When I offered to go, and at parting presented || pire of Germany for twelve years, between the her five pistoles, I could not prevail with her to Emperor, the Duke of Bavaria, the King of Spain, take thein; when she spoke some Italian proverb and the Popish princes and electors, on the one which I could not readily understand, but by my side, and the Protestant princes on the other; guess it seemed to imply, that " She would not and both sides having been exhansted by the take the pay, having not obliged me otherwise.” war, and even the Catholics themselves beginning At last I laid the pieces on her toilet, and would to dislike the growing power of the house of not receive them again; upon which she obliged Austria, it was thought all parties were willing to me to pass my word to visit her again, else she make peace. Nay, things were brought to that would by no means accept my present.

pass, that some of the Popish princes and electors I confess I had a strong inclination to visit her began to talk of making alliances with Gustavus again, and besides thought myself obliged to it Adolphus, King of Sweden. in honour to my parole; but after some strife in Here it is necessary to observe, that the two my thoughts about it I resolved to break my Dukes of Mecklenburg having been dispossessed word to ber, when, going at vespers one evening of most of their dominions by the tyranny of the to see their devotions, I happened to meet this Emperor Ferdinard, and being in danger of losing lady very devoutly going to her prayers.

the rest, earnestly solicited the King of Sweden At her coming out of the church I spoke to to come to their assistance; and that prince, as her; she paid me her respects with a Signor In he was related to the house of Mecklenburg, and glese, and some words she said in Spanish smiling, especially as he was willing to lay hold of any which I did not understand. I cannot say here opportunity to break with the Emperor, against so clearly as I would be glad I might, that I whom he had laid up an implacable prejudice, broke my word with her; but if I saw her any was very ready and forward to come to their more, I saw nothing of what gave me so much || assistance. offence before.

The reasons of his quarrel with the Emperor The end of my relating this story is answered were grounded upon the Imperialists concerning in describing the manner of their address, with themselves in the war of Poland, where the out bringing myself to confession. If I did any Emperor had sent eight thousand foot and two thing I have some reason to be ashamed of, it || thousand horse to join the Polish army against may be a less crime to conceal than expose it. the King, and had thereby given some check to The particulars related, however, may lead thc | his arms in that war. reader of these sheets to a view of what gave me ll In pursuance, therefore, of his resolution to a particular disgust at this pleasant part of the quarrel with the Emperor, but more particularly world, as they pretend to call it, and made me ll at the instance of the princes above named, bis quit the place sooner than travellers use to do Swedish Majesty had landed the year before at that go thither to satisfy their curiosity.

Stralsund with about twelve thousand men, and The prodigious stupid bigotry of the people having joined with some forces which he had left also was irksome to me: I thought there was in Polish Prussia, all which did not make thirty something in it very sordid ; the entire empire thousand, he began a war with the Emperor, the the priests have over both the souls and bodies of greatest in event, filled with the most famous the people, gave me a specimen of that meanness battles, sieges, and extraordinary actions, inof spirit which is nowhere else to be seen but in || cluding its wonderful success and happy conclu. Italy, especially in the city of Rome.

sion, of any war ever maintained in the world. At Venice I perceived it quite different; the The King of Sweden had already taken Stettin, civil authority having a visible superiority over Stralsund, Rostock, Wismar, and all the strong the ecclesiastic, and the church more subject | places on the Baltic, and began to spread himthere to the state than in any other part of Italy. self into Germany; he had made a league with

For these reasons I took no pleasure in filling | the French, as I observed in my story of Satoar: my history of Italy with remarks of places or and had now made a treaty with the Duke of things; all the antiquities and valuable remains Brandenburg. of the Roman nation are done better than I can In this conjuncture the Emperor called the pretend to by people who made it more their general diet of the empire to be held at Ratisbon, business: I went to see, and not to write, and land by a most exquisite management brought toe as little thought then of these memoirs as I ill | affairs of the diet to a conclusion exceedingly to furnished myself to write them.

| his own advantage, and to the further oppression I left Italy in April, and taking the tour of of the Protestants; and, in particular, in the sun Bavaria, though very much out of the way, passed against the King of Sweden, which was to be through Munich, Passaw, Lints, and at last to | carried on in such manner as that the whole burteni Vienna.

and charge would lie on the Protestants therI came there the 10th of April, 1631, intending I selves, and they be made the instruments to oppose to have gone from thence down the Danube into their best friends. Other matters also ended Hungary, and by means of a pass, which I had equally to their disadvantage, as the methods reobtained from the English ambassador at Con Jsolved on to recover the church lands, and to prestantinople, I designed to have seen all those vent the education of the Protestant ci great towns on the Danube which were then in ll what remained was referred to another generale the hands of the Turks, and which I had read to be held at Frankfort au Main in August, much of in the bistory of the war between the ll I will not pretend to say the other protein Turks and the Germans; but I was diverted princes of Germany had never

I princes of Germany had never made any overtures from my design by the following occasion.

to the King of Sweden to come to their assistance: There had been a long bloody war in the em- llbut it is plain they had enterca

with him ; that appears from the difficulties which it; and the Landgrave of Hesse, a zealous and retarded the fixing the treaties afterwards, both gallant prince, being consulted with, it rested a with the Dukes of Brandenburg and Saxony, great while between those two, no method being which unhappily occasioned the ruin of Magde- j found practicable to bring it to pass; the Emburg.

peror being so powerful in all parts, that they But it is plain the Swedes were resolved on a foresaw the petty princes would not dare to war with the emperor; his Swedish Majesty might, negotiate an affair of such a nature, being surand indeed could not but foresee, that if he once I rounded with the Imperial forces, who, by their showed himself with a sufficient force on the two generals, Wallenstein and Tilly, kept them frontiers of the empire, all the Protestant princes in continual subjection and terror. This dilemma would be obliged, by their interest, or by his arms, had like to have stifled the thoughts of the to fall in with him, and this the consequence | union, as a thing impracticable, when one Seimade appear to be a just conclusion, for the gensius, a Lutheran minister, a person of great electors of Brandenburg and Saxony were both abilities, and one whom the Elector of Saxony forced to join with him.

made great use of in matters of policy as well as First, they were willing to join with him--at religion, contrived for them this excellent expeleast they could not find in their hearts to join dient. with the emperor, of whose power they had such I had the honour to be acquainted with this just apprehensions; they wished the Swedes suc- ll gentleman while I was at Leipsic. It pleased cess, and would have been very glad to have had him exceedingly to have been the contriver of so the work done at another man's charge ; but, like fine a structure as the conclusions of Leipsic, and true Germans, they were more willing to be saved he was glad to be entertained on that subject. I than to save themselves, and therefore hung back || had the relation from his own mouth, when, but and stood upon terms.

very inodestly, he told me he thought it was an Secondly, they were at last forced to it; the inspiration darted on a sudden into his mind, first was forced to join by the King of Sweden | when the Duke of Saxony, calling him into his himself, who, being come so far, was not to be closct one morning with a countenance full of dallied with ; and had not the Duke of Branden- || concern, shaking his head, and looking earnestly, burg complied as he did, he had been ruined by “ What will become of us, doctor ?" said the the Swede--the Saxon was driven into the arms || duke: "we shall all be undone at Frankfort au of the Swede by force ; for Count Tilly, ravaging! Main." his country, made him comply with any terms to “Why so, please your highness ?" says the be saved from destruction.

doctor. Thus matters stood at the end of the dict at “ They will fight the King of Sweden with our Ratisbon; the King of Sweden began to see him- | armies and money," says the duke," and entirely self le

ne diet both by Protestant I devour us and our friends." 1 and Papist; and, as I have often heard his ma "But what is become of our confederacy then,"

jesty say since, he had resolved to try to force | said the doctor, “which your highness'had so them off from the Emperor, and to treat them as happily framed, and which the Landgrave of Hesse enemies equally with the rest, if they did not was so pleased with ?"

But the Protestants convinced him soon after, " Become of it?" said the duke; “it's a good that though they were tricked into the outward I thought enough, but it is impossible to bring it appearance of a league against him at Ratisbon, li to pass among so many members of the Protest. they had no such intentions; and by their ambas- ant princes that are to be consulted with ; for sadors let him know, that they only wanted his we neither have time to treat, nor will half of powerful assistance to defend their councils, when I them dare to negotiate the matter, the Impethey would soon convince him that they had a rialists being quartered in their very bowels." due sense of the emperor's designs, and would do " But may not some expedient be found out,” their utmost for their liberty; and these I take says the doctor, “to bring them altogether to to be the first invitations the King of Sweden had treat of it at a general meeting?" to undertake the Protestant cause as such, and “ It is well proposed," says the duke; but in which entitled him to say he fought for the liberty | what town or city shall they assemble where the and religion of the German nation.

very deputies shall not be besieged by Tilly or I have had some particular opportunities to Wallenstein in fourteen days' time, and sacrificed hear these things from the lips of some of the to the cruelty and fury of the Emperor Ferdivery princes themselves, and therefore am the nand?" more forward to relate them; and I place them | “Will your highness be the easier in it," rehere, because, previous to the part I acted in | plies the doctor," if a way be found out to call this bloody scene, it is necessary to let the reader such an assembly upon other causes, at which into some part of the story, and to show him in the Emperor may have no umbrage, and perhaps what manner, and on what occasions, this terrible il give his assent? You know the diet at Frankwar began.

fort is at hand : it is necessary the Protestants The Protestants, alarmed at the usage they should have an assembly of their own, to prepare had met with at the former dict, had secretly ll matters for the general diet, and it may be no proposed among themselves to form a general difficult matter to obtain it." union or confederacy for preventing that ruin | The duke, surprised with joy at the motion which they saw, unless some speedy remedies Il embraced the doctor with an extraordinary transwere applied, would be inevitable. The Elector port:-“ Thou hast done it, doctor,” said he, and of Saxony, the head of the Protestants, a vigor- | immediately caused him to draw a form of a ous and politic prince, was the first that moved | letter to the Emperor, which he did with the utmost dexterity of style, in which he was a great , fence shall by no means hinder their obedience master, representing to his Imperial Majesty, Il to his Imperial Majesty, but that they will still that, in order to put an end to the troubles in continue their loyalty to him. Germany, his Majesty would be pleased to per 10. They agree to proportion their forces, mit the Protestant princes of the empire to hold which, in ail, amounted to seventy thousand a diet to themselves, to consider of such matters men. (Note 2.) as they were to treat of at the general diet, in The Emperor, exceedingly startled at the con. order to conform themselves to the will and clusions, issued out a severe proclamation or ban pleasure of his Imperial Majesty, to drive out against them, which imported much the same foreigners, and settle a lasting peace in the em- | thing as a declaration of war, and commanded pire. He also insinuated something of their Tilly to begin, and immediately to fall on the resolutions unanimously to give their suffrages Duke of Saxony with all the fury imaginable, as in favour of the King of Hungary at the election I have already observed. of a King of the Romans, a thing which he knew Here began the flame to break out; for, upon the Emperor had in his thoughts, and would push the Emperor's ban, the Protestants sent away with all his might at the dict. This letter was to the King of Sweden for succour. His Swedsent, and the bait so neatly concealed, that the || ish Majesty had already conquered Meckleo. Electors of Bavaria and Mentz, the King of burg and part of Powerania, and was advancing Hungary, and several of the Popish princes, not || with his victorious troops, increased by ilie foresceing that the ruin of them all" lay in the addition of some regiments raised in those parts, bottom of it, foolishly advised the Emperor to in order to carry on the war against the Em. consent to it.

peror, having designed to follow up the Oder In consenting to this the Emperor signed his into Silesia, and so to push the war home to own destruction ; for here began the conjunction the Emperor's hereditary countries of Austria of the German Protestants with the Swede, I and Bohemia, when the first messengers cane which was the most fatal blow to Ferdinand | to him in this case; but this changed his ineaand never could be recovered.

sures, and brought him to the frontiers of Accordingly the diet was held at Leipsic, 8th Brandenbury, resolved to answer the desires February, 1630, where the Protestants agreed | of the Protestants. But here the Duke of on several heads for their mutual defence, which Brandenburg began to halt, making some dif. were the grounds of the following war: these ficulties, and demanding terms, which drove the were the famous conclusions of Leipsic, which so King to use some extremities with him, and alarmed the Emperor and the whole empire, that, ll stopt the Swede for a while, who had otherwise to crush it in the beginning, the Emperor com- ll been on the banks of the Elbe as soon as Tills, manded Count Tilly immediately to fall upon the lihc Imperial general, had entered Saxony, which Landgrave of Hesse and the Duke of Saxony, || if they had done, the miserable destruction of as the principal heads of the union,-but it was Magdeburg had been prevented, as I have obtoo late. (Note 1.)

served before. The conclusions were digested into ten heads. The King had been invited into the union, and

1. That since their sins had brought God's || when he first came back from the banks of the judginent upon the whole Protestant church, || Oder he had accepted it, and was preparing to they should command public prayers to be made back it with all bis power. The Duke of Saxcas to Almighty God for the diverting the calamities had already a good army, which he had with that attended them.

infinite diligence recruited, and mustered under 2. That a treaty of peace might be set on the cannon of Leipsic. The King of Sweden foot, in order to come to a right understanding I having, by his ambassador at Leipsic, entered with the Catholic princes.

into the union of the Protestants, was advancios 3. That a time for such a trcaty being ob- || victoriously to their aid, just as Count Tilly had tained, they should appoint an assembly of entered the Duke of Saxony's dominions. delegates to meet preparatory to the treaty. The fame of the Swedish conquests, and of the

4. That all their complaints should be hum- || hero who commanded them, shook my resolutiou bly represented to his Imperial Majesty and the of travelling into Turkcy, being resolved to see Catholic Electors, in order to a peaccable accom the conjunction of the Protestants' armies, and, modation.

before the fire was broken out too far, to take 5. That they claim the protection of the the advantage of seeing both sides. Emperor, according to the laws of the empire, While I remained at Vienna, uncertain which and the present Emperor's solemn oath and way I should proceed, I remember I observed promise.

they talked of the King of Sweden as a prince 6. That they would appoint deputics, who lof no consideration; one that they might let go on should meet at certain times to consult of their and tirc himself in Mecklenburg, and thereabout, common interest, and who should be always em- || till they could find leisure to deal with him, and powered to conclude of what should be thought then might be crushed as they pleased; but as needful for their safety.

it is never safe to despise an enemy, so this was 7. That they shall raise a competent force to not an encmy to be despised, as they afterwards maintain and defend their liberties, rights, and || found. religion.

As to the conclusions of Leipsic, indeed al 8. That it is agreeable to the constitution of first they gave the Imperial court some uneasi. the empire, concluded in the diet at Augsburg, ness; but when they found the Imperial armies to do so.

began to fright the members out of the liniod, 9. That the arming for their necessary dc- ll and that the scveral branches had no cousder.

able forces on foot, it was the general discourse ! This calamity, sure, was the most dreadful i at Vienna that the union at Leipsic only gave | sight that ever I saw: the rage of the Imperial the Emperor an opportunity to crush absolutely || soldiers was quite intolerable, and not to be exthe Dukes of Saxony, Brandenburg, and the pressed. Out of twenty-five thousand, some Landgrave of Hesse, and they looked upon it | said thirty thousand people, there was not a as a thing certain

soul to be seen alive, till the flames drove those I never saw any real concern in their faces at that were hid in vaults and secret places to seek Vienoa until news came to court that the King death in the streets, rather than perish in the of Sweden had entered into the union; but as fire. Of these miserable creatures some were this made them very uneasy, they began to move killed, too, by the furious soldiers; but at last the powerfullest methods possible to divert this they saved the lives of such as came out of their storm; and upon this news Tilly was hastened to cellars and holes, and so about two thousand fall upon Saxony before this union could proceed poor desperate creatures were left. The exact to a conjunction of forces.

number of those that perished in this city could This was certainly a very good resolution, and never be known, because those the soldiers had no measure could have been more exactly con first butchered the flames afterwards consumed. certed, had not the diligence of the Saxons pre I was on the other side the Elbe when this vented it.

dreadful piece of butchery was done. The city The gathering of this storm, which, from all of Magdeburg had a sconce or fort over against cloud, began to spread over the empire, and from it, called the toll-house, which joined to the city the little duchy of Mecklenburg began to by a very fine bridge of boats. This was taken threaten all Germany, absolutely determined me, || by the Imperialists a few days before; and hav. as I noted before, as to travelling; and, laying ing a mind to see it, and the rather because aside the thoughts of Hungary, I resolved, if pos- | from thence I could have a very good view of sible, to see the King of Sweden's army.

the city, I was gone over Tilly's bridge of boats I parted from Vienna the middle of May, and to view this fort. About ten o'clock in the took post for Great Glogau, in Silesia, as if I morning I perceived they were storming by the had purposed to pass into Poland, hut designing firing, and immediately all ran to the works : I indeed to go down the Oder to Custrin, in the little thought of the taking the city, but imamarquisate of Brandenburg, and so to Berlin; gined it might be some out-work attacked ; for but when I came to the frontiers of Silesia, we all expected the city would surrender that though I had passes, I could go no further, the day or next, and they might have capitulated guards on all the frontiers were so strict; so I upon very good terms. was obliged to come back into Bohemia, and Being upon the works of the fort, on a sudden went to Prague.

I heard a cry in the city that that cannot be From hence I found I could easily pass | imagined, and it is not possible to express the through the Imperial provinces to the Lower || manner of it; but I could see the women and Saxony, and accordingly took passes for Ham- || children running about the streets in a most burgh, designing, however, to use them no fur | lamentable condition. ther than I found occasion. By virtue of these The city wall did not run along the side of the passes I got into the Imperial army under Count | river with so great a height, but we could Tilly, then at the siege of Magdeburg, May the plainly see the market place, and several streets second. (Note 3.)

which ran down to the river. In about an hour's I confess I did not foresee the fate of this time after this first cry all was confusion; there city ; neither, I believe, did Count Tilly himself | was little shooting; the execution was all cutthink of glutting his fury with so entire a desola- | ting of throats and mere house-murders. The tion; much less did the people expect it. I did | resolute garrison, with the brave Baron Falconbelieve they must capitulate; and I perceived, berg, fought it out to the last, and were cut in by discourse in the army, that Tilly would give || pieces; and by this time the Imperial soldiers them but very indifferent conditions, but it fell | having broke open the gates and entered on all out otherwise. The treaty of surrender was, as sides, the slaughter was very dreadful. We it were, begun, nay some say concluded, when could see the poor people in crowds driven down some of the outguards of the Imperialists, finding the streets, flying from the fury of the soldiers, the citizens had abandoned the guards of the who followed, butchering them as fast as they works, and looked to themselves with less dili could, till, driving them to the river's edge, the gence than usual, they broke in, carried a half desperate wretches threw themselves into the moon sword in hand with little resistance; and river, where thousands perished, especially wothough it was a surprise on both sides, the citi. | men and children. zens neither fearing, nor the army expecting, the Several men that could swim got over to our occasion, the garrison, with as much resolution | side, where the soldierg, not heated with fight, as could be expected under such a fright, flew to i gave them quarter, and took them up; and I the walls, twice beat the Imperialists off; but cannot but do this justice to the German offi. fresh men coming up, and the administrator of cers in the fort, they had five small flat boats, and Magdeburg himself being wounded and taken, they gave leave to the soldiers to go off in them, the enemy broke in, took the city by storm, and and get what booty they could, but charged entered wth such terrible fury, that, without them not to kill anybody, but take them all respect to age or condition, they put all the prisoners. garrison and inhabitants, man, woman, and Their humanity was not ill rewarded : for the child, to the sword, plundered the city, and, when I soldiers, wisely avoiding those places where their they had done, set it on fire.

Il fellows were employed in butchering the mise


rable people, rowed to other places, where crowds || than two hundred thousand men, in several ar. of people stood crying out for help, and expect- || mies, on foot, who most of them were on the ing to be every minute either drowned or mur- || back of the Protestants in every corner. dered ; of these, at sundry times, they fetched If Tilly did but write a threatening letter to over near six hundred, but took care to take in any city or prince of the union, they presently none but such as offered them good pay.

submitted, renounced the conclusions of Leipsic, Never was money or jewels of greater service and received Imperial garrisons, as the cities of ! than now, for they that had anything of that | Ulm and Memingen, the duchy of Wirtemburg, sort to offer were soonest helped.

and several others, and almost all Suabia. There was a burgher of the town, who, seeing | Only the Duke of Saxony and the Landgrave a boat coming near him, but out of his call, by ll of Hesse upheld the drooping courage of the Prothe help of a speaking-trumpet told the soldiers testants, and refused all terms of peace; slighted he would give them twenty thousand dollars to all the threatenings of the Imperial generals ; fetch him off: they rowed close to the shore, and and the Duke of Brandenburg was brought in took him, with his wife and six children, into the afterwards almost by force. boat; but such throngs of people got about it, | The Duke of Saxony mustered his forces unthey had like to have sunk her; so that the sol.

der the walls of Leipsic, and I, having returned diers were fain to drive a great many out again to the city two days before, saw them pass in by main force ; and while they were doing this, review. some of the enemy, coming down the street, des The duke, gallantly mounted, rode through the perately drove them all into the water.

ranks, attended by his field-marshal Arnheim, and The boat, however, brought the burgher and seemed mighty well pleased with them, and inhis wife and children safe ; and though they had decd the troops made a very fine appearance; but not all that wealth about them, yet in jewels and I that had seen Tilly's army, and his old weathermoney he gave them so much as made all the | beaten soldiers, whose discipline and exercises fellows very rich.

were so exact, and their courage so often tried, I cannot pretend to describe the cruelty of could not look on the Saxon army without some this day; the town by five in the afternoon was concern for them when I considered who they all in flames; the wealth consumed was inesti- || had to deal with. mable, and a loss to the very conqueror. I think

Tilly's men were rugged, curly fellows; their there was little or nothing left but the great | faces had an air of hardy courage, mangled with church, and about one hundred houses.

wounds and scars ; their armour showed the This was a sad welcome into the army for me,

bruises of musket-bullets, and the rust of winter and gave me a horror and aversion to the Empe.

storms. I observed of them their clothes were ror's people, as well as to his cause. I quitted I always dirty, but their arins were clean and the camp the third day after this execution, I bright: they were used to camp in the open while the fire was hardly out in the city; and fields, and sleep in the frosts and rain ; their from thence, getting safe conduct to pass into || horses were strong and hardy like themselves, and the Palatinate, I turned out of the road at a

well taught their exercises. small village on the Elbe, called Emerfield, but

| The soldiers knew their business so exactly, can give but small account of the town, having a boor for our guide, whom we could hardly under

that general orders were enough; every private

man was fit to command, and their wheelings, stand. I arrived at Leipsic on the 17th of May.

marchings, counter-marchings, and exercises were We found the elector intense upon strength.

done with such order and readiness, that the dis

tinct words of command were hardly of any use ening his army, but the people in the greatest terror imaginable, every day expecting Tilly with

among them: they were flushed with victory, the German army, who, by his cruelty at Mag

and scarce knew what it was to fly. deburg, was become so dreadful to the Protest

There had passed some messages between Tilly ants, that they expected no mercy wherever he

and the duke, and he gave always such ambiguous came.

answers as he thought might serve to gain time; The Emperor's power was made so formidable but Tilly was not to be put off with words, and to all the Protestants, particularly since the diet

drawing his army towards Saxony, sends four at Ratisbon left them in a worse case than it |

| propositions to him to sign, and demands an im. found them, that they had not only formed the con mediate reply: the propositions were positive. clusions of Leipsic, which all men looked upon as 1. To cause his troops to enter into the Exthe effect of desperation rather than any proba- | peror's service, and to march in person with them ble means of their deliverance, but had privately I against the King of Sweden. implored the protection and assistance of foreign | 2. To give the Imperial army quarters in his powers, and particularly the King of Sweden, country, and supply them with necessary profrom whom they had promises of a speedy and visions. powerful assistance.

3. To relinquish the union of Leipsic, and disAnd truly, if the Swede had not, with a very lown the ten conclusions. strong hand, rescued them, all their conclusions 4. To make restitution of the goods and lands at Leipsic had served but to hasten their ruio. ll of the church.

I remember very well, when I was in the Im- The Duke, being pressed by Tilly's trumpeter perial army, they discoursed with such contempt || for an immediate answer, sat all night and part of the forces of the Protestants, that not only of the next day with his privy councillors, debating Imperialists, but the Protestants themselves, what reply to give; which at last was concluded, gave them up as lost. The Emperor had not less l in short, that he would live and die in defence of

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