobleman, or a gentleman and gentlewoman, throughout all


the tables in the chamber on the one side, which him, surrender my place according to my duty.' were made and joined as it were but one table. All Then spake my lord chamberlain unto them in which order and device was done and devised by French, declaring my lord cardinal's mind, and the lord Sands, lord chamberlain to the king; and they rounding him again in the ear, my lord also by sir Henry Guilford, comptroller to the king. chamberlain said to my lord cardinal, 'Sir, they Then immediately after this great shot of guns, confess,' quoth he, 'that among them there is the cardinal desired the lord chamberlain, and such a noble personage, whom, if your grace can comptroller, to look what this sudden shot should appoint him from the other, he is contented to dismean, as though he knew nothing of the matter. close himself, and to accept your place most worThey thereupon looking out of the windows in- thily. With that the cardinal, taking a good adto Thames, returned again, and showed him, that visement among them, at the last, quoth he, 'Me it seemed to them there should be some noblemen seemeth the gentleman with the black beard should and strangers arrived at his bridge, as ambassadors be even he.' And with that he arose out of his from some foreign prince. With that, quoth the chair, and offered the same to the gentleman in cardinal, 'I shall desire you, because ye can speak the black beard, with his cap in his hand. The French, to take the pains to go down into the hall person to whom he offered then his chair was sir to encounter and to receive them, according to Edward Neville,a comely knight of a goodlypersontheir estates, and to conduct them into this cham- age, that much more resembled the king's person ber, where they shall see us, and all these noble in that mask than any other. The king, hearing personages sitting merrily at our banquet, desiring and perceiving the cardinal so deceived in his esthem to sit down with us, and to take part of our timation and choice, could not forbear laughing; fare and pastime.' Then (they) went incontinent but plucked down his visor, and master Neville's down into the hall, where they received them with also, and dashed out with such a pleasant countetwenty new torches, and conveyed them up into nance and cheer, that all noble estates there as. the chamber, with such a number of drums and sembled, seeing the king to be there amongst them, fiftes as I have seldom seen together at one time in rejoiced very much. The cardinal eftsoons desired any masque. At their arrival into the chamber, his highness to take the place of estate, to whom the two and two together, they went directly before the king answered, that he would go first and shift his cardinal where he sat, saluting him very reverent- apparel ; and so departed, and went straight into ly; to whom the lord chamberlain for them said, my lord's bedchamber, where was a great fire "Sir, for as much as they be strangers, and can made and prepared for him; and there new apa speak no English, they have desired me to declare parelled him with rich and princely garments. unto your grace thus: they, having understanding And in the time of the king's absence, the dishes of this your triumphant banquet, where was as. of the banquet were clean taken up, and the sembled such a number of excellent fair dames, tables spread again with new and sweet percould do no less, under the supportation of your fumed cloths; every man sitting still until the good grace, but to repair hither to view as well king and his maskers came in among them their inconiparable beauty, as for to accompany again, every man being newly apparelled. them at mumchance, and then after to dance with Then the king took his seat under the cloth of esthom, and so to have of them acquaintance. And, tate, commanding no man to remove, but sit still sir, they furthermore require of your grace licence as they did before. Then in came a new banquet to accomplish the cause of their repair. To before the king's majesty, and to all the rest through whom the cardinal answered that he was very the tables, wherein, I suppose, were served two well contented they should so do. Then the hundred dishes or above, of wondrous costly meats maskers went first and saluted all the dames as and devices, subtilly devised. Thus passed they they sat, and then returned to the most worthiest, forth the whole night with banqueting, dancing, and there opened a cup full of gold, with crowns, and other triumphant devices, to the great comfort and other pieces of coin, to whom they set divers of the king, and pleasant regard of the nobility pieces to cast at. Thus in this manner perusing there assembled.” all the ladies and gentlewomen, and to some they In 1516, Leo X. despatched cardinal Campeglost, and of some they won. And thus done, they gio to England, as his legate, for the purpose of returned 'unto the cardinal, with great reverence, procuring a tithe from the clergy to the prosecuting pouring down all the crowns in the cup, which the war against the Turks, the great enemy of was about two hundred crowns.

• At all,' quoth the Christian name. The pride of Wolsey took the cardinal, and so cast the dice, and won them alarm at this appointment: he could brook no broall at a cast; whereat was great joy made. Then ther near the throne. As representative of the quoth the cardinal to my lord chamberlain, 'I pray pope, the legate was armed with almost absolute you,' quoth he, 'show them that it seemeth me

authority over the clergy in the country of his misthat there should be among them some noble sion. The idea that any one invested with greater man, whom I suppose to be much more worthy ecclesiastical power than himself should openly of honour to sit and occupy this room and place exercise that power in England, was therefore than I ; to whom I would most gladly, if I knew equally offensive to Wolsey's pride and vanity;

and accordingly, through his means, Campeggio was delayed on his route in Paris, till the pope had also formally invested himself with the legatine authority. Having obtained this new dignity, Wolsey made an extraordinary display of the state and parade to which he was so much addicted. He affected a rank superior to any ever claimed by a churchman in England, not excepting the haughty Thomas à Becket; and celebrated mass after the manner of the pope as sovereign pontiff. Warham, the archbishop of Canterbury, having at this time written him a letter in which he subscribed himself, in the usual phraseology of clergymen," your loving brother," Wolsey complained of his presumption in thus challenging an equality with "the lord cardinal legate.” "* Warham,

when informed of the offence which he had thus unintentionally given, made light of the matter, and said, "Know ye not that this man is drunk with too much prosperity ?"

But the humble deportment, plain habits, and narrow income of the Italian cardinal ill suited with the pomp and parade which his colleague considered essential to the dignity of the legatine office. Wolsey therefore despatched a quantity of scarlet cloth, richly embroidered, of which Campeggio's attendants are represented to have stood in great need, for the purpose of enabling them to make a showy appearance. He also sent twelve mules with baggage, to swell the Italian cardinal's train. An accident which occurred on this occasion throws curious, indeed ludicrous, light upon Wolsey's vanity. The chests of which the baggage was composed were supposed to contain the jewellery, plate, and costly garments of the Italian legate; but, unhappily for the credit of Campeggio, one of the mules fell, and the coffer which it carried being burst open by the fall, old habiliments, and pieces of broken bread and meat, put into the chest as ballast, were exposed to the laughter of the spectators. It is not improbable that prudence induced Wolsey to thus shun the reflections which the contrast of his own ostentatious magnificence with his colleague's plainness of appearance must naturally have given birth to ; though it is much more in keeping with his temper-fond of pomp, and too arrogant to be calculating to ascribe the transaction wholly to the workings of vanity. Such conduct strangely

The importance which Wolsey attached to his office of legate is evident from what he says to Cavendish on his fall: - -"My authority and dignity legatine is gone, wherein consisted ail my high honour."

This would appear the more probable from the ludicrous anxiety displayed by Wolsey in the escorting of his cardinal's hat to England. He seems to have had lofty notions of the dignity of this "hat," and was chagrined by the pope's having forwarded it to him "in a varlet's budget." The "varlet" was, therefore, detained in France till his appearance was, at the cardinal's expense, made more worthy of the treasure of which he was the ignoble guardián. On its landing, "the hat" was met by a great procession at Blackheath, and conducted in solemn triumph to

contrasts with the vigour and intellect evinced in his able administration of affairs both at home and abroad; but is by no means inconsistent with what we know of the workings of human nature, as they manifest themselves even in the strongest minds. If not generated, it was much fostered by the genius of the catholic worship—so imposing from its numerous ceremonies, magnificent processions, and rigid enforcement of respect to rank. One effect of it, however, was, to render Wolsey an object of odium to the nation at large, and to lessen his master in the eyes of all Europe.

Wolsey had now attained a height of grandeur, power*, and wealth, far beyond that ever before or since reached by an English subject; and it might be supposed, would confine his future exertions to retaining himself securely in his lofty station. But ambition, like the air we breathe, expands as we ascend above the ordinary level of humanity, and continues, at a rapidly increasing ratio, to enlarge its dimensions, till its victim reaches a region-a moral Mont Blanc-cold, barren, and cut off from human sympathies, where he perishes heart-frozen, and unmourned of his fellows. So it was with Wolsey. There was one, and but one step higher, which he possibly could reach, and to it were all his thoughts and aspirations henceforth directed with a feverish and concentrated energy. A change now comes over the spirit of the "foreign relations" of England. From this period till the death of Wolsey, their history is but the narrative of the schemes

Westminster Abbey. When it had reached the abbey, it "was placed in state on a table, with tapers round it, before an empty suit, and the greatest duke of the land was compelled to make a curtsey to it." -Tyndal, quoted by Wordsworth, Eccl. Biog. The hat appears to have acted a very distinguished part in all the cardinal's processions and state exhibitions, and conducted itself, we presume, with becoming dignity and discretion.


"Erasmus observes (Ep. 1151,), that Wolsey 'visibly reigned more truly than the king.' He was uniformly addressed by foreign powers as a sort of comonarch. Thus Dr. Taylor writes, that Francis would not perform any part of the treaty of Madrid without the king and cardinal's advice;' and that the papal and Venetian ambassadors told him, they had letters from the pope to give thanks to the king and cardinal for furthering the holy league.' His own language, indeed, implied the co-equal power; hence the well-known phrase, one of the charges against him on his fall, the king and I.' Thus writing, in 1524, to Pace and others, Wolsey says,' His highness and I give unto you hearty thanks.' • Neither the king's highness nor I will advise him.' 'Much it is to the king's and my comfort.' 'The king's highness and I abide daily knowledge.' 'Arrived here the a.chbishop of Capua, whom the king's highness and I like.' The king's highness and I be always of the same mind that the emperor is.' The king's highness and I gave my own lodging and chambers to him.'"-Turner, from MS. Letters in the British Museum.

We take leave once for all to state here, that our quotations from letters to and from Wolsey are, unless otherwise specified, taken from the original MS. in the British Museum.

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