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This work embraces every article in Lempriere, generally in an abridged form; it also contains many of the articles found in the Biographical works of Jones, Watkins, Allen, &c. not included in Lempriere; besides a few original notices, prepared for this work, and to be found in no other. The number of articles are, therefore, believed to be greater than in any other Biographical Dictionary, and though in most instances they are necessarily very concise, yet it has been the aim of the compilers to give ample details when the characters are particularly conspicuous, and in other cases, to embrace in few words the leading points of interest.

It is acknowledged with pleasure, that great assistance has been derived, in the compilation, from Mr. E. Lord's correct and enlarged edition of Lempriere, lately published in New-York-a work which has laid the public un. der many obligations; particularly for the new matter which it brings forward. The excellent work of Allen has also been of great use in forming the present a 'idgment.



AA, Peter Vander, a bookseller of Leyden, who published a work in 66 vols. folio, entitled Galerie du Monde, &c. was living in 1729.

AAGARD, Nicholas and Christian, brothers, born at Wiburg, in Denmark, the eldest, distinguished for the acuteness of his philosophical writings, died 1657; the other known for his poetical talents, died 1664.

AALAM, an astrologer of the ninth century, at the court of Adado Daula.

AALST, Everard, a dutch painter, whose pieces were highly valued, was born at Delft, 1602, and died in 1658.

AARON, elder brother of Moses, of the tribe of Levi, born A. M. 2434; he was the friend and the assistant of Moses, was happily gifted with the powers of eloquence, and became the first high-priest among the Hebrews. He died in his 123d year.

AARON, Raschid, a caliph of the Abassides, distinguished by his conquests and the eccentricity of his character, died A. D. 809, in the 23d year of his reign.

AARON, Schascou, a rabbi of Thessalonica, celebrated for his writings.

AARON, a British saint, put to death with his brother Julius, during Dioclescian's persecution of the Christians.

AARON, a presbyter and physician of Alexandria, in the eighth century; he wrote 30 books on medicine in the Syriac language, and is the first author who makes mention of the small pox and meazles, diseases which were introduced into Egypt from Arabia, about 640.

AARON, Hariscon, a Caraite rabbi who was known as physician at Constantinople in 1294 and wrote a learned commentary on the pentateuch, Hebrew grammar, &c.


AARON, Hacharon or Posterior, another learned Rabbi, born in 1346; he wrote on the law of Moses, the customs of his nation, and a treatise entitled the Garden of Eden.


left behind him very accurate and judicious memoirs of all the embassies in which he was em ployed.

AARON, Isaac, an interpreter of languages at Constantinople under the Comeni.

AARON, Ben Chaim, the chief of the Jewish Synagogue, at Fez and Morocco, in the beginning of the 17th century; he wrote commentaries on Joshua, the Law, the Prophets, &c.

AARON, Ben-aser, a learned rabbi in the 5th century, to whom the invention of the Hebrew points and accents is attributed; he wrote a Hebrew grammar, printed 1515.

AARON, a Levite of Barcelona, wrote 613 precepts on Moses, printed at Venice, 1523; he died 1292.

AARSENS, or AERSENS, Peter, called by the Italians Pietro Longo, from his tallness, a celebrated painter, born at Amsterdam in 1519 He excelled very particularly in painting kitchen; but an altarpiece of his, viz. a crucifix. representing an executioner breaking with an iron bar the legs of the thieves, &c. was prodigiously admired. This noble piece was destroyed by the rabble in the time of the insurrection, 1566. He afterwards complained of this to the populace in terms of such severity, that more than once they were going to murder him. He died in 1585.

AARTGEN, or AERTGEN, a painter of merit, born at Leyden in 1498. It was a custom with this painter never to work on Mondays, but to devote that day with his disciples to the bottle. He used to stroll about the streets in the night, playing on the German flute; and in one of these frolics was drowned in 1564.

ABA, brother-in-law to Stephen, the first Christian king of Hungary; disgraced himself by his cruelties; was conquered in battle by the Emperor Henry III.; and was sacrificed to the resentment of his offended subjects. 1044.

ABAFFI, Michael, son of a magistrate of Hermanstad, rose by his abilities and intrigues, to the sovereignty of Transylvania, in 1661.

ABACA, or ABAKA, a king of Tartary, conquered Persia, and proved a powerful and formidable neighbour to the Christians at Jerusalem, died 1282.

ABANO, vid. Apono.

ABARIS, a Scythian philosopher, the history of whose adventures, mentioned by Herodotus and others, appears more fabulous than authentic.

ABAS, Schah, seventh king of Persia, was brave and active; he took conjointly with the English forces, 1622, the Island of Ormus, which had been in the possession of the Portuguese 122 years; he died 1629 in the 44th year of his reign.

ABAS, Schah, the great grandson of the preceding, succeeded his father in 1642, in his 13th year; he patronised the Christians, and was distinguished for his benevolence and liberality; he died Sept. 25, 1666.

ABASSA, an officer who revolted against Mustapha I. emperor of the Turks, and afterwards was employed against the Poles, 1634, at the head of 60,000 men. The cowardice of his troops robbed him of & victory, and he was strangled by order of the Sultan.

AARSENS, Francis, lord of Someldyck and Spyck, one of the greatest ministers for negotiation that the United Provinces of Holland have at any time possessed. He was the first person ever recognised as Dutch ambassador by the French court: the first of three extraordinary! ABASSON, an impostor, who, under the ambassadors sent to England in 1620; and the character of the grandson of Abas the great, obsecond in 1641, who were to treat about the mar- tained the patronage of the court of France and riage of prince William, son to the prince of of the grand seignior, by whose order he was at Orange. Aarsens died at an advanced age; hell:ast beheaded.

ABASSA, a sister of Aaron Raschid, whose hand was bestowed by her brother on Giafer; her husband was sacrificed by the tyrant, and she was reduced to poverty.

ABATS, Andrew, a painter of fruit and still threw him into a deep melancholy; he ever af life, born at Naples, was employed by the kingerwards kept a monthly fast on Tuesday, the of Spain, and died in 1732. day on which this fatal mischance happened, ABAUZIT, Firmin, born at Uzes, 11th Nov. and settled an annuity of 201. on the widow. 1679, fled from the persecution which attended Worn out, however, with cares and infirmities, his parents on account of their profession of he died at Croydon, Aug. 5, 1633. protestantism, and retired to Geneva, became ABBOT, Maurice, youngest brother of the distinguished for his superior progress in every archbishop, acquired consequence in commerbranch of polite learning, but particularly cial affairs, was employed in 1624 in establishmathematics and natural history; was flattereding the settlement of Virginia, and was the first by Voltaire, and complimented by Rousseau; person on whom Charles I. conferred the hohe died March 20, 1767. nour of knighthood. He was elected represenABBADIE, James, an eminent Protestant di-tative for London, and in 1638 was raised to the vine, and dean of Rilaloe, born at Nay, in Berne, mayoralty of the city, and died Jan. 10th, 1640. in the year 1654 (or, according to some accounts, ABBOT, Robert, D. D. eldest brother of the i. 1658,) died in the parish of Mary-la-bonne, two preceding; he was born at Guildford, was in London, 1727. The chief of this author's educated at Baliol college, and elected master works was, "Traité de la Verité de la Religion thereof, 1609. His eloquence as a preacher reChrétienne; Rotterdam, 1684." This has gonecommended him to further patronage; he was through several editions, and is perhaps the best appointed chaplain to the king, and regius probook ever published on that subject. fessor of divinity at Oxford. He was consecrated bishop of Salisbury, 1615, and died Mar. 2, 1617, in his 58th year. His writings were principally controvrsial.

ABAS, Halli, a physician, and one of the Persian magi, who followed the doctrines of Zoroaster; he wrote A. D. 980, a book called a royal work, which was translated into Latin ABBT, Thomas, the German translator of by Stephen of Antioch, 1127, and is now extant. Sallust, and the admired author of a treatise ABBAS, the uncle of Mahomet, opposed the " On merit," and of another, "Of dying for one's ambitious views of the impostor; but when de-country," was born at Ulm, and died at Buckefeated in the battle of Bedr, was reconciled to berg, 1766, aged 28. his nephew, embraced his religion, and thanked ABDALCADER, a Persian who was greatly heaven for the prosperity and the grace he en-revered by the mussulmans for his learning, his joyed as a mussulman. He died in the 32d year piety, and the sanctity of his manners. of the hegira. ABDALLAH, father of Mahomet, was a slave, and a driver of camels.

ABBASSA, vid. Abassa. ABBATEGIO, Marian d', an ecclesiastic of the 14th century, who rose by his abilities to be governor of Aquila.

ABBATISSA, Paul, a famous Sicilian poet, born at Messina, 1570. He translated into Italian verse Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, and Ovid's Metamorphoses.

ABBIATI, Philip, a historical painter, born at Milan 1640, died 1715.

ABBON, a monk of St. Germain des Près, who was present at the siege of Paris by the Normans, at the close of the 9th century; he wrote an account of this event in 1200 verses, in execrable Latin, which was edited by Duplessis, 1753.

ABDALLAH, son of Zobair, was proclaimed caliph of Mecca and Medina, after the expulsion of Yesid. After enjoying the sovereignty for four years, he was besieged in Mecca, by the successor of Yesid in Syria, and sacrificed to the ambition of his rival, 733.

ABDALLAH, son of Yesid, celebrated as a mussulman lawyer in the 7th century.

ABDALLAH, son of Abbas, endeavoured to raise his family on the ruins of the Ommiades; he was defeated by his rivals, who, afterwards, pretending to be reconciled, perfidiously murdered him, 754.

ABDALMALEK, son of Marvan, was 5th caliph of the Ommiades, and began to reign, 685. ABBON, de Fleury, an ecclesiastic of Or-He was called Abulzebab, because bis breath leans, who became abbot of Fleury, supported was so offensive that it killed the very flies that the rights of the monastic order against the in-settled on his lips; he reigned 21 years, and was trusions of the bishops. He was killed in a quarrel between the French and Gascons, 1004. ABBOT, Hull, a respectable minister of Charlestown, Massachusetts, published several sermons, died 1782, aged 80.

succeeded by Valid, the eldest of his 16 sons. ABDALMALEK, the last of the caliphs of the race of the Samanides, was dethroned and murdered by Mahmoud, 999.


ABBOT, George, archbishop of Canterbury, born 1562, at Guildford, in Surry. In 1604 that ABDAS, a bishop in Persia, who, by incon translation of the Bible now in use was begun by siderately abolishing a Pagan temple of the the direction of king James, and Dr. Abbot was sun, excited the public indignation against himthe second of eight divines of Oxford, to whomself and his religion. the care of translating the whole New Testa- ABDEMELEK, king of Fez and Morocco, was ment (excepting the Epistles) was committed. dethroned by his nephew, Mahomet; but by the On April 5, 1619, Sir Nicholas Kempe laid the assistance of troops, sent him by the sultan first stone of the hospital at Guildford. The Selim, defeated Sebastian, king of Portugal, archbishop, who was present, afterwards en-who had landed in Africa to support the usurper. dowed it with lands to the value of 3001. per The two African monarchs and Sebastian tell ann. The archbishop, being in a declining state on the field, 1578.

of health, used in the summer to go to Hamp- ABDERAMES, a caliph of the race of Omshire for the sake of recreation; and being in-miades, was invited into Spain by the Saracens. vited by lord Zouch to hunt in his park at Bran-He assumed the title of king of Corduba, and zill, he met there with the greatest misfortune the surname of just; he died, 790, after reigning that ever befell him; for he accidentally killed 32 years.

his lordship's keeper, by an arrow from a cross- ABDERAMES, a Saracen general of the ca bow, which he shot at a deer This accident liph Hescham, who, after conquering Spain,

penetrated into Aquitain and Poitou, and was at infamous treatment forced Abelard to a cloister, last defeated by Charles Martel, near Poitiers, to conceal his confusion, and he put on the habit 732. in the abbey of St. Denis. He afterwards reABDERAMES, a petty prince, in the kingdom tired to a solitude in the diocese of Troyes, and of Morocco. He murdered Amadin, his prede- there built an oratory, which he named the cessor and nephew, and was himself assassi-Paraclete, where great numbers of pupils renated by a chieftain, 1505. sorted to him. Here again his success excited ABDIAS, a native of Babylon, who pretend- that envy by which he had through life been ed to be one of the 72 disciples of our Saviour, persecuted; and having been several times in wrote a legendary treatise, called Historia certa-danger of his life, by poison and other artifices, menis Apostolici, which was edited aud trans-he was at length received by Peter the Venerable lated into Latin, by Wolfgang Lazius, Basil, 1571.

ABDISSI, a patriarch of Assyria, who paid homage to Pope Pius IV. 1562, and extended the power of the Romish church in the East.

ABDOLONYMUS, a Sidonian of the royal family, placed on the throne by Alexander the Great.

ABDON, a Persian, who suffered martyrdom under the persecution of Decius, 250.

ABDULMUMEN, a man of obscure origin, seized the crown of Morocco, his death put a stop to his meditated invasion of Spain, 1156. ABEILLE, Gaspard, a native of Ricz, in Provence, born 1648, died at Paris, 1718. ABEILLE, Scipio, brother of the preceding, surgeon in the regiment of Picardy, died 1697. ABEL, second son of Adam, was cruelly murdered by his brother Cain.

into his abbey of Clugni, in which sanctuary Abelard was treated with the utmost humanity and tenderness. At length, having become infirm from the prevalence of the scurvy and other disorders, he was removed to the priory of St. Marcellus, on the Saon, near Chalons, where he died, April 21, 1142, in the 63d year of his age. His corpse was sent to Heloise, who deposited it in the Paraclete.

ABELL, John, an English musician in the chapel royal of Charles II. celebrated for a fine counter-tenor voice, and for his skill on the lute. He continued in the chapel till the Revolution, when he was discharged as being a Papist. Upon this he went abroad, and at Warsaw met with a very extraordinary adventure. He was sent for to court; but evading to go by some slight excuse, was commanded to attend. At the palace, he was seated in a chair in the middle of a spacious hall, and suddenly drawn up to a great height, when the king, with his attendants, appeared in a gallery opposite to him. At ABEL, Frederick Gottfried, a native of Hal-the same instant a number of wild bears were berstadt, abandoned divinity for the pursuit of medicine; he died 1794, aged 80.

ABEL, king of Denmark, son of Valdimar, II. usurped the throne 1250, and was killed in battle two years after.

ABEL, Charles Frederic, whose great musical ability, both as composer and performer, was an honour to the age in which he lived. His instrumental performance, particularly on the Viol di Gamba, was much distinguished for its elegance and fine feeling. He died, at London, after three days' sleep, on the 20th of June, 1787. ABELA, John Francis, a commander of the order of Malta, known by an excellent work called "Malta illustrata," in fol. 1647.

turned in, when the king bid him choose, whether he would sing, or be let down among the bears. Abell chose the former, and declared afterwards, that he never sung so well in his life ABELLA, a female writer born at Salerne, in the reign of Charles of Anjou.

ABELLI, Lewis, a native of Vexin Francois, who was made Bishop of Rhodes, died at Paris 1691, in his 88th year.

ABERCROMBIE, James, a major general in the British army in Canada, in 1756: he displayed a want of talents, and was superseded by general Amherst.

ABENDANA, Jacob, a Spanish Jew, who died 1685, prefect of the Synagogue in London. ABENEZRA, Abraham, a Spanish rabbi, surABELARD, Peter, one of the most celebrated named the wise, great, and admirable, died 1174, doctors of the 12th century, was born in the vil-aged about 75. His commentaries are highly lage of Palais, in Brittany. That he might enjoy valued. all the sweets of life, he thought it necessary to ABENGNEFIL, an Arabian physician, of have a mistress, and accordingly fixed his affec-the 12th century. tions on Heloise, a niece of a canon at Paris. | ABENMELÉK, a learned rabbi, who wrote, He boarded in this canon's house, whose name in Hebrew, a commentary on the Bible; it was was Fulbert; where, pretending to teach the published at Amsterdam, 1661, in folio. young lady the sciences, he soon made love to his scholar. Abelard now performed his public functions very coldly, and wrote nothing but amorous verses. Heloise, at length, being likely to become a mother, Abelard sent her to a sister ABERCROMBIE, John, a horticultural writer of his in Brittany, where she was delivered of a of much note. His first work was published unson. To soften the canon's anger, he offered to der the title of "Mawe's Gardener's Calendar;" marry Heloise privately; Fulbert, however, was the flattering reception of which led him to better pleased with this proposal than his niece, pursue his literary labours on professional subwho, from a strange singularity in her passion,jects, to which he prefixed his own name. chose rather to be the mistress than the wife of died at Somers' Town, in 1806, in the 80th year Abelard. At length, however, she consented to of his age. a private marriage; but, even after this, would on some occasions affirm with an oath, that she was still unmarried. Her husband thereupon sent her to the monastery of Argenteuil; where, at his desire, she put on a religious habit, but not the veil. Heloise's relations, looking upon this as a second piece of treachery in Abelard, were ABERCROMBY, Thomas, M. D. a native of transported to such a degree of resentment, that Forfar, became physician to James II. by rethey hired ruffians, who foreing into his cham-nouncing the protestant religion; he died 1726, ber by night, deprived him of his manhood. This laged 70.


ABERCROMBY, Sir Ralph, a brave British general, born in Scotland 1743, received his death-wound (like Wolfe) in the moment of a great victory over the French, within four miles of Alexandria, in Egypt, March 21, 1801, and died on the 28th of the same month.



ABERNETHY, John, an eminent dissenting bellion against his father, and was slain by Joab minister, born at Coleraine, in Ireland, 1680; about 1030, B. C. died at Dublin 1740. His best esteemed works are a set of sermons on the "Divine and Moral Attributes."

ABGARUS, a king of Edessa, famous for the letter which he is said to have sent to our Saviour, and for the answer he received. ABGILLUS, son of the king of the Frisii, surnamed Prester John, was in the Holy land with Charlemagne.

ABIATHAR, son of Abimelech, was the high priest of the Jews, and the friend and fellow sufferer of David.

ABSALOM, archbishop of Lunden, in Denmark, minister and friend of Waldemir, displayed his abilities in the cabinet, in the field, and in the fleet, was humane and benevolent; he died universally regretted, 1202.

APSTEMIOUS, Laurentius, an Italian writer, born at Macerata, in La Marca de Ancona, who devoted himself early to the study of polite literature. He published, under the pontiticate of Alexander VI. a treatise, entitled "Hecatomythium," from its containing 100 fables, which have been often printed with those of ABIGAIL, wife of Nabal, married to David| Esop, Phædrus, Gabrius, Avienus, &c. after Nabal's death, 1057, B. C. ABUBEKER, father-in-law of Maliomet, was ABIJAH, son of Rehoboam, was king of Ju-elected his successor. After a reign of 2 years dah after his father, 958, B. C.

and 6 months, he expired in the 63d year of his

ABIOSI, John, an Italian physician and as-age. tronomer, in the beginning of the 16th century. ABLANCOURT, vid. Perrot.

ABLE, or ABEL, Thomas, a chaplain at the court of Henry VIII., was executed July 30, 1540. ABNER, son of Ner, was Saul's uncle, and his faithful general, and was perfidiously slain by Joab, 1048, B. C.

ABOUBEKER, vid. Abubeker.

ABUCARA, Theodore, the metropolitan of Caria, obtained a seat in the synod held at Constantinople, 869; he wrote treatises against the Jews and Mahometans, which have been published.

ABUDHAHER, the father of the Carmatians, in Arabia, opposed the religion of Mahomet, plundered the temple of Mecca, and died in posABOUGEHEL, one of the enemies of Ma-session of his extensive dominions, 953. homet and his religion. ABULFARAGIUS, Gregory, son of Aaron, ABOUHANIFAH, surnamed Alnooman, aa physician, born in 1226, in the city of Malatia, celebrated doctor among the mussulmans, born near the source of the Euphrates in Armenia. in the 80th year of the hegira.

ABOU-JOSEPH, a learned mussulman, pointed supreme judge of Bagdat by the caliphs Hadi and Aaron Raschid.

ABOULAINA, a mussulman doctor, brated for his wit.

He wrote in Arabic, a history which does hoap-nour to his memory; it is divided into dynasties consists of ten parts, and is an epitome of uni versal history, from the creation of the world to cele-his own time.

ABULFEDA, Ismael, prince of Hamah, in ABOU-LOLA, an Arabian poet, born at Ma-Syria, but better known as author of Tables ora in 973, became a brahmin, and died 1057. of Geography of the regions beyond the river ABOU-NAVAS, an Arabian poet, whose Oxus. He began his reign in the 743d year of merit was protected and encouraged at the court the hegira, and ended it three years afterwards, of Aaron Raschid. aged 72.

ABOU-RIHAN, a geographer and astronomer, who employed 40 years of his life in travelling through India.

ABULGASI-BAYATUR, khan of the Tartars, reigned 20 years, respected at home and abroad, resigned the sovereignty to his son, ABRABANEL, Isaac, a Jew of Lisbon, em-wrote the only Tartar history known in Europe; ployed in offices of importance, by Aphonso V. of Portugal, fled into Spain, and from thence to Naples, then to Corfu, and at last to Venice, where he died, 1508, in his 71st year.

ABRAHAM, the patriarch, was born at Ur, in Chaldea, A. M. 2004; he died in his 175th


ABRAHAM, Nicholas, a learned Jesuit in Lorraine, was 17 years divinity professor at Pont a Mousson, where he died, Sept. 7, 1655, in his 66th year.

ABRAHAM, Ben-choila, a Spanish rabbi, skilled in astrology, prophesied that the coming of the Messiah would be in 1358. Died, 1303. ABRAHAM, Usque, a Jew of Portugal. He undertook, with Tobias Athias, to translate the bible into Spanish, in the 16th century.

he died 1663.

ABULOLA, vid. Aboulola.

ABU-MESLEM, a mussulman governor of Khorasan, who, in 746, transferred the dignity of caliph from the family of the Omniades to that of the Abbassides, by which he occasioned the death of 600,000 men. He was thrown into the Tigris, 754.

ABUNDIUS, a bishop of Come, in Italy, who assisted at the council of Constantinople, as the representative of Leo, and died, 469.

ABUNOW AS, an Arabian poet, deservedly patronized by Aaron Raschid, died 810.

ABU-OBEIDAH, a friend and associate of Mahomet, extended his conquests over Palestine and Syria, and died 639.

ABU-SAID-EBN-ALJAPTU, a sultan, the ABRAHAM, an emperor of the Moors of Afri-ast of the family of Zingis-khan, died 1335. ca, in the 12th century, was dethroned by his ABUSAID-MIRZA, a man of enterprise, who subjects, and his crown usurped by Abdulmumen. placed himself at the head of an army, and deABROSI, John, an Italian physician. Heclared himself independent; he was killed in an wrote a dialogue on astrology, 4to. Venice, 1494. ambush, 1468, aged 42 ABRUZZO, Balthasar, a Sicilian, known for his abilities as a philosopher and a civilian, died, 1665, aged 64.

ABRUZZO, Peter, a Neapolitan architect in the 17th century.

ABUTEMAN, a poet in high repute among the Arabians, born a Yasem, between Damascus and Tiberias, about 846.

ABYDENE, wrote a history of Chaldea and Assyria, of which valuable composition only a ABSALOM, son of king David, distinguished few fragments have been preserved by Eusebius. for his persona! acquirements, his popularity, ACACIUS, surnamed Luscus, founder of the and his vices, murdered his brother, headed a re-llsect of the Acaciani, died, 365.

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