ACACIUS, patriarch of Constantinople, es-|| ACHARD, Claude Francis, a physician was tablished the superiority of his see over the east-secretary to the academy, and librarian of the ern bishops, was opposed by Felix, and died 498. city of Marseilles; he died 1809. ACACIUS, a bishop of Berea, in Syria, persecuted Chrysostom and Cyril,of Alexandria; he died 432.

ACACIUS, a bishop of Amida, on the Tigris, sold the sacred vessels of his churches to ransom 7000 Persian slaves; he lived in the reign of Theodosius the younger.

ACCA-LAURENTIA, wife of Faustulus, and nurse of Romulus and Remus.

ACCA, bishop of Hexham, author of treatises on the sufferings of the saints, died 1740. ACCARISI, James, a professor of rhetoric at Mantua, died 1654.

ACCETTO, Reginald, author of a thesarus of the Italian tongue, died 1560.

ACCIAIOLI, Donatus, of Florence, distinguished by his learning and political services to his country, died 1478.

ACHARDS, Eleazer Francis des, distinguish. ed by his learning, piety, and humanity, was nominated bishop of Halicarnassus, and afterwards sent apostolic vicar to China; h died at Cochin, 1741.

ACHERY, Dom Luc d', a native of St. Quintin in Picardy, displayed his learning as an ec clesiastic and antiquary by several publications, he died at Paris, 1685.

ACHILLINI, Alexander, a Bolognese physician, known by his publications, and distin guished himself as the follower of Averroes, died 1512.

ACHILLINI, Philotheus, wrote a poem to honour the memory of Italian genius and recommend morality; he died 1538.

ACHILLINI, Claude, distinguished for his knowledge of medicine, theology and jurispru

ACCIAIOLI, Renatus, a Florentine, conquer-dence, died, at Bologna, 1640. ed Athens, Corinth, and Boeotia, in the beginning of the 11th century.

ACCIAIOLI, Zenobio, a learned ecclesiastic of Florence, and librarian to Leo X., died 1537. ACCIAIOLI, or ACCIAUOLI, Angelo, a learned cardinal, archbishop of Florence, who wrote in favour of Urban VI., died 1407.

ACCIAIOLI, Magdalen, a Florentine, celebrated for her beauty, but more for the powers of her mind, died 1610.

ACCIUS, Lucius, a Latin tragic poet, the son of a freedman, was born in the year of Rome 583; he did not, however, confine himself to dramatic writing; for he left other productions particularly his "Annals," mentioned by Macrobius, Priscian, Festus, and Nonius Marcellus. Accius was so much esteemed by the public, that a comedian was punished for only mentioning his name on the stage.

ACČIUS, Zuchus, an Italian poet of the 16th century, paraphrased some of the fables of Æsop.

ACCOLTI, Benedict, a lawyer of Florence, secretary to the republic, died 1466.

ACHMET I., emperor of Turkey, son and successor of Mahomet III., made war against the Hungaries, died 1617.

ACHMET II. succeeded his brother Solyman III. on the throne of Constantinople; he was unfortunate in his wars against the Venetians and Austrians, and died 1605.

ACHMET III,. son of Mahomet IV., was crowned by a faction who deposed his brother Mustapha II.; he granted an asylum to Charles XII., made war against the Russians and Persians, and was hurled from his throne by an in surrection; he died 1736.

ACHMET GEDUC, or ACOMET, a celebrated general, he assisted Bajazet II. in obtaining the throne, 1432, and was afterwards inhumanly assassinated.

ACHMET Bacha, a general of Solyman, revolted from his sovereign, 1524, and was soon after defeated and beheaded.

ACHMET, an Arabian who wrote on the in terpretation of dreams; the work was published in Greek and Latin, by Rigault, 1603.

ACH-VAN, or ACHEN, John, a historical repainter, born at Cologne, died 1621.

ACCOLTI, Francis, brother to Benedict, puted for his judgment, eloquence and knowledge of jurisprudence, sometimes called Aretin, lied, 1470; vid. Aretin.

ACCOLTI, Peter, son of Benedict, raised to .he dignity of cardinal; died at Florence 1549. His brother Benedict, duke of Nepi, distinguished Jimself as a poet.

ACCOLTI, Benedict, conspired with five others to murder Pius IV., and suffered capital punishment, 1564.

ACCORDS, Stephen Tabourot, Seigneurdes, advocate in the parliament of Dijon, died 1561. ACCURSE, Francis, a native of Florence, and professor of law at Bologna, died 1229. His son also distinguished himself as a lawyer at Toulouse.

ACIDALIUS, Valens, a native of Wistock in Brandebourg, distinguished by his extensive erudition, died 1595.

ACKERMAN, John Christian, Gottlieb, professor of medicine at Altdorf, in Franconia, died 1801.

ACOLUTHUS, Andrew, a learned professor of languages at Breslaw, published a Latin translation of the Armenian version of Obadiah, at Leipsic, died 1704.

ACONTIUS, James, a famous philosopher, civilian, and divine, born at Trent, in the 16th century. He embraced the protestant religion; and, going over to England in the reign of Elzabeth, met with a very friendly reception from that princess, as he himself has testified in a work dedicated to her. This work is his celebrated "Collection of the Stratagems of Satan," which has been often translated, and gone pub-through many different impressions.

ACCURSE, Marius Angelo, a native of Aguila, in the 16th century, eminent for his critical and literary abilities

ACERBO, Francis, a native of Nocera, lished some poems at Naples, 1666.

ACESIUS, Bishop of Constantinople, in the age of Constantine, maintained, that those who committed any sin after being baptised, ought not to be again admitted into the church, though they might repent.

ACHALEN, a British sovereign in the 6th century, was driven from his dominions, and took refuge in Wales.

ACOSTA, Gabriel, professor of divinity at Coimbra, wrote a Latin commentary on the Old Testament, he died, 1616.

ACOSTA, Joseph, a provincial of the Jesuits, in Peru, was born at Medina del Campo, and died at Salamanca, 1600.

ACOSTA, Uriel, a native of Oporto, educated in the Romish religion: he fled to Judaism, and shot himself 1640


ACRON, a physician of Sicily, who relieved
Athens during a plague, by burning perfumes;
lived about 440 B. C.

ACRONIUS, John, a Mathematician of Friesland, who wrote on the motion of the earth, died at Basle, 1563.

1741. His principal works are, "Roman Anti
quities," "Classical Biography," and
con Língua Latina."
He died of apoplexy,
Dec. 18, 1809.

ADAM, Melchior, rector of a college at Heidelberg, where he published" Lives of Illustrious Men," in four vols., and died about 1635.

ACRONIUS, John, a Dutch writer of the 17th ADAM, Robert, architect, was born in 1728, century, who wrote against the Romish religion. at Kirkcaldy, in Fifeshire, and received his edu ACROPOLITA, George, one of the writers cation at the university of Edinburgh. After of the Byzantine history, born at Constantino- his return from a visit to Italy, Mr. Adam wa ple, 1220. In his 21st year, he maintained a appointed architect to his majesty in the yea learned dispute with Nicholas, the physician, 1762, and produced a total change in the archi concerning the eclipse of the sun, before the em-tecture of that country. His fertile genius peror John. Gregory Cyprian, a patriarch of elegant ornament was not confined to the deco Constantinople, in his encomium upon him, pre-ration of buildings, but has been diffused int fixed to Acropolita's history, is perhaps some-almost every branch of manufacture. At the what extravagant in his praise, when he says, time of his death, March 3, 1792, the new unithat he was equal to Aristotle in philosophy, versity of Edinburgh, and other great public and to Plato in the knowledge of divine things works, both in that city and in Glasgow, were and Attic eloquence. erecting from his designs, and under his direcACTIUS, or AZZO, Visconti, sovereign of tion. His death was occasioned by the breaking Milan, distinguished by his valour, and the in-of a blood-vessel in the stomach, and his remains tegrity of his government, died 1355. were interred in the south side of Westminster

ACTUARIUS, a Jew physician, practised at Abbey. Constantinople in the 13th century.

ADAM, James, architect, brother to the fore

ings and Portland-place are monuments of his taste and abilities in his profession.

ACUNA, Christopher, Jesuit of Burgos, em-oing, died Oct. 20, 1794. The Adelphi buildployed as missionary in America, published an account of the Amazon river, at Madrid, 1641. ADAIR, James, an English lawyer of eminence, member of parliament, died 1798.

ADAIR, James, author of some law tracts, and some time recorder of London, died July 21, 1798.

ADAIR, James Mackitbriek, a physician and presiding judge of the courts of the island of Antigua, W. I., died 1082.

ADAM, a canon of Bremen, in the 17th cen tury, published an ecclesiastical history of Bremen and Hamburgh, edited, 1670.

ADAM, St. Victor, an ecclesiastic at Paris, died 1177.

ADAM, Scotus, a monkish writer, born in Scotland, and taught divinity at Paris, died 1180. ADAM, John, a Jesuit of Bordeaux, wrote

died 1684.

ADALARD,or ADELARD, son of count Ber-several treatises against the disciples of Austin, nard, and grandson of Charles Martel, was made prime minister of Pepin, king of Italy, and died Jan. 2, 826.

ADALBERON, archbishop of Rheims, and chancellor of France, an ecclesiastic and minister of Lothaire, died 928.

ADALBERON, Ascelin, bishop of Leon; published a satirical poem, in 430 verses, and died 1030.

ADALBERT, archbishop of Prague, preached the gospel among the Bohemians, and afterwards to the Poles, by whom he was murdered, April 29, 997.

ADALGISE, son of Didier, king of Lombardy, opposed the power of Charlemagne, was put to death 788.

ADAM, d'Orleton, of Hereford, became bishop of Winchester; he was intriguing and turbulent.

ADAM, John, a Jesuit of Limosin, professor of philosophy, died at Bordeaux, 1684.

ADAMS, Sir Thomas, a native of Wem, in Shropshire, became a draper in London, and rose to the high honour of Lord Mayor of London, 1645; he died 1667.

ADAMS, Thomas, distinguished for his learning, and tutor to persons of rank, in the time of Cromwell; he died Dec. 11, 1670.

ADAMS, Richard, minister of St. Mildred,
is ejected, 166; he assisted in the completion of
Poole's Annotations, and died 1698.
ADAMS, William, D. D., master of Pembroke

ADALOALD, a king of Lombardy, was deposed by his subjects, and succeeded by Ario-College, Oxford, the friend of Dr. Johnson, disvald; he died 629, in a private station.

ADAM, the father of the human race, lived 930 years after his expulsion from paradise. ADAM, Lambert Sigisbert, an ingenious sculptor, born at Nanci, died 1759, aged 59.

ADAM, Nicholas, brother of Lambert, imita ted and equalled him; he executed the Mau soleum of the queen of Poland, and died 778. ADAM, Francis Gaspard, younger brother of the two preceding, excelled also as an artist; he died at Paris, 1757, aged 49.

tinguished for his urbanity, &c., died 1789. ADAMS, Joseph, a physician of London, au thor of several medical works, died 1818.

ADAMS, Andrew, L. L. D., chief justice o. Connecticut, was born at Stratford, Ct., edu cated at Yale College, afterwards elected member of the council, and a representative congress; he died 1799.

ADAMS, John, a clergyman and poet, bor in Nova Scotia, and settled at Newport, R. I. he died 1740, much lamented, aged 36. ADAM, Thomas, an English divine, born at ADAMS, Eliphalet, an eminent minister of Leeds,obtained the living of Wintringham, Lin-New London, Ct., died 1753, aged 77. He pubcolnshire; he died 1784, aged 83. lished several occasional discourses. ADAM, Billaut, a joiner of Nevers, better ADAMS, Amos, minister of Roxbury, Mass., known by the name of Master Adam, wrote po-distinguished for his learning and piety; died etry while employed at his tools; he died 1662. at Dorchester, 1775, aged 48.

ADAM,Alexander, L.L.D.,an eminent school- ADAMS, Joseph, a minister, settled at Newmaster, and a useful writer, in Scotland, bornington, N. H.; he died 1783, aged 93.

at Coats of Burgie, county of Moray, June, ADAMS, Zabdiel, minister of Lunenburgh

now Quincy, Mass., eminent as a preacher of treasurer, while it was yet advanced no farther the gospel; died 1801, aged 62. than the simile of the Angel, and was rewarded ADAMS, Samuel, governor of Massachusetts, with the place of commissioner of appeals. In distinguished as a writer and a patriot, and for the following year he was at Hanover with lord his influence in forwarding the American revo- Halifax; and the year after was made underlution; of stern integrity, dignified manners, secretary of state. When the Marquis of and great suavity of temper; died 1803, aged 82. Wharton was appointed lord-lieutenant of IreADAMSON, Patrick, Archbishop of St. An-land, Addison attended him as his secretary, and drew's, born at Perth, 1543. In the year 1566, was made keeper of the records in Birminghe set out for Paris, as tutor to a young gen-ham's Tower, with a salary of 3007. a year. tleman, where he stayed some months, and When he was in office, he made a law to himthen retired to Bourges. He was in this city during the massacre at Paris; and lived concealed, for seven months, at a public house, the master of which, upwards of 70 years of age, was thrown from the top thereof, and had his brains dashed out, for his charity to heritics. In 1573, he returned to Scotland. The earl of Moreton, then regent, on the death of bishop Douglas, promoted him to the archiepiscopal see of St. Andrew's. He died 1591.

ADANSON, Michael, a French naturalist of 80 much distinction, that he received invitations from different sovereigns of Europe to reside in their states; he died 1806.

Addison's reputation. The whole nation was at that time on fire with faction. The Whigs applauded every line in which liberty was mentioned, as a satire on the Tories; and the Tories echoed every clap, to show that the satire was unfelt. While Cato was upon the stage, another

self, as Swift has recorded, never to remit his regular fees in civility to his friends, "I may (said he) have a hundred friends, and if my fee be two guineas, I shall, by relinquishing my right, lose 200 guineas, and no friend gain more than two." He was in Ireland when Steele, without any communication of his design, began the publication of the Tattler; but he was not long concealed; by inserting a remark on Virgil, which Addison had given him, he discovered himself. Steele's first Tattler was published April 22, 1709, and Addison's contribution appeared May 26. To the Tattler, in about two months, succeeded the Spectator, a series of esADDISON, Lancelot, D.D. son of a clergyman says of the same kind, but written with less of the same name; he was born at Maulds Mead-levity, upon a more regular plan, and published burne in Westmoreland, was preferred to the liv- daily. The next year 1713, in which Cato came ing of Milston, &c. 1683, and died April 20, 1703. upon the stage, was the grand climacteric of ADDISON, Joseph, born May 1, 1672, at Milston, near Ambrosbury, Wiltshire, of which place his father was rector. He received the first rudiments of his education there under the reverend Mr. Nash; but was removed to Salisbury, under the care of Mr. Taylor; and soon after to the Charter-house, where he studied un-daily paper, called the Guardian, was published der Dr. Ellis, and contracted that intimacy with by Steele, to which Addison gave great assistsir Richard Steele, which their joint labours ance. The papers of Addison are marked in have so effectually recorded. In 1687 he was the Spectator by one of the letters in the name entered of Queen's College, Oxford, where, in of Clio, and in the Guardian by a hand. It was 1689, the accidental perusal of some Latin ver- not known that Addison had tried a comedy for ses, gained him the patronage of Dr. Lancas- the stage, till Steele, after his death, declared ter, by whose recommendation he was elected him the author of "The Drummer." This play into Magdalen College as Demy. Here he took Steele carried to the theatre, and afterwards to the degree of M. A. Feb. 14, 1693, continued to the press, and sold the copy for fifty guineas. In cultivate poetry and criticism, and grew first the midst of these agreeable employments Mr. eminent by his Latin compositions, which are Addison was not an indifferent spectator of pubentitled to particular praise. In 1695 he wrote lic affairs. He wrote, as different exigencies a poem to king William, with a kind of rhyming required, in 1707, "The present state of the Introduction addressed to lord Somers. In 1697 War," &c.; "The Whig Examiner ;" and the he wrote his poem on the peace of Ryswick," Trial of Count Tariff;" all which tracts, be which he dedicated to Mr. Montague, (then ing on temporary topics, expired with the subchancellor of the exchequer) and which was jects which gave them birth. When the house called by Smith "the best Latin poem since the of Hanover took possession of the throne, it was Eneid." Having yet no public employment, be obtained, in 1699, a pension of 300l. a year, that he might be enabled to travel. While he was travelling at leisure in Italy, he was far from being idle; for he not only collected his observations on the country, but found time to write his Dialogues on Medals. Here, also, he wrote the letter to Lord Halifax, which is justly considered as the most elegant, if not the most sublime, of his poetical productions. At his return he published his Travels, with a dedication to Lord Somers. This book, though a while neglected, is said in time to have become so much the favourite of the public, that before it was reprinted it rose to five times in price. The victory at Blenheim in 1704,spread triumph and confidence over the nation: and lord Godolphin, lamenting to lord Halifax that it had not been celebrated in a manner equal to the subject, desired him to propose it to some better poet. Halifax named Addison; who, having undertaken the work, communicated it to the

reasonable to expect that the zeal of Addison would be suitably rewarded. Before the arrival of king George, he was made secretary to the regency, and was required by his office to send notice to Hanover that the queen was dead, and the throne was vacant. To do this would not have been difficult to any man but Addison, who was so overwhelmed with the greatness of the event, and so distracted by choice of expressions, that the lords, who could not wait for the niceties of criticism, called Mr. Southwell, a clerk in the house, and ordered him to despatch the message. Southwell readily told what was necessary, in the common style of business, and valued himself upon having done what was too hard for Addison. He was better qualified for the Freeholder, a paper which he published twice a week, from Dec. 23, 1715, to the middle of the next year. This was undertaken in defence of the established government, sometimes with argument, sometimes with mirth. In argument he had many equals, but his humour

ADER, William, a learned physician of Tou louse in the 17th century.

was singular and matchless. On the 2d of ADELMAN, a bishop of Bresci in the 11th August, 1716, he married the countess Dowa-century, wrote a letter on the Eucharist to Be. ger of Warwick, whom he is said to have first renger, printed at Louvaine, 1561. He died 1662. known by becoming tutor to her son. This mar- ADELPHUS, a philosopher of the third cenriage, however, made no addition to his happi-tury, who mingled the doctrines of Plato with ness; it neither found them nor made them the tenets of the Gnostics. equal. She always remembered her own rank, ADELUNG, John Christopher, a German and thought herself entitled to treat with very professor at Erfurt, and author of a grammati little ceremony the tutor of her son. The year cal and critical dictionary of the German lanafter, 1717, he rose to his highest elevation, be- guage, and other works; he died 1806. ing made secretary of state; but it is univer- ADEODATUS, or Godsgift, a Roman priest sally confessed that he was unequal to the du-elevated to the papal throne 672, died four years ties of his place. In the house of commons he afterwards. could not speak, and therefore was useless to the defence of the government. In the office he could not issue an order without losing his time in quest of fine expressions. What he gained in rank he lost in credit; and, finding by experience his own inability, was forced to so-aged 47. licit his dismission, with a pension of 15001. a year. His friends palliated this relinquishment, of which both friends and enemies knew the true reason, with an account of declining health, and the necessity of recess and quiet. He now engaged in a laudable and excellent work, viz. a defence of the Christian Religion; of which, part was published after his death. Addison ADIMANTUS, a Manichæan sectary at the had for some time been oppressed by shortness close of the 13th century, denied the authentiof breath, which was now aggravated by a drop-city of the Old Testament.

ADHAB-EDDOULAT, an emperor of Persia, after his uncle Amad-Eddoulat, was warlike, humane, and a patron of letters; he died 982,

ADHELME, William, nephew to Ina, king of the West Saxons, first bishop of Sherborne, and said to be the first Englishman who wrote Latin, died 709.

ADHEMAR, William, a native of Provence, wrote a book on illustrious ladies, died about 1190.

ADLZREITTER, John, chancellor of Ba varia, in the 17th century, wrote annals of his country.

ADÓ, vid. ADON.

sy; and, finding his danger pressing, he prepared ADIMARI, Raphael, an Italian historian, to die conformably to his own precepts and born at Rimini in the 16th century. professions. Lord Warwick was a young man ADIMARI, Alexander, a Florentine, admired of very irregular life, and perhaps of loose opin- for his poetical genius; died 1649. ions. Addison, for whom he did not want re- ADLERFELDT, Gustavus, a learned Swede, spect, had very diligently endeavoured to re-historian of the battles of Charles XII., killed, claim him; but his arguments and expostula-1709. tions had no effect: one experiment, however, remained to be tried. When he found his life near its end, he directed the young lord to be called, and, when he desired with great tenderness to hear his last injunctions, told him, "I have sent for you to see how a Christian can die." What effect this awful scene had on the earl's behaviour is not known: he died himself in a short time. Having given directions to Mr. Tickell for the publication of his works, and dedicated them, on his death bed, to his friend Mr. Craggs, Addison died June 17, 1719, at Holland House, leaving no child but a daughter, who died at Bilton, in Warwickshire, Feb. 1797. ADELAIDE, daughter of Rodolphus, king of Burgundy, married Lotharius II., king of Italy, and after his death the emperor Otho I.; she died 999, aged 69.

ADOLPHUS, count of Nassau, crowned king and emperor of the Romans, died 1238. ADOLPHUS, count of Cleves, instituted an order of chivalry, 1380, since abolished.

ADOLPHUS, bishop of Mersburg, opposed, and afterwards favoured the doctrines of Luther, died 1526.

ADOLPHUS, Frederic II., king of Sweden, founded the academy of inscriptions and belles letters at Torneo, and died 1771.

ADOLPHUS, duke of Sleswick, refused the crown of Denmark, after the death of Christopher III., and crowned Christiern I. he died 1459. ADON, archbishop of Vienne, in Dauphine,

ADELAIDE, wife of Frederic, prince of Saxo-who wrote a useful chronicle, died 875. ny, conspired with Lewis against her husband's life, and married the murderer, 1055.

ADELAIDE, daughter of Humbert, count of Maurienne, was queen of Lewis VI. of France; she died 1154.

ADORNE, Francis, a Jesuit of a Genoese family, who wrote on ecclesiastical discipline, died 1576.

ADORNE, Antony, a Genoese, raised to the dignity of Doge, 1383.

ADORNE, Gabriel, a Genoese, became Doge,

ADELAIDE, wife of Lewis II. of France, was mother of Charles III., surnamed the sim-1336; he was afterwards driven from power by ple, who was king 898.

ÁDELARD, an English monk, who, in the 12th century, visited Egypt and Arabia, and translated in Latin Euclid's Elements.

ADELBOLD, bishop of Utrecht, and author of the life of the emperor Henry II., died 1207. ADELER, Curtius, a native of Norway, served in the Dutch navy, was raised to the rank of admiral, spent the latter part of his life at Copenhagen, where he died 1675, aged 53.

ADELGREIFF, John Albretcht, natural son of a priest near Elbing, pretended to be the vicegerent of God on earth, was condemned to death at Konigsbergh for blasphemy, 1636.

a more successful rival.

ADORNE, Prosper, a Genoese, made Doge, 1460, and died 1486.

ADORNE, Jerome, a Genoese, opposed the party of the Fregoses, in the age of Charles V. ADORNI, Catharine Fieschi, a Genocse lady, after the death of her husband, devoted herself to acts of piety, and benevolence; she died 1510.

ADRETS, Francis Beaumont des, descendant of an ancient family in Dauphine, embraced the cause of the Huguenots; he died 1587. ADRIA, John James, a physician in the service of Charles V., died 1560.

ADRIAN, or HÁDRIAN, Publius Ælius, the

Roman einperor, born at Rome, Jan 24, in the that art down to this time. His book treats proyear of Christ 76. He was a renowned generalfessedly of disorders incident to women. and a great traveller; and in a visit to Britain, ÆGINHARD, a German, secretary to Charle built a famous wall, or rampart, extending from magne, died 840. the mouth of the Tyne to the Solway Frith, 80

ELFRED, or ALFRED, the Great, youngest miles in length, to prevent the incursions of the son of Ethelwolf, king of the West Saxons, was Caledonians into the northern counties of Eng-born in the year 849, at Wannating, or Wanaland, then under the Roman government. Adri-ding, which is supposed to be Wantage, in an reigned 21 years, and died at Baiæ, in the 63d Berkshire. Alfred succeeded to the crown on vear of his age. the death of his brother Ethelred, in the year ADRIAN, a Greek author, in the 5th century, 871; but had scarcely time to attend the funeral wrote an introduction to the Scriptures. of his brother, before he was obliged to fight for ADRIAN, a learned Carthusian, author of athe crown he had so lately received. A contreatise called" de remediis utriusque fortunæ."siderable army of Danes, having landed in DorADRIAN I. a Roman patrician, raised to the pontificate in 1772, died 795.

setshire, marched as far as Wareham; here Elfred met them with all the forces he could ADRIAN II., raised to the popedom in 867, raise; but, not finding himself strong enough to he was artful and intriguing, and died 872. engage them, he concluded a peace, and the ADRIAN III., elected pope, 884, and died, 885. Danes swore never again to invade his domiADRIAN IV., Pope, the only Englishman that nions. In 877, however, having obtained new ever had the honour of sitting in the papal chair. aids, they came in such numbers into Wiltshire, His name was Nicolas Brekespere; he was born that the Saxons, giving themselves up to deat Langley, near St. Albans, in Hertfordshire,spair, would not make head against them; and, after many vicissitudes of fortune, suc-many fled out of the kingdom, not a few subceeded to the popedom in 1154. He died Sept. mitted, and the rest retired, every man to the 1, 1159, leaving some letters and homilies which place where he could be best concealed. In this are still extant. distress, Alfred, conceiving himself no longer ADRIAN V., a native of Genoa, made pope a king, laid aside all marks of royalty, and took 1276, and died 38 days after. shelter in the house of one who kept his cattle. ADRIAN VI., a native of Utrecht, was pre-He retired afterwards to the isle of Ethelingey, ceptor to emperor Charles V., elected pope 1522, in Somersetshire, where he built a fort for the and died 1523. security of himself, his family, and the few ADRIAN DE CASTELLO, born at Cornetto faithful servants who repaired thither to him. in Tuscany, employed as papal legate in Scot-When he had been about a year in this retreat, land and England, and made bishop of Here-having been informed that some of his subjects ford, then of Bath and Wells, and, conspiring had routed a great army of the Danes, killed against Pope Leo X., was stript of his ecclesias-their chiefs, and taken their magical standard, tical honours, 1518. The issued his letters, giving notice were he was,

ADRIANI, Joanni Batista, born of a patrician and inviting his nobility to come and consult family, at Florence, in 1511. He wrote a History with him. Before they came to a final deterof his own Times, in continuation of Guicciar-mination, Elfred, putting on the habit of a dini, beginning at the year 1536, (a work exe-harper, went into the enemy's camp; where, cuted with great judgment, candour, and accu-without suspicion, he was every where adracy,) and died at Florence 1579. mitted, and had the honour to play before their ADRIANI, Marcellus, a native of Florence, princes. Having thus acquired an exact knowleft a written translation of Plutarch, &c.; he ledge of their situation, he returned in great died 1604. secrecy to his nobility, whom he ordered to their ADRICHOMIA, Cornelia, a nun in Holland respective homes, there to draw together each of the Augustine order, published a poetical ver-nan as great a force as he could; and upon a sion of the Psalms in the 16th century. day appointed there was to be a general rendezADRICHOMIUS, Christian, a native of Delft, vous at the great wood called Selwood, in Wiltdirector of the nuns of Barbara, died at Cologne | shire. This affair was transacted so secretly and expeditiously, that in a little time the king, ADSON, an abbot of Luxeuil in 960, author at the head of an army, approached the Danes of the miracles of St. Vandalbert.


ÆDESIUS succeeded Jamblichus, as teacher of Platonic philosophy in Cappadocia, in the 4th century.

before they had the least intelligence of his de sign. Elfred, taking advantage of the surprise and terror they were in, fell upon them, and totally defeated them at Æthendune, now EddingÆGEATES, John, a priest of the Nestorianton, in Wiltshire. Ælfred enjoyed a profound sect, who flourished 483, and wrote a treatise against the council of Chalcedon.

EGIDIUS, Peter Albiensis, a writer sent by Francis I. to give an account of the celebrated places of Asia, Greece, and Africa, died 1555. EGIDIUS, Atheniensis, a Grecian physician in the 8th century, became a Benedictine monk, and published several treatises.

peace during the last three years of his reign, which he chiefly employed in establishing and regulating his government for the security of himself and his successors, as well as for the lease and benefit of his subjects in general. Although there remain but few laws which can be positively ascribed to Ælfred, yet to him we owe many of those advantages which render our ÆGIDUIS de Colonna, professor of divinity at constitution so dear and valuable; particularly Paris, general of the Augustines, died 1316. the institution of the trial by jury. He is said by EGINETA, Paulus, a native of the island some to have founded the university of Oxford; Ægina, whence he has his name. According thus much, however, is certain, that Elfred reto Abulfaragius, he flourished in the 7th cen-stored and settled that university, endowed it tury. His surgical works are deservedly fa-with revenues, and placed there the most famous mous, and his knowledge of surgery was very professors. When Elfred came to the crown, great. In short, the surgery of Paulus has been learning was at a very low ebb in this kingdom; the subject matter of most of the treatises of but, by his example and encouragement, he used

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