« VorigeDoorgaan »
the Protestant religion and the conclusions of ll him a commission to be cornet in one of the old Leipsic, and bade Tilly detiance.
regiments of horse. The die being thus cast, he immediately de- | But the difference I had observed between this camped with his whole army for Torgau, fearing new army and Tilly's old troops had made such that Tilly should get there before him, and so | an impression on me, that I confess I had no prevent his junction with the Swede. The duke manner of inclination for the service, and therehad not yet concluded any positive treaty with the fore persuaded him to wait awhile till we had King of Sweden, and the Duke of Brandenburg seen a little further into affairs, and particularly having made some difficulty of joining, they both till we had seen the Swedish army, which we had stood on niceties till they had like to have ruined heard so much of. themselves at once.
The difficulties which the Elector Duke of Brandenburg had given up the town of Spandau Saxony made of joining with the king were made to the king by a former treaty, to secure a re | up by a treaty concluded with the king on the treat for his army, and the king was advanced | 2d of September, at Coswig, a small town on as far as Frankfort upon the Oder, when, on a the Elbe, where the king's army was arrived the sudden, some small difficulties arising, Branden- night before; for General Tilly being now entered burg seemed cold in the matter, and with a sort || into the duke's country, had plundered and ruined of indifference demands his town of Spandau to all the lower part of it, and was now actually bebe restored again.
1 sieging the capital city of Leipsic. Gustavus Adolphus, who began presently to These necessities made almost any conditions imagine the duke had made his peace with the easy to him ; the greatest difficulty was that the Emperor, and so would either be his enemy or|| King of Sweden demanded the absolute command pretend a neutrality, generously delivered him of the army, which the duke submitted to with his town of Spandau; but immediately turns | less good will than he had reason to do, the king's about, and with his whole army besieges him in experience and conduct considered. his capital city of Berlin.
I had not patience to attend the conclusions of This brought the duke to know his error; and their particular treaties ; but as soon as ever the by the interposition of the ladies, the Queen of passage was clear I quitted the Saxon camp, and Sweden being the duke's sister, the matter was went to see the Swedish army. I fell in with the accommodated, and the duke joined his forces out-guards of the Swedes at a little town called with the king.
Beltsig, on the river Wersa, just as they were But the Duke of Saxony had like to have been
relieving the guards, and going to march, and, undone by this delay; for the Imperialists, under having a pass from the English ambassador, was Count de Furstenburg, were entered his country,
very well received by the officer who changed the and had possessed themselves of Hall, and Count guards, and with him I went back into the army. Tily was on his march to join him, as he after By nine in the morning the army was in full wards did, and, ravaging the whole country, laid | march, the king himself at the head of them, on siege to Leipsic itself. The duke, driven to this a grey pad, and riding from one brigade to extremity, rather flies to the Swede than treats another, ordered the march of every line hinwith him, and on the 2nd of September the duke's army joined with the King of Sweden.
When I saw the Swedish troops, their exact I came to Leipsic to see the Duke of Saxony's
discipline, their order, the modesty and familiarity
of their officers, and the regular living of the army, and that being marched, as I have said, for Torgau, I had no business there ; but if I had,
soldiers, their camp seemed a well-ordered city;
the meanest countrywoman with her market-ware the approach of Tilly and the Imperial army
was as safe from violence as in the streets of was enough to hasten me away, for I had no
Vienna. occasion to be besieged there; so on the 27th of
There were no regiments of whores in rags, August I left the town, as several of the prin
such as followed the Imperialists ; nor any women cipal inhabitants had done before, and more
in the camp but such as were known to the prowould have done had not the governor published
vosts to be the wives of the soldiers, who were a proclamation against it; and besides, they knew not whither to fly, for all places were alike ex- ||
necessary for washing linen, taking care of the posed. The poor people were under dreadful
I soldiers' clothes, and dressing their victuals.
The soldiers were well clad, not gay, furnished apprehensions of a siege, and of the merciless
with excellent arms, and exceedingly careful of usage of the Imperial soldiers, the example of|| Magdeburg being fresh before them, the duke and
them; and though they did not seem so terrible his army gone from them, and the town, though
as I thought Tilly's men did when I first saw well furnished, but indifferently fortified.
// them, yet the figure they made, together with
what we had heard of them made them seem to In this condition I left them, buying up stores ine invincible. of provisions, working hard to secure their meats, || The discipline and order of their marchings, set up palisades, repair their fortifications, and l camping, and exercise, was excellent and singular, preparing all things for a siege; and following land which was to be seen in no armies but the the Saxon army to Torgau, I continued in the king's, his own skill, judgment, and vigilance, camp till a few days before they joined the King | having added much to the general conduct of of Sweden.
armies then in use. I had much ado to persuade my companion |As I met the Swedes on their march, I had no from entering into the service of the Duke of opportunity to acquaint myself with anybody till Saxony, one of whose colonels, with whom we after the junction of the Saxon army, and then had contracted a particular acquaintance, offering llit being but four days to the great battle of
Leipsic, our acquaintance was small, saving what: Here Sir John Hepburn took the case up somefell accidentally by conversation,
thing gravely, and, drinking a glass of Leipsic I met with several gentlemen in the king's beer to the captain, said—“ Come, captain, don't army who spoke English very well; besides that, | press these gentlemen; the king desires no man's there were three regiments of Scots in the army, service but what is purely volunteer." So ve the colonels whereof I found were extraor entered into other discourse : and the colonel, dinarily esteemed by the king, as the Lord Rea, perceiving by my talk that I had seen Tilly's Colonel Lumsdell, and Sir John Hepburn; the army, was mighty curious in his questions, and latter of these, after I had by accident become seemed very well satisfied with the account I acquainted with, I found had been for many years gave him. acquainted with my father, and on that account The next day, the army having passed the I received a great deal of civility from him, which | Elbe at Wittenburg, and joined the Saxon army afterwards grew into a kind of intimate friend. | near Torgau, his majesty caused both armies to ship. He was a complete soldier indeed, and for draw up in battalian, giving every brigade the that reason so well beloved by that gallant king, ll same post in the lines as he purposed it to fight that he hardly know how to go about any great || in. action without him.
I must do the memory of that glorious general It was impossible for me now to restrain my | this honour, that I never saw an army drawn up young comrade from entering into the Swedish with so much variety, order, and exact regularity service, and indeed everything was so inviting ll since, though I have seen many armies drawn up that I could not blame him.
by some of the greatest captains of the age; the A captain in Sir John Hepburn's regiment nad Order by which his men were directed to flank picked acquaintance with him, and he, having as | and relieve one another, the methods of receiving much gallantry in his face as real courage in his lone body of men, if disordered, into another, and heart, the captain had persuaded him to take ser rallying one squadron without disordering another, vice, and promised to use his interest to get him was so admirable; the horse everywhere flanked, a company in the Scotch brigade.
lined, and defended by the foot, and the foot by I had made him promise not to part from me the horse, and both by the cannon, was such, that! in my travels without my consent, which was if those orders were but as punctually obeyed, it the only obstacle to his desires of entering into were impossible to put an army so modelled into the Swedish pay; and being one evening in the confusion. captain's tent with him, and discoursing very | The review being over, and the troops returned freely together, the captain asked him very shori, ll to their camps, the captain, with whom we drank but friendly, and looking earnestly at me, “ Is | the day before, meeting me, told me I must come this the gentleman, Mr Fielding, that has done so l and sup with him in his tent, where he would much prejudice to the King of Sweden's service?" I ask my pardon for the affront be gave me before.
I was doubly surprised at the expression, and I told him he need not put himself to the at the colonel, Sir John Hepburn, coming at that trouble ; I was not affronted at all; that I would very moment into the tent. The colonel hearing | do myself the honour to wait on him, provided something of the question, but knowing nothing he would give me his word not to speak any more of the reason of it, any more than as I seemed a of it as an affront. little to concern myself at it, yet, after the cere. We had not been a quarter of an hour in his mony due to his character was over, would needs tent before Sir John Hepburn came in again, told know what I had done to hinder his majesty's || me he was glad to find me there; that he came service.
to the captain's tent to inquire how to send to “ So much truly,” says the captain, “that if me ; and that I must do him the honour to go his majesty knew it, he would think himself very with him to wait on the king, who had a mind little beholden to him."
to hear the account I could give him of the lin. “I am sorry, sir,” says I, “ I should offend in perial army from my own mouth. anything, who am but a stranger; but if you I must confess I was at some loss in my mind would please to inform me, I will endeavour to how to make my address to his majesty; but I alter anything in my behaviour that is prejudicial had heard so much of his, conversible temper, to any one, much less to his majesty's service.” land particular sweetness of humour with the
“I'shall take you at your word, sir,” says the meanest soldier, that I made no more difficulty, captain ; "the King of Sweden, sir, has a par but having paid my respects to Colonel Hepburn, ticular request to you."
thanked him for the honour he had done me, and “ I should be glad to know two things, sir,” || offered to rise and wait upon him. said I; “first, how that can be possible, since I “Nay," says the colonel, "we will eat first, for am not yet known to any man in the army, much | I find Gourdon," which was the captain's name, less to his majesty ? and, secondly, what the re “has got something for supper, and the king's quest may be ?"
order is at seven o'clock.” “Sir John, becoming " Why, sir, his majesty desires you would not very friendly, must know my name ; which wher hinder this gentleman from entering into his | I had told him, and of what place and family, he service, who, it seems, desires nothing more, if! rose from his seat, and embracing me, told me he may have your consent."
he knew my father very well, and had been 10"I have too much honour for his majesty," re- | timately acquainted with him; and told me turned I, “to deny anything which he pleases to several passages wherein my father had particucommand; birt methinks it is some hardship you larly obliged him. should make that the king's order which it is very After this we went to supper, and the king probablc he knows nothing of.'
il health being drunk round, the colonel moved the
sooner, because he had a mind to talk with me. l great army of old lads that are used to boxing; When we were going to the king he inquired fellows with iron faces; and it is a little too where I had been, and what occasion brought me much to engage so hotly the first entrance into to the army.
the wars. You may see our discipline this win. Igave him the short history of my travels, and ter, and make your campaign with us next sumthat I came hither from Vienna on purpose to || mer, when you need not fear but we shall have see the King of Sweden and his army. He asked fighting enough, and you will be better acquainted me if there was any service he could do me, by | with things : we never put our common soldiers which he meant, whether I desired an employ- || upon pitched battles the first campaign, but place ment. I pretended not to take him so; but told our new men in garrisons, and try them in parties him the protection his acquaintance would afford first." me was more than I could bave asked, since I might || “Sir," said I, with a little more freedom, “ | thereby have opportunity to satisfy my curiosity, I believe I shall not make a trade of the war, and which was the chief end of my coming abroad. therefore need not serve an apprenticeship to it:
He, perceiving by this that I had no mind to || it is a hard battle where none escape. If I come be a soldier, told me very kindly I should com- | off, I hope not to disgrace you ; and if not, it mand him in anything ; that his tent and equi- || will be some satisfaction to my father to hear his page, horses and servants, should always have | son died fighting, under the command of Sir John orders to be at my service; but that, as a piece of Hepburn, in the army of the King of Sweden ; friendship, he would advise me to retire to some and I desire no better epitaph upon my tomb." place distant from the army, for they would | “ Well," says Sir John; and by this time we march to-morrow, and the king was resolved to | were just come to the king's quarters, and the fight General Tilly, and he would not have me | guards calling to us interrupted his reply; so we hazard myself; that, if I thought fit to take his I went into the court-yard where the king was advice, he would have me take that interval to lodged, which was in an indifferent house of one see the court at Berlin, whither he would send of the burghers of Dieben, and Sir John stepping one of his servants to wait on me..!
up, met the king coming down some steps into His discourse was too kind not to extort the a large room which looked over the town-wall tenderest acknowledgment from me that I was || into a field where part of the artillery was drawn capable of. I told him his care was so obliging, || up. Sir John Hepburn sent his man presently that I knew not what return to make, but if he | to me to come up, which I did ; and Sir John, pleased to leave me to my choice, I desired no | without any ceremony, takes me up to the king, greater favour than to trail a pike under his com- who was leaning on his elbow in the window. mand in the ensuing battle.
The king turning about, “ This is the English “ I can never answer it to your father, young || gentleman,” says Sir John, “who I told your gentleman,” says he, “to suffer you to expose | majesty had been in the Imperial army." yourself so far.”
* How then did he get hither," says the king, I replied, my father would certainly acknow- l“ without being taken by the scouts ?" At which ledge his friendship in the proposal made me ; || question Sir John said nothing. but I believed he knew him better than to think “ By a pass, and please your majesty, from he would be well pleased with me if I should ac- | the English ambassador's secretary at Vienna," cept of it; that I was sure my father would have || said I, making a profound reverence. rode post five hundred miles to have been at || “ Have you then been at Vienna ?" says the such a battle under such a general, and it should || king. never be told him that his son had rode fifty • Yes, and please your majesty," said I. Upon miles to be out of it.
which the king, folding up a letter he had in his He seemed to be something concerned at the hand, seemed much more earnest to talk about resolution I had taken, and replied very quickly | Vienna than about Tilly. upon me, that he approved very much of my “ And pray what news had you at Vienna?" courage : “ But," says he, “no man gets any “ Nothing, sir,” said I, “but daily accounts, credit by running upon needless adventures, nor one in the neck of another, of their own mis. loses any by shunning hazards which he has no fortunes, and your majesty's conquests, which order for. It is enough," says he," for a gen- || make a very melancholy court there." tleman to behave well when he is commanded “ But pray," said the king, “what is the comupon any service : I have had fighting enough,” || mon opinion there about these affairs ?" says he, “ upon these points of honour, and I “ The common people are terrified to the last never got anything but reproof for it from the || degree,” said I; “and when your majesty took king himself,"
Frankfort on the Oder, if your army had marched "Well, sir,” said I, “ but if a man expects to but twenty miles into Silesia, half the people rise by his valour, he must show it somewhere; would have run out of Vienna ; and I left them and if I were to have any command in an army, fortifying the city." I would first try whether I could deserve it: 1 “ They need not," replied the king, smiling; have never yet seen any service, and must have " I bave no design to trouble them; it is the my induction some time or other : I shall never Protestant countries I must be for." Upon this have a better master than yourself, nor a better | the Duke of Saxony entered the room, and, find. school than such an army,"
ing the king engaged, offered to retire ; but the “ Well," says Sir John, “but you may have | king beckoned with his hand, and called to him the same school, and the same teaching, after | in French : “ Cousin," says the king, “ this genthis battle is over ; for I must tell you before. || tleman has been travelling, and comes from Vi. hand this will be a bloody touch. Tilly has all enna;" and so made me repeat what I had said before ; at which the king went on with me, and this with so much freedom, and his majesty was Sir John Hepburn informing his majesty that I so pleased with it, that he asked me how I would spoke High Dutch, he changed his language, and choose to serve, on horseback or on foot ? asked me in High Dutch where it was that I || I told his majesty I should be glad to receive saw General Tilly's army? I told his majesty at any of his majesty's commands; but if I had not the siege of Magdeburg:
that honour, I purposed to trail a pike under Sir “ At Magdeburg !" said the king, shaking his John Hepburn, who had done me so much hohead. “ Tilly must answer to me one day for nour as to introduce me into his majesty's prethat city; and if not to me, to a greater king sence. than 1. Can you guess what army he had with | “Do so, then,” replied the king; and, turning him?"
to Sir John Hepburn, said, “and pray do you '“ He had two armies with him," said I; " but I take care of him :" at which, overcome with the one, I suppose, will do your majesty no harm." goodness of his discourse, I could not answer a * Two armies !" said the king.
word, but made him a profound reverence, and " Yes, sir ; he has one army of about twenty retired. six thousand men,” said I ; -and another of The next day but one, being the 7th of Sepabove fifteen thousand whores and their attend. || tember, before day the army marched from Dieben ants ;" at which the king laughed heartily. to a large field about a mile from Leipsic, where
“ Aye, aye,” says the king; "those do us as we found Tilly's army in full battalian, in admimuch harm as the twenty-six thousand; for Il rable order, which made a show both glorious they eat up the country, and devour the poor and terrible.“ Protestants more than the men. Well," says Il Tilly, like a fair gamester, had taken up but the king, * do they talk of fighting us ? ! one side of the plain, and left the other free, and
“They talk big enough, sir," sạid I; “but all the avenues open for the king's army ; nor your majesty has not been so often fought with, || did he stir to the charge till the king's army was as beaten in their discourse."
completely drawn up, and advanced towards "I know not for the men,” said the king ; || him. He had in his army forty-four thousand “ but the old man is as likely to do it as talk of | old soldiers, every way answerable to what I said it, and I hope to try them in a day or two." || before ; and I shall only add, a better army, I beThe king inquired after that of several matters | lieve, never was so soundly beaten. about the Low Countries, the Prince of Orange, The king was not much inferior in force, being and of the court and affairs in England; and Sir | joined with the Saxons, who were reckoned John Hepburn, informing his majesty that I was || twenty-two thousand, and who drew up on the the son of an English gentleman of his acquaint. || left, making a main battle and two wings, as the ance, the king had the goodness to ask him what | king did on the right. care he had taken of me against the day of His majesty placed himself at the right wing battle.
of his own horse; Gustavus Horne had the main Upon which Sir John repeated to him the dis- || battle of the Swedes; the Duke of Saxony had course we had together by the way: the king || the main battle of his own troops, and General seemed particularly pleased with it, and began to || Arnheim the right wing of his horse. take me to task himself.
The second line of the Swedes consisted of “ You English gentlemen," says he,“ are too || the two Scotch brigades and three Swedish, with forward in the wars, which makes you leave | the Finland horse in the wings. them too soon again."
In the beginning of the fight Tilly's right wing " Your majesty,” replied I, “makes war in so charged with such irresistible fury upon the left pleasant a manner, as makes all the world fond of the king's army where the Saxons were posted, of fighting under your conduct.”
that nothing could withstand them: the Saxons “ Not so pleasant neither,” says the king : | Aed amain, and some of them carried the news “ here's a man can tell you that sometimes it is ll over the country that all was lost, and the king's not very pleasant."
army overthrown; and indeed it passed for an “ I know not much of the warrior, sir," said I, l oversight with some, that the king did not place "nor of the world; but if always to conquer be some of his old troops among the Saxons, who the pleasure of war, your majesty's soldiers have were new-raised men. The Saxons lost here all that can be desired."
near two thousand men, and hardly ever showed “Well,” says the king; “but, however, con their faces again all the battle, except some few sidering all things, I think you would do well to of their horse. take the advice Sir John Hepburn has given I was posted with my companion, the captain,
at the head of three Scotch® regiments of foot, “ Your majesty may command me to anything; Il commanded by Sir John Hepburn, with express but where your majesty and so many gallant gen directions from the colonel to keep by him. tlemen hazard their lives, mine is not worth men. Our post was in the second line, as a reserve tioning; and I should not dare to tell my father, to the king's main battle; and, which was strange, at my return into England, that I was in your the main battle, which consisted of four great majesty's army, and made so mean a figure, that brigades of foot, were never charged during the your majesty would not permit me to fight under whole fight, and yet we, who had the reserve, your royal standard."
were obliged to endure the whole weight of the “ Nay," replied the king, “ I lay no commands ; || Imperial army. but you are young."
The occasion was, the right wing of the Im“ I can never die, sir,” said I, “ with more ho-perialists having defeated the Saxons, and being nour than in your majesty's service." I spoke ll eager in the chace, Tilly, who was an old soldier,
and ready to prevent all mistakes, forbids any v three ranks at a time, over one another's head, pursuit : "Let them go," said he ; " but let us | poured in their shot so thick, that the enemy beat the Swedes, or we do nothing.”
were cut down like grass before a scythe ; and Upon this the victorious troops fall in upon | following into the thickest of their foot, with the the flank of the king's army, which, by the Saxons |clubs of their muskets made a most dreadful being fled, lay open to them : Gustavus Horne slaughter, and yet there was no flying-Tilly's commanded the left wing of the Swedes, and, men might be killed and knocked down, but no having first defeated some regiments which man turned his back, nor would give an inch of charged him, falls in upon the rear of the Im ground, but as they were wheeled, marched, or perial right wing, and separates them from the retreated by their officers. van, who were advanced a great way forward in There was a regiment of cuirassiers which pursuit of the Saxons; and having routed the stood whole to the last, and fought like heroes, rear, or reserve, falls on Tilly's main battle, and went ranging over the field when all their army defeated part of them; the other part had gone was broken, and nobody cared for charging them : in chace of the Saxons, but now returned, fell in they were commanded by Baron Cronenburg, upon the rear of the left wing of the Swedes, and at last went off from the battle whole. These charging them in the flank, for they drew up on were armed in black armour from head to foot, the very ground which the Saxons had quitted. and they carried off their general.
This changed the whole front, and made the About six o'clock the field was cleared of the Swedes face about to the left, and make a great ll enemy, except at one place on the king's side, front on their flank to make this good. Our bri- || where some of them rallied, and, though they gades, who were placed as a reserve for the main knew all was lost, would take no quarter, but battle, were, by special order from the king, I fought it out to the last man, being found dead the wheeled about to the left, and placed for the next day in rank and file, as they were drawn up. right of this new front to charge the Imperialists : U I had the good fortune to receive no hurt in they were about twelve thousand of their best this battle, excepting a small scratch on the side foot, besides horse, and, flushed with the execu of my neck by the push of a pike; but my friend tion of the Saxons, fell on like furies.
received a very dangerous wound when the battle The king by this time had almost defeated the was as good as over. Iarperialists' left wing: their horse, with more! U He had engaged with a German colonel, whose haste than good speed, had charged faster than name we could never learn; and having pressed their foot could follow, and having broke into the very close upon him so that he had shot his king's first line, he let them go; where, while horse, the horse in the fall kept the colonel down, the second line bore the shock, and bravely re | lying on one of his legs; upon which he desisted them, the king followed them on the manded quarter, which Captain Fielding grantcrupper with thirteen troops of horse and some ing, helped him to quit his horse, and, having musketeers, by which, being hemmed in, they disarmed him, was bringing him into the line, were all cut down in a moment, as it were, and when the regiment of cuirassiers, which I menthe army never disordered with them.
tioned, commanded by Baron Cronenburg, caine This fatal blow to the left wing gave the king roving over the field, and with a flying charge more leisure to defeat the foot who followed, and saluted our front with a salvo of carabine shot, to send some assistance to Gustavus Horne in which wounded us a great many men; and, his left wing, who had his hands full with the l among the rest, the captain received a shot main battle of the Imperialists.
in his thigh which laid him on the ground, and, But those troops who, as I said, had routed being separated from the line, his prisoner got the Saxons, being called off from the pursuit, 1 away with them. had charged our flank, and were now grown very | This was the first service I was in, and indeed strong, and renewed the battle in a terrible || I never saw any fight since maintained with such manner.
gallantry, such desperate valour, together with Here it was I saw our men go to wrack. Co such dexterity of management, both sides being lonel Hall, a brave soldier, commanded the rear | composed of soldiers fully tried, bred to the wars, of the Swedes' left wing : he fought like a lion, ll expert in everything, exact in their order, and but was slain, and most of his regiment cut off, | incapable of fear, which made the battle much though not unrevenged, for they entirely ruined more bloody than usual. Furstenburg's regiment of foot. Colonel Cul. Il Sir John Hepburn, at my request, took parti. lembach, with his regiment of horse, was ex- || cular care of my comrade, and sent his own surtremely overlaid also, and the colonel and many | geon to look after him; and afterwards, when the brave officers killed, and, in short, all that wing city of Leipsic was retaken, provided him lodgwas shattered, and in an ill condition
ings there, and came very often to see him; and At this juncture came the king, and having | indeed I was in great care for him too, the surseen what havoc the enemy made of Cullem- geons being very doubtful of him a great while ; bach's troops, he came riding along the front of for, having lain in the field all night among the our three brigades, and led us on to the charge dead, his wound, for want of dressing, and with himself. The colonel of his guards, the Baron ll the extremity of cold, was in a very ill condition, Dyvel, was shot dead just as the king had given and the pain of it had thrown him into a fever. him some orders.
It was quite dusk before the fight ended, When the Scots advanced, seconded by some ll especially where the last-rallied troops fought so regiments of horse, which the king also sent to || long, and therefore we durst not break our order the charge, the bloodiest fight began that ever to seek out our friends ; so that it was near seven man beheld; for the Scotch brigades giving firell o'clock the next morning before we found the