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finding us too strong for them, they gave it over. ll From hence the army marched to Mentz, By this time another regiment of foot was come which in four days capitulated, with the fort and over; and as soon as day appeared, the king, with citadel, and the city paid his majesty three hunthe three regiments, marched again to the town, dred thousand dollars to be exempted from the which surrendered at the first summons, and the fury of the soldiers. Here the king himself drew next day the fort yielded to Sir John Hepburn. the plan of those invincible fortifications which
The castle at Oppenheim held out still with a to this day make it one of the strongest cities in garrison of eight hundred Spaniards, and the Germany. Friburg, Koningstein, Neustadt, Keiking, leaving two hundred Scots of Sir James ser-Lauteren, and alınost all the Lower Palatinate, Ramsey's men in the town, drew out to attack surrendered at the very terror of the King of the castle. Sir James Ramsey being left wounded Sweden's approach, and never suffered the danat Wurtzburg, the king gave me the command of ger of a siege. those two hundred men, which were a regiment, || The king held a most magnificent court at that is, all that were left of a gallant regiment Mentz, attended by the Landgrave of Hesse, of two thousand Scots, which the king brought || with an incredible number of princes and lords out of Sweden with him under that brave colonel. of the empire, with ambassadors and residents of There were about thirty officers who, having no foreign princes; and here his majesty stayed till soldiers, were yet in pay, and served as reforma March, when the queen, with a great retinue of does with the regiment, and were over and above Swedish nobility, came from Erfurt to see him. the two hundred men. The king designed to The king, attended by a gallant train of German storm the castle on the lower side by the way || nobility, went to Frankfort, and from thence on that leads to Mentz, and Sir John Hepburn landert to Hoest, to meet the queen, where her majesty from the other side, and marched up to storm on arrived February 8th. the Rhine port.
During the king's stay in these parts his armies My reformado Scots, having observed that the were not idle : his troops, on one side, under the town-port of the castle was not so well guarded Rhinegrave, a brave and ever-fortunate comas the rest, all the eyes of the garrison being bent mander, and under the Landgrave of Hesse on towards the king and Sir John Hepburn, came the other, ranged the country from Lorrain to rudning to me, and told me they believed they Luxemburg, and passed the Moselle on the west, could enter the castle sword in hand, if I would and the Weser on the north. Nothing could give them leave. I said I dare not give them stand before them. The Spanish army, which orders, my commission being only to keep and came to the relief of the Catholic electors, was defend the town; but they being very importu everywhere defeated, and beaten quite out of the nate, I told them they were volunteers, and country, and the Lorrain army quite ruined. It might do what they pleased ; that I would lend was a most pleasant court, to be sure, as ever them fifty men, and draw the rest up to second was seen, where every day expresses arrived of
them, or bring them off, as I saw occasion, so as armies defeated, towns surrendered, contributions i I might not hazard the town. This was as much agreed upon, parties routed, prisoners taken, , as they desired: they sallied immediately, and in and princes sending ambassadors to sue for truces
a trice the volunteers scaled the port, cut in Iand neutralities, to make submissions and comį pieces the guard totally, and burst open the gate, positions, and to pay arrears and contributions.
at which the fifty entered. Finding the gate T Here arrived, February 10, the King of Bowon, I advanced immediately with a hundred hemia from England, and with him my Lord musketeers more, having locked up all the gates || Craven, with a body of Dutch horse, and a very of the town but the castle port, and leaving still fine train of English volunteers, who immediately, fifty for a reserve just at that gate; the towns. ll without any stay, marched on to Hoest, to wait men, too, seeing the castle, as it were, taken, ran upon his Majesty of Sweden, who received him 7 to arms, and followed me with above two hundred |with a great deal of civility, and was treated at a l men. The Spaniards were knocked down by noble collation, by the king and queen, at Frank
the Scots before they knew what the matter was, fort. Never had the unfortunate king so fair a and the king and Sir John Hepburn, advancing i prospect of being restored to his inheritance of to storm, were surprised when, instead of resist. the Palatinate as at that time, and had King James, ance, they saw the Spaniards throwing themselves his father-in-law, had a soul answerable to the over the walls to avoid the fury of the Scots, occasion, it had been effected before ; but it was a
Few of the garrison got away, as most of them strange thing to see him equipped from the Eng, were either killed or taken ; and having cleared | lish court with one lord and about forty or fifty
the castle, I set open the port on the king's side, | English gentlemen in his attendance : whereas, and sent his majesty word that the castle was his had the King of England now, as it is well known own.
|| he might have done, furnished him with ten or The king came on, and entered on foot: 1 twelve thousand English foot, nothing could received him at the head of the Scotch reforma I have hindered him taking a full possession of his does, who all saluted him with their pikes. The country; and yet even without that help did the king gave them his hat, and turning about, || King of Sweden clear almost his whole country “ Brave Scots,” says he, smiling, “you were too of Imperialists, and after his death reinstal his quick for me:” then, beckoning to me, made me son in the electorate; but no thanks to us. tell him how and in what manner we had ma Lord Craven did me the honour to inquire for onged the storm, which he was exceedingly well me by name, and his majesty of Sweden did me pleased with, but especially at the caution I had l yet more by presenting me to the King of Boused to bring them off if they had miscarried, hemia, and Lord Craven gave me a letter from od secure the town.
! my father; and speaking something of my father
having served under the Prince of Orange in the After the taking of this town, the king, hearing famous battle of Nieuport, the King of Sweden, of Tilly's approach, and how he had beaten Gus. smiling, returned, “And pray tell him from me! tavus Horne, the king's field-marsbal, out of his son has served as well in the warm battle of || Bamberg, began to draw his forces together, and, Leipsic,”
| leaving the care of his conquests in these parts My father being very much pleased with the to his chancellor, Oxenstern, prepared to advance honour I had received from so great a king, had towards Bavaria. ordered me to acquaint his majesty, that if he I had taken an opportunity to wait upon his pleased to accept of their service, he would raise majesty with Sir John Hepburn, and being about him a regiment of English horse, at his own li to introduce the discourse of my father's letter, charge, to be under my command, and to be sent the king told me he had received a compliment over into Holland ; and Lord Craven had orders on my account in a letter from King Charles. from the King of England to signify his consent. I then said his majesty had, by his exceeding to the said levy. I acquainted my old friend, Sir || generosity, bound me and all my friends to pay John Hepburn, with the contents of the letter, || Their acknowledgments to him, and that I sup. in order to have his advice, who, being pleasel | posed my father had obtained such a mention of with the proposal, would have me go to the King it from the King of England as gratitude moved immediately with the letter; but present service him to: that his majesty's favour had been put it off some days.
shown me to a family both willing and ready to The taking of Creutznach was the next service serve him; that I had received some cominands of any moment : the King drew out in person to from my father, which, if his majesty pleased to the siege of this town : they soon came to a par- do me the honour to accept of, might put me in ley, but the castle seemed a work of difficulty, Il a condition to acknowledge his majesty's good. for its situation was so strong, and so surroundedness in a manner more proportioned to the sepse with works behind and above one another, that || I had of his favour; and with that I produced most people thought the King would receive a my father's letter, and read that clause in it check from it. but it was not easy to resist the which related to the regiment of horse, which resolution of the King of Sweden. (Note 6.) was as follows:
He never battered it but with two small pieces ; “I read with the utmost satisfaction the acbut having viewed the works himself, ordered a ll count you gave of the great and extraordinary mine under the first ravelin, which being sprung conquests of the King of Sweden, and with his with success, he commanded a storm. I think majesty's singular favour to you. I hope you there were not more commanded men than will be careful to value and deserve so much volunteers, both English, Scotch, French, and | honour. I am pleased you rather chose to serve Germans : my old comrade, Captain Fielding, as a volunteer at your own charge, than to take was by this time recovered of his wound at Leip any command which, for want of experience, you sic, and made one. The first body of volunteers might have misbehaved in. of about forty were led on by Lord Craven, and * I have obtained of the king that he will parI led the second, among whom were most of the | ticularly thank his majesty of Sweden for the reformado Scotch officers who took the castle honour he has done you; and if his majesty of Oppenheim; the first party was not able to gives you so much freedom, I could be glad you make anything of it; the garrison fought with so should, in the humblest manner, thank his ma- | much fury, that many of the volunteer gentlemen jesty, in the name of an old broken soldier. being wounded, and some killed, the rest were “ If you think yourself officer enough to con. beaten off with loss. The king was in some mand them, and his majesty please to accept passion at his men, and rated them for running them, I would have you offer to raise his majesty away, as he called it, though they really retreated a regiment of horse, which I think I may nearly in good order, and commanded the assault to be Il complete in jur neighbourhood with some of renewed.
your old acquaintance, who are willing to see the It was our turn to fall on next : our Scotch world. officers, not being used to be beaten, advanced | “ If his majesty gives you the word, they shall immediately, and Lord Craven, with his volun. ll receive his commands in the Maese, the king teers, pierced in with us, fighting gallantly in the having promised me to give them arms, and breach with a pike in his hand; and to give him transport them for that service into Holland, the honour due to his bravery, she was with the land I hope they may do his majesty such service first on the top of the rampart, and gave his band ' as may be for your honour and the advantage of to niy comrade and lifted him up after him: we : bis majesty's interest and glory. helped one another up, till at last almost all the
" YOUR LOVING FATHER." volunteers had gained the height of the ravelin, 'Tis an offer like a gentleman and like a and maintained it with a great deal of resolution, I soldier,” says the king, and I'll accept of it expecting, when the commanded men had gained || upon two conditions: first, that I will pay your the height, to advance upon the enemy, when one || father the advance money for raising the regiof the enemy's captains called to Lord Craven, l/ ment; and next, that they shall be landed in the and said, if they might have honourable terms | Weser or the Elbe, for which, if the King of they would capitulate, which my lord telling | England will not, I will pay the passage ; for him be would engage for, the garrison fired no if they land in Holliind, it may prove very du: more, and the captain leaping down from the ficult to get them to us when the army shall next rampart, came with Lord Craven into the be marched out of this part of the country." camp, where the conditions were agreed on, and li I returned this answer to my father, and sent the castle surrendered.
limy man George into England to order that
regiment, and made him quarter-master. I sent resolution did he use in his first attacks, that blank commissions for the officers, signed by the he carried the town without putting himself to King of Sweden, to be filled up as my father the trouble of formal approaches. It was geneshould think fit ; and when I had the king's rally his way when he came before any town, order for the commissions, the secretary told, with a design to besiege it, not to encamp at me I must go back to the king with them. a distance, and begin his trenches a great way Accordingly I went back to the king, who, open off, but bring his men immediately within half ing the packet, laid all the commissions but one musket-shot of the place; there, getting under upon a table before him, and bade me take them, the best cover he could, he would immediately and keeping the one still in his hand, “Now,"| begin his batteries and trenches before their says he, "you are one of my soldiers," and there faces, and, if there was any place possible to with gave me a commission as colonel of horse be attacked, he would fall to storming imme. in present pay.
diately. By this resolute way of coming on, I took the commission, kneeling, and humbly li he carried many a town in the first heat of his thanked his majesty: “ But," says the king, | men, which would have held out many days " there is one article of war I expect of you more against a more regular siege. than of others."
This march of the king broke all Tilly's mca"Your majesty can expect nothing of me' sures; for now he was obliged to face about, which I shall not willingly comply with," said I, and, leaving the Upper Palatinate, to come to "as soon as I have the honour to understand the assistance of the Duke of Bavaria ; for the what it is.”
king being twenty thousand strong, besides ten Why, it is,” says the king, "that you shall never thousand foot and four thousand horse and drafight but when you have orders; for I shall not goons which joined him from the Duringer be willing to lose my colonel before I have the Wald, was resolved to ruin the duke, wlio now regiment."
'lay open to him, and was the most powerful " I shall be ready at all times," returned 1, "to and inveterate enemy of the protestants in the obey your majesty's commands."
empire. I sent my man express with the king's answer, ! iilly was now joined with the Duke of Ba. and the commission to my father, who had the varia, and might together make about twenty. regiment completed in less than two months; and two thousand men, and, in order to keep the six of the officers, with a list of the rest, came Swedes out of the country of Bavaria, had away to me, whom I presented to his majesty, planted themselves along the banks of the river when he lay before Nuremburg, where they Lech, which runs on the edge of the duke's kissed his hand.
territories; and having fortificd the other side One of the captains offered to bring the whole of the river, and planted his cannon for several regiment travelling as private men to the army miles at all the convenient places on the river in six weeks' time, and either to transport their resolied to dispute the king's passage. equipage or buy it in Germany; but it was I shall be the longer in relating this account thought irnpracticable : however, I had so many ll of the Lech, being esteemed in those days as came in that manner, that I had a compli teli great an action as any batt e or siege of that troop always about me, and obtained the king's | age, and particularly famous for the disaster of order to muster them as a troop.
the gallant od General Tilly; and for that I On the 8th of March the king decamped, and, ll can be more partii ular in it than other accounts, marching up the river Maine, bent his course || having been an eye-witness to every part of it. directly for Bavaria, taking several small places The king, being truly informed of the dispoby the way, and expecting to engage with Lilly, I sition of the Bavarian army, was once of the who he thought would dispute his entrance into mind to have left the banks of the Lech, have Bavaria, kept his army together; but lilly find repassed the Danube, and so setting down before ing himself too weak to encounter him, turned Ingolstadt, the duke's capital city, by the taking away, and leaving Bavaria open to the king, that strong town, to have made his entrance into marched into the Upper Palatinate. The king, Bavaria, and the conquest of such a fortress, one finding the country clear of the Imperialists. || entire action ; but the strength of the place, and comes to Nuremberg, made his entrance into the difficulty of maintaining his leaguer in an that city the 21st March, and being nobly treated enemy's country, while Tilly was so strong in the by the citizens, he continued his march into Ba field, diverted him from that design : he therefore varia, and on the 26th sat down before Donawert: concluded that Tilly was first to be beaten out the town was taken next day by storm, so swift || of the country, and then the siege of Ingolstadt were the conquests of this invincible captain. would be easier Sir John Hepburn, at the head of the English Whereupon the king resolved to go and view and Scotch volunteers, entered the town first, the situation of the enemy. His majesty went and cut all the garrison to pieces, except such out the 2nd of April with a strong party of horse as escaped over the bridge.
which I had the honour to command. We I had no share in the business of Donawert, marched as near as we could to the banks of the being now among the horse, but I was posted river, not to be too much exposed to the enemy's on the roads with five troops of horse, where!) cannon, and having gained a little height, where we picked up a great many stragglers of the the whole course of the river might be seen, the garrison, whom we made prisoners of war. It king halted and commanded to draw up. The is observable, that this town of Donawert was | king alighted, and, calling me to him, examined a very strong place and well fortified, and yet I every reach and turning of the river by his glass, such expedition did the king make, and such l but finding it run a long and almost a straight
course, he coulů find no place which he liked; hill by our glasses very plain, and could see the but at last turning himself north, and looking soldier naked with him. down the stream, he found the river fetching a “ He is a fool,” says the king, “he does not long reach, doubles short upon itself, making a kill the fellow and run off ; ” but when the dra. round and very narrow point : “ There's a point goon told his tale, the king was extremely well will do our business," says the king ; "and if the satisfied with him, gave him a hundred dollars, ground be good I will pass there, let Tilly do his and made him a quarter-master of cuirassiers. worst."
The king having further examined the dragoon, He immediately ordered a small party of norse he gave him a very distinct account of the ground to view the ground, and to bring him word par- on this side, which he found to be higher than ticularly how high the bank was on each side and the enemy's by ten or twelve feet, and a hard at the point. “And he," says the king, “shall gravel. have fifty dollars that will bring me word how Hereupon the king resolves to pass there; and, deep the water is."
in order to it, gives, himself, particular directions I asked his majesty leave to let me go, which for such a bridge as I believe never any arny he would by no means allow; but, as the party passed a river on before or since. was drawing out, a sergeant of dragoons told the His bridge was only loose planks laid upon king, if he pleased to let him go disguised as a large tressels, in the same homely manner as I boor, he would bring him an account of every- have seen bricklayers raise a low scaffold to build thing he desired. The king liked the motion a brick wall. The tressels were made higher very well, and the fellow being well acquainted than one another to answer to the river as it be. with the country, puts on a ploughman's habit, came deeper or shallower, and were all framed and went away immediately, with a long pole and fitted before any appearance was made of upon his shoulder; the horse lay all this while in attempting to pass. the woods, and the king stood undiscerned by When all was ready, the king brings his army the enemy on the little hill aforesaid. The dragoon down to the bank of the river, and plants his canwith his long pole comes boldly to the banks of non as the enemy had done, some here and some the river, and calling to the sentinels which Tilly! there, to amuse them. had placed on the other bank, talked with them, At night, April 4th, the king commanded asked if they could not help him over the river about two thousand men to march to the point, and pretended he wanted to come to them; at and to throw up a trench on either side, and last, being come to the point, where, as I said, I quite round it, with a battery of six pieces of the river makes a short turn, he stands parleying cannon at each end, besides three small mounts with them a great while, and sometimes pretended | one at the point, and one on each side, which to wade over ; he puts his long pole into the had each two pieces upon them. This work i water, till, being gotten up to his middle, he could was begun so briskly, and so well carried on, reach beyond him, where it was too deep, and, the king firing all night from the other parts shaking his head, came back again
of the river, that by daylight all the batteries The soldiers on the other side, laughing at him, at the new work were mounted, the french asked him if he could swim? He said, “ No, i || lined with two thousand musketeers, and all cannot.”
the utensils of the bridge lay ready to be pet! “ Why, you fool,” said one of the sentinels, l together. “the channel of the river is twenty feet deep." | Now the Imperialists discovered the design,
“How do you know that ?" said the dragoon. | but it was too late to hinder it; the muskes. “ Why, our engineer," answered he, “measured eers in the great trench and the five new bat. , it yesterday."
teries made such continual fire, that the other I This was what he wanted; but not yet fully || bank, which, as before, laid twelve feet belon satisfied—“Ay, but," says he, “may be it may them, was too hot for the Imperialists; wherenot be very broad; if one of you would wade in upon Tilly, to be provided for the king at his to meet me, till I can reach you with my pole, I coming over, falls to work in a wood right against would give him half a ducat to pull me over.” the point, and raises a great battery for twenty
The innocent way of his discourse so deluded pieces of cannon, with a breast-work, or line, the soldiers, that one of them immediately strips as near the river as he could to cover his men, and goes in up to the shoulders, and our dragoon thinking that when the king bad built his bridge got in on this side to meet him ; but the stream he might easily beat it down with his cannon. took the other soldier away, and he, being a good! But the king had doubly prevented him, first, swimmer, came over to this side
by laying his bridge so low that none of Tilly's The dragoon was then in a great deal of pain shot could hurt it, for the bridge lay not hall a for fear of being discovered, and was once going foot above the water's surface; by which means to kill the fellow and make off, but at last resolved the king, who in that showed himself an excelto carry on the humour, and having entertained lent engineer, had secured it from any batteries the man with the tale of a tub about the Swedes being made within the land, and the angle of the stealing his oats, the fellow, being cold, wanted to l bank secured it from the remoter batteries on be gone, and the dragoon, as willing to be rid of the other side, and the continual fire of the can. him, pretended to be very sorry he could not get non and small shot beat the Imperialists front over the river, and so makes off.
|| their station just against it, they having no works By this, however, he learned both the depth to cover them. and breadth of the channel, the bottom and na- || And in the second place, to secure his passage ture of both shores, and everything the king lhe sent over about two hundred men, and als wanted to know. We could see him from the ilthat two hundred more, who had orders to cast
up a large ravelin on the other bank just where | six hundred musketeers to man the new line out he designed to land his bridge. This was done || of the Scotch brigade. with such expedition, too, that it was finished | Early in the morning, a small party of Scots, before night, and in a condition to receive all the commanded by a Captain Forbes, of my Lord shot of Tilly's great battery, and effectually co | Rea's regiment, were sent out to learn something vered the bridge.
of the enemy, the king observing they had not While this was doing, the king, on his side,
fired all night ; and while this party were abroad, lays over his bridge. Both sides wrought hard
the army stood in battalia ; and my old friend all day and all night, as if the spade, not the
Sir John Hepburn, whom, of all men, the king sword, had been to decide the controversy, and ||
most depended upon for any desperate service, that he would get the victory whose trenches
was ordered to pass the bridge with his brigade, and batteries were first ready. In the meanwhile
and to draw up without the line, with command the cannon and musket-bullets flew like hail, and || to advance as he found the horse who were to made the service so hot, that both sides had
second him come over enough to do to make their men stand to their
Sir John, being passed without the trench, work. The king, in the hottest of it, animated || meets Captain Forbes with some prisoners, and his men by his presence, and Tilly, to give him
the good news of the enemy's retreat: he sends his due, did the same; for the execution was so
him directly to the king, who was by this time great, and so many officers killed, General At
at the head of his army, in full battalia, ready to tringer wounded, and two serjeant-majors killed,
follow his vanguard, expecting a hot day's work that at last Tilly himself was obliged to be ex
of it. posed, and to come up to the very face of our
Sir John sends messenger after messenger to line to encourage his men, and give his necessary
the king, entreating him to give him orders to orders.
advance, but the king would not suffer him, for (Note 7.) And here, about one o'clock, much about the
he was ever upon his guard, and would not ven
ture a surprise; so the army continued on this time that the king's bridge and works were
side the Lech all day and the next night. finished, and just as, they said, he had ordered
In the morning the king sent for me, and or. to fall upon our ravelin with three thousand foot,
dered me to draw out three hundred horse, and was the brave old Tilly wounded with a musket
a colonel with six hundred horse, and another bullet in the thigh: he was carried off to Ingol
with eight hundred dragoons, and ordered us to stadt, and lived some days after, but died of his
enter the wood by three ways, but so as to be wound the same day as the king had his horse
able to relieve one another; and then ordered shot under him at the siege of that town.
Sir John Hepburn with his brigade to advance We made no question of passing the river
to the edge of the wood to secure our retreat; here, having brought everything so forward, and and at the same time commanded another briwith such extraordinary success; but we should gade of foot to pass the bridge, if necessary, to have found it a very hot piece of work if Tilly second Sir John Hepburn; so warily did this had lived one day longer : and if I may give my
| prudent general proceed. opinion of it, having seen Tilly's battery and We advanced with our horse into the Bavarian breastwork, in the face of which we must have camp, which we found forsaken. The plunder passed the river, I must say, that whenever we of it was inconsiderable ; for the exceeding cauhad marched, if Tilly had fallen in with his
tion the king had used gave them time to carry off horse and foot, placed in that trench, the whole | all their baggage. We followed them three or army would have passed as much in danger as in
|| four miles, and returned to our camp. the face of a strong town in the storming a coun I confess I was most diverted that day with terscarp.
viewing the works which Tilly had cast up, and The king, when he saw with what judgment must own again, that had he not been taken off, Tilly had prepared his works, and what danger || we had met with as desperate a piece of work as He himself must have run, would often say, that ever was attempted. The next day the rest of day's success was every way equal to the victory ||
the cavalry came up to us, cominanded by Gus
tavus Horne, and the king and the whole army Tilly being hurt and carried off, as if the soul
followed: we advanced through the heart of Baof the army had been lost, they began to draw || varia, took Rain at the first summons, and seveon. The Duke of Bavaria took horse and rode ral other small towns, and sat down before away, as if he had fled out of battle for his life. Augsburg.
The other generals, with a little more caution Augsburg, though a protestant city, had a as well as courage, drew off by degrees. sending II popish Bavarian garrison in it of above five
I cannons and baggage away first, and leav- || thousand men, commanded by a Fugger, a grcat 18 some to continue firing on the bank of the Il family in Bavaria. The governor had posted er to conceal their retreat. The river pre. U several little parties as outscouts, at the distance
elligence, we knew nothing of the l of two miles and a half or three miles from the ster which had befallen them; and the king, i town. The king, at his coming up to this town, who looked for blows, having finished his bridge sends me with my little troop and three compaand ravelin, ordered to run a line with palisadocs nies of dragoons to beat in these out-scouts: the to take in more ground on the bank of the river first party I discovered was not above sixteen Tu.ver the first troops he should send over. I men, who had made a small barricado across the
being finished the same night, the king || road, and stood resolutely upon their guard. I sends
er a party of his guards to relieve the commanded the dragoons to alight, and open the o were in the ravelin, and commanded Il barricado, which, while they resolutely performed,