upon Man.

What vice or frailty can a discourse correct, which censures the whole species alike, and endeavours to shew by some superficial strokes of wit, that brutes are the more excellent creatures of the two? A satire should expose nothing but what is corrigible, and make a due discrimination between those who are, and those who are not the proper objects of it. L.


Fictis meminerit nos jocari Fabulis.

PHED. L. i. Prol.

Let it be remember'd that we sport in fabled stories.

HAVING lately translated the fragment of an old poet, which describes womankind under several characters, and supposes them to have drawn their different manners and dispositions from those animals and elements out of which he tells us they were compounded; I had some thoughts of giving the sex their revenge, by laying together in another paper the many vicious characters which prevail in the male world, and shewing the different ingredients that go to the making up of such different humours and constitutions. Horace has a thought which is something akin to this, when, in order to excuse himself to his mistress, for an invective which he had written against her, and to account for that unreasonable fury with which the heart of man is often transported, he tells us, that when Prometheus made his man of clay, in the kneading up of the heart he seasoned it with some furious particles of the lion.' But upon turning this plan to and fro in 1 1 L. i. 16. Thus translated by Mr. Duncombe.

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my thoughts, I observed so many unaccountable humours in man, that I did not know out of what animals to fetch them. Male souls are diversified with so many characters, that the world has not variety of materials sufficient to furnish out their different tempers and inclinations. The creation, with all its animals and elements, would not be large enough to supply their several extravagances.

Instead, therefore, of pursuing the thought of Simonides, I shall observe, that as he has exposed the vicious part of women from the doctrine of pre-existence, some of the ancient philosophers have in a manner, satirized the vicious part of the human species in general, from a notion of the soul's post existence, if I may so call it; and that as Simonides describes brutes entering into the composition of women, others have represented human souls as entering into brutes. This is commonly termed the doctrine of transmigration, which supposes that human souls, upon their leaving the body, become the souls of such kinds of brutes as they most resemble in their manners; or to give an account of it, as Mr. Dryden has described it in his translation of Pythagoras his speech in the fifteenth book of Ovid, where that philosopher dissuades his hearers from eating flesh.

Thus all things are but alter'd, nothing dies,
And here and there th' unbody'd spirit flies,
By time, or force, or sickness dispossess'd,
And lodges where it lights, in bird or beast,
Or haunts without till ready limbs it find,
And actuates those according to their kind;
From tenement to tenement is toss'd:

The soul is still the same, the figure only lost.
Then let not piety be put to flight,

To please the taste of glutton-appetite;
But suffer inmate souls secure to dwell,

Lest from their seats your parents you expel;

With rabid hunger feed upon your kind,

Or from a beast dislodge a brother's mind.--V. 239, &a
VOL. V.- -22

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common stock. Now, sir, as on the one hand I take care not to behave myself towards him like a wasp, so likewise I would not have him look upon me as a humble bee; for which reason I do all I can to put him upon laying up provisions for a bad day, and frequently represent to him the fatal effects his sloth and negli gence may bring upon us in our old age. I must beg that you will join with me in your good advice upon this occasion, and you will for ever oblige

"Your humble Servant,


Piccadilly, October 31, 1711.


"I AM joined in wedlock, for my sins, to one of those fillies who are described in the old poet with that hard name you gave us the other day. She has a flowing mane, and a skin as soft as silk: but, sir, she passes half her life at her glass, and almost ruins me in ribbons. For my own part, I am a plain handicraft man, and in danger of breaking by her laziness and expensiveness. Pray, master, tell me in your next paper, whether I may not expect of her so much drudgery as to take care of her family, and curry her hide in case of refusal.

"Your loving friend,


Cheapside, October 30.


"I AM mightily pleased with the humour of the cat, be so kind

as to enlarge upon that subject.

"Yours till death,


"P. S. You must know I am married to a Grimalkin."


Wapping, Cstober 31, 1711.


"EVER since your Spectator of Tuesday last came into our family, my husband is pleased to call me his Oceana, because the foolish old poet that you have translated, says, That the souls of some women are made of sea-water. This, it seems, has encouraged my sauce-box to be witty upon me. When I am angry, cries, Pr'ythee, my dear, 'be calm;' when I chide one of my servants, pr'ythe child, 'do not bluster.' He had the impudence about an hour ago to tell me, that he was a seafaring man, and must expect to divide his life between 'storm and sunshine.' When I bestir myself with any spirit in my family, it is 'high sea' in his house; and when I sit still without doing any thing, his affairs forsooth are 'wind-bound.' When I ask him whether

it rains, he makes answer, it is no matter, so that it be 'fair weather' within doors. In short, sir, I cannot speak my mind freely to him, but I either' swell' or 'rage,' or do something that is not fit for a civil woman to hear. Pray Mr. SPECTATOR, since you are so sharp upon other women, let us know what materials your wife is made of, if you have one.' I suppose you would make us a parcel of poor-spirited tame insipid creatures; but, sir, I would have you to know, we have as good passions in us as yourself, and that a woman was never designed to be a milksop. "MARTHA TEMPEST."


• Steele seems to have thought his wife a Bee, but she was certainly of the Grimalkin family. V. Steele's Letters, vol. i. ubique. Addison's was an Oceana, but he was at this time unmarried, and probably would have lived longer if he had continued so.-C.

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