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the sixteen men gave them two volleys of their 1, the horse with the rest.” “ With all my heart," muskets, and through the enclosures made their !' said I. retreat to a turnpike about a quarter of a mile Immediately I wheeled off my troop, and a further.
small party of the musketeers followed me, and fell We passed their first traverse, and coming up to il | in with the dragoons and foot, who, seeing the the turnpike, I found it defended by two hundred danger too as well as I, fought like madmen. musketeers : I prepared to attack them, sending The foot at the turnpike were not able to hinder word to the king of the strength of the enemy, our breaking through; so we made our way out, and desired some foot to be sent me.
killing about one hundred and fifty of them, and My dragoons fell on, and though the enemy || put the rest into confusion. made a very hot fire, had beat them from this But now I was in as great difficnlty as before post before two hundred foot, which the king how to fetch off my brave captain of foot, for had sent me, had come up. Being joined with they charged home upon him: he defended himthe foot, I followed the enemy, who retreated, || self with extraordinary gallantry, having the befighting, till they came under the cannon of a || nefit of a piece of a hedge to cover him ; but he strong redoubt, where they drew up; and I could lost half his men, and was just upon the point of see another body of foot, of about three hundred, being defeated, when the king, informed by a join them out of the works.
soldier that escaped from the turnpike, one of Upon this I halted, and considering I was in twenty-six, had sent a party of six hundred draview of the town, and a great way from the goons to bring me off': these came upon the army, I faced about, and began to march off. spur, and joined with me just as I had broke As we marched I found the enemy followed, but through the turnpike. The enemy's foot rallied kept at a distance, as if they only designed to behind their horse, and by this time their other observe us. We had not marched far before I party was come in; but, seeing our relief, they heard a volley of small shot, answered by two or drew off together three more, which I presently apprehended to be
Ilost above one hundred men in these skirmishes, at the turnpike, where I had left a sinall guard
and killed of the enemy about one hundred and of twenty-six men with a lieutenant.
eighty. We secured the turnpike, and placed I immediately detached one hundred dragoons a company of foot there with one hundred drato relieve my men, and secure my retreat, fol. goons, and came back well beaten to the army. lowing myself as fast as the foot could march. The king, to prevent such uncertain skirmishes,
The lieutenant sent ine back word the post advanced the next day in view of the town, and, was taken by the enemy, and my men cut off,
according to his custom, sits down with his whole Upon this I doubled my pace, and when I came army within cannon-shot of their walls. up I found it as the lieutenant had said ; for the The king won this great city by force of words, post was taken, and defended by three hundred for by two or three messages and letters to and muskeieci's and three troops of horse. By this from the citizens the town was gained, the garri. time also I found the party in my rear made up son not daring to defend them against their wills, towards me; so that I was like to be charged, in His majesty made his public entrance into the a narrow place, both in front and rear.
city on the 14th of April, and, receiving the comI saw there was no remedy but with all my pliments of the citizens, advanced immediately force to fall upon that party before me, and so to
to Ingolstadt, which is accounted, and really is, break through before those from the town could | the strongest town in all those parts. come up with me: therefore, commanding my There was a very strong garrison in it, and dragoons to alight, I ordered them to fall on the Duke of Bavaria lay intrenched with his upon the foot. Their horse were drawn up in an army under the walls of it, on the other side of enclosed field on one side of the road, a great the river. The king, who never loved long ditch securing the other side; so that they sieges, having reviewed the town, and brought thought if I charged the foot in front, they his army within musket-shot of it, called a counwould fall upon my fank, while those behind cil of war, where it was the king's opinion, in would charge my rear; and, indeed, had the short, that the town would cost him more than other come in time, they had cut me off. My it was worth, and therefore he resolved to raise dragoons made three fair charges on their foot; | the siege. but were received with so much resolution, and Here the king, going to view the town, had so brisk a fire, that they were beaten off, and his horse shot with a cannon-bullet from the sixteen men killed.
works, which tumbled the king and his horse Seeing them so rudely handled, and the horse over each other, that every body thought he had ready to fall in, I relieved them with one hun
been killed, but he received no hurt at all: that dred musketeers, and they renewed the attack;
very minute, as near as could be learned, General at the same time with my troop of horse, flanked
Tilly died in the town of the shot he received on on both wings with fifty musketeers, I faced their the bank of the Lech. horse, but did not offer to charge them. The I was not in the camp when the king was case grew now desperate, and the enemy behind hurt; for the king had sent almost all the horse were just at my heels with near six hundred | and dragoons, under Gustavus Horne, to face men. The captain who commanded the musket- | the Duke of Bavaria's camp, and after that to eers, and flanked my horse, came up to me, and || plunder the country, which truly was a work the said, “ If we do not force this pass, all will be soldiers were glad of, for it was very seldom lost : if you will draw out your troop and twenty || they had that liberty given them, and they made of my foot, and fall in, I will engage to keep off || very good use of it when it was, for the country
of Bavaria was rich and plentiful, having seen noll not so numerous as was reported, but were really enemy before during the whole war.
sixty thousand men. The army having left the siege of Ingolstadt, I The king, not strong enough to fight yet (as proceeds to take in the rest of Bavaria. Sir | he used to say), was strong enough not to he John Hepburn, with three brigades of foot, and || forced to fight, formed his camp so under the Gustavus Horne, with three thousand horse and cannon of Nuremburg, that there was no besiegdragoons, went to the Landshut, and took it the |ing the town, but they must besiege him too; same day. The garrison was all horse, and gave and he fortified his camp in so formidable a manus several camisadoes at our approach, in one of per, that Wallenstein never durst attack him. which I lost two of my troops; but when we had | On the 30th of June Wallenstein's troops apbeat them into close quarters they presently ca- peared, and on the 5th of July encamped close
|| by the king, and posted themselves not on the The general got a large sum of money of the Bavarian side, but between the king and his own town, besides a great many presents to the offi- || friends of Schwaben and Frankendal, in order to cers; and from thence the King went on to intercept his provisions, and, as they thought, to Munich, the Duke of Bavaria's court. Some of starve him out of his camp. (Note 9.) the general officers would fain have had the Here they lay to see who could subsist longest. plundering of the duke's palace; but the king The king was strong in horse, for we had full was too generous—the city paid him four hun. || eight thousand horse and dragoons in the army, dred thousand dollars, and the duke's magazine and this gave us great advantage in the several was there seized, in which were one hundred and skirmishes we had with the enemy. They had forty pieces of cannon, and small arms for above possession of the whole country, and had taken twenty thousand men.
effectual care to furnish their army with proviThe great chamber of the duke's rarities was sions : they placed their guards in such excellent preserved, by the king's special order, with all order to secure their convoys, that their waggons great deal of care. I expected to have staid here went from stage to stage as quiet as in time of some time, and to have taken very exact account | peace, and were relieved every five miles by parof this curious laboratory ; but being commanded || ties constantly posted on the road. away, I had no time, and the fate of the war And thus the Imperial general sat down by us, never gave me an opportunity to see it again. I not doubting but he should force the king either
The Imperialists, under the command of Com-|| to fight his way through on very disadvantageous missary Osta, had besieged Bibrach, an Imperial | terms, or to rise for want of provisions, and leave city not very well fortified; and the inhabitants, ll the city of Nuremburg a prey to his army; for being under the Swede's protection, defended he had vowed the destruction of the city, and to thenrselves as well as they could, but were in || make it a second Magdeburg. great danger, and sent several expresses to the But the king, who was not to be easily deking for help.
ceived had countermined all Wallenstein's deThe king immediately detaches a strong body || signs : he had passed his honour to the Nuremof horse and foot to relieve Bibrach, and would burgers that he would not leave them, and they be the commander himself-I marched among l had undertaken to victual his army, and secure the horse--but the Imperialists saved us the him from want, which they did so effectually labour; for the news of the king coming fright |that he had no occasion to expose his troops to ened away Osta, that he left Bibrach and hardly any bazard or fatigues for convoys or forage on looked behind him till he got up to the Bodensee, ll any account whatever. on the confines of Switzerland.
The city of Nuremburg is a very rich and poAt our return from this expedition the king | pulous city; and the king, being very sensible of had the trst news of Wallenstein's approach, I their danger, had given his word for their defence : who, on the death of Count Tilly, being declared and when they, being terrified at the threats of generalissimo of the Emperor's forces, had played the Imperiaists, sent their deputies to beseech the tyrant in Bohemia, and was now advancing is the king to take care of them, he sent them word with sixty thousand men, as they reported, to he would, and be besieged with them. They, on relieve the Duke of Bavaria. (Note 8.)
the otber hand, laid in such stores of all sorts of The King, therefore, in order to be in a situa provision, both for main and horse, that had Waltion to receive this great general, resolves to lenstein lain before it six months longer, there quit Bavaria, and to expect him on the frontiers would have been no scarcity. Every private of Franconia ; and because he knew the Nurem house was a magazine : the camp was plentifully burgers, for their kindness to him, would be their supplied with all manner of provisions, and the first sacrifice, be resolved to defend that city market always full, and as cheap as in times of against him, whatever it cost
peace, Nevertheless he did not leave Bavaria without The magistrates were so careful, and preserved a defence; but, on the one hand, he left Sir so excellent an order in the disposal of all sorts John Bannier with ten thousand men about of provision, that no engrossing of corn could be Augsburg, and the Duke of Saxe-Weimar with practised, for the prices were every day directed another like army about Ulme and Meiningen, ll at the town-bouse; and! if any man offered to with orders so to direct their march as that they | demand more money fo; r corn than the stated might join him upon any occasion in a few days. Il price, he could not sell, because at the town
We encamped about Nuremburg the middle of storehouse you might buy cheaper June. The ariny, after so many detachments, ll. Here are two instances of good and bad conwas not above nineteen thousand men. The duct :- The city of Ma, gdeburg had been enImperial army, joined with the Bavarian, werell treated by the king to si attle funds, and raise money for their provision and security, and to their friends; and here he showed his mastership have a sufficient garrison to defend them; but in the war, for by this means his conquests they made difficulties either to raise men for went on as effectually as if he had been abroad themselves, or to admit the king's troops to assist himself. them, for fear of the charge of maintaining them; In the meantime, it was not to be expected two and this was the cause of the city's ruin.
such armies should lie long so near without some The city of Nuremburg opened their arms to action. The Imperial army, being masters of the receive the assistance proffered by the Swedes, field, laid the country for ahout twenty miles and their purses to defend their town and com- round Nuremburg in a manner desolate : what mon cause; and this was the saving them abso. the inhabitants could carry away had been before lutely from destruction. The rich burghers and secured in such strong towas as bad garrisons to magistrates kept open houses, where the officers protect them, and what was left the hungry Cra of the army were always welcome ; and the bats devoured, or set on fire ; but sometimes they council of the city took such care of the poor, were met with by our men, who often paid them that there was no complaining, nor any disorders home for it. in the whole city.
There had passed several rencounters between There is no doubt but it cost the city a great our parties and theirs; and, as it falls out in such deal of money; but I never saw a public charge cases, sometimes one side, sometimes the other borne with so much cheerfulness, nor managed got the better ; but I have observed there never with so much prudence and conduct, in my life. was any party sent out by the king's special apThe city fed about fifty thousand every day, in pointment but always came home with victory. cluding their own poor, besides themselves; and The first considerable attempt, as I remember, yet the king had lain thus three months, and
was made on a convoy of ammunition. The party finding his armies longer in coming up than he
sent out was commanded by a Saxon colonel, and expected, asked the burgrave how their maga
consisted of a thousand horse and five hundred zines held out. He answered, they desired his
dragoons, who burnt above six hundred waggons majesty not to hasten things for them, for they
loaded with ammunition and stores for the army, could maintain themselves and him twelve months besides taking about two thousand muskets, which longer, if there was occasion. This plenty kept they brought back to the army. both the army and city in good health, as well as
The latter end of July the king received adin good heart; whereas nothing was to be had
vice that the Imperialists had formed a magazine of us but blows; for we fetched nothing from
for provisions at a town called Freynstat, twenty without our works, nor had any business without
miles from Nuremburg. Hither all the booty the line but to interrupt the enemy.
and contributions raised in the Upper Palatinate, The manner of the king's encampment de
and parts adjacent, were brought and laid up in serves a particular attention. He was a com
a place of security, a garrison of six hundred men plete surveyor, and a master in fortification, not 1
|| being placed to defend it; and when a quantity to be outdone by any. He had posted his army
Ell of provisions was got together, convoys were apin the suburbs of the town, and drawn lines round
pointed to fetch it off. the whole circumference, so that he begirt the whole city with his army: his works were large,
The king resolved, if possible, to take or dethe ditch deep, flanked with innumerable bastions,
I stroy this magazine ; and sending for Colonel ravelins, hornworks, forts, redoubts, batteries,
Dubalt, a Swede, a man of extraordinary conand pallisadoes, the incessant work of eight duct, he tells him bis design, and also that he thousand men for about fourteen days.
must be the instrument to put it in execution, Besides that, the king was adding something
and ordered him to take what forces he thought or other to it every day; and the very posture of
convenient. his camp was enough to tell a larger army than
The colonel, who well knew the town, and the Wallenstein's that he was not to be assaulted in
country about it, told his majesty he would alhis trenches.
tempt it with all his heart; but he was afraid it The king's design appeared chiefly to be the would require some foot to make the attack. preservation of the city; but that was not all
“ We cannot stay for them,” says the king; he had three armies acting abroad in three several
veral | “ you must then take some dragoons with you ;" | aces namely Gustavus Horne was on the and immediately the king called for me. Mosel; the chancellor Oxenstern about Mentz, | I was just going up the stairs as the king's page Cologne, and the Rhine ; Duke William and I was coming out to inquire for me ; so I went imDuke Bernard, together with General Bannier,
ral Bannier. Il mediately to the king. in Bavaria ; and though he designed they should
“ Here is a piece of hot work for you," says his all join him, and had written to them to that pur majesty ; “Dubalt will tell it you-go together pose, yet he did not hasten them, knowing that and contrive it." while he kept the main army at bay about Nu We immediately withdrew; and when the remburg they would, without opposition, reduce colones had acquainted me with the discourse those several countries they were acting in to his which had passed between the king and himself, power.
I replied I thought dragoons might do as well ; This occasioned his lying longer in the camp so we agreed to take sixteen hundred horse and at Nuremburg than he would have done, and also four hundred dragoons. his giving the Imperialists so many alarms by The king, impatient in his design, came into his strong parties of horse, of which he was well the room to us to know what we had resolved provided, that they might not be able to make on, approved our measures, gave us orders im. any considerable detachments for the relief of ll mediately, and, turning to me, says, “ You shal
command the dragoons, but Dubalt must be to wait upon General Spárt. All this was the general in this case, for he knows the country." | account of one day. The king met General Sparr
“ Your majesty," said I, “shall be always served at the moment when his troops were divided, fell by me in any figure you please.” The king upon them, routed one part of them, and the rest wished us good speed, and hurried us away the in a few hours after; killed them one thousand
he afternoon, in order to get to the place in | men, and took General Sparr prisoner. time.
In the interval of this action we came safe to We could march but slowly because of the the camp with our booty, which was very concarriages we had with us, and came to Freynstat siderable, and would have supplied our whole about one o'clock in the night perfectly undis. | army for a month. Thus we feasted at the enecovered. The guards were so negligent, that we | my's cost, and beat them into the bargain. came to the very port before they had notice of The king gave all the live cattle to the Nu. us; and a sergeant, with twelve dragoons, thrust remburgers, who, though they had really no want in upon the out-sentinels, and killed them with of provisions, yet fresh meat was not so plentful out noise.
as such provisions, which were stored up in vessels Immediately ladders were placed to the half- || and laid by. moon which defended the gate, which the dra. | After this skirmish we had the country more at goons mounted and carried in a trice, about command than before, and daily fetched in fresh twenty-eight men being cut in pieces within. As | provisions and forage from the fields. soon as the ravelin was taken they burst open the The two armies had now lain a long time in gate, at which I entered at the head of two hun. | sight of one another, and daily skirmishes had dred dragoons, and seized the drawbridge. By considerably weakened them; and the king, be. this time the town was in alarm, and the drums ginning to be impatient, hastened the advance. beat to arms, but it was too late ; for, by the ment of his friends to join him, in which they help of a petard, we broke open the gate, and were not backward ; but having drawn together entered the town.
their forces from several parts, and all joined the The garrison made an obstinate resistance for Chancellor Oxenstern, news came the 15th of about half an hour; but our men being all in, || August that they were in full march to join us ; and three troops of horse dismounted coming to l and being come to a small town called Bruck, the our assistance with their carbines, the town was king went out of the camp with about one thouentirely mastered by three o'clock, and guards set sand horse to view them. to prevent anybody running to give notice to the I went along with the horse, and the 21st of enemy.
August saw the review of all the armies together, There were about two hundred of the garrison 1 which were thirty thousand men, in extraordi. killed, and the rest taken prisoners. The town | nary equipage, old soldiers, and commanded by being thus secured, the gates were opened, and officers of the greatest conduct and experience in Colonel Dubalt came in with the horse.
the world. There was the rich Chancellor of The guards being set, we entered the magazine, Sweden, who commanded as general; Gustavus where we found an incredible quantity of all sorts Horne and John Bannier, both Swedes, and old of provisions. There were one hundred and fifty | generals ; Duke William and Duke Bernard of tons of bread, eight thousand sacks of meal, four Weimar, the Landgrave of Hesse Cassel, the
thousand sacks of oats, and of other provisions in Palatine of Birkenfelt, and abundance of princes i proportion.
and lords of the empire. We caused as much of it as could be loaded to The armies being joined, the king, who was be brought away in such waggons and carriages | now a match for wallenstem, quits nis camp, and as we found, and set the rest on fire, town and || draws up in battalla detore une i
| draws up in battalia before the Imperial trenches; all. We staid by it till we saw it past a pos
but the scene was changed Wallenstein was no sibility of being saved, and then drew off with more able to fight now than the king was before ; eight hundred waggons which we found in the
but keeping within his trenches, stood upon his place, most of which we loaded with bread, meal, | guard. "The king, coming up close to his works, and oats.
plants batteries, and cannonaded him in his very While we were doing this, we sent a party of|| camp. dragoons into the fields, who met us again as we
The Imperialists, finding the king press upon came out with about a thousand head of black | them, retreated into a woody country about three cattle, besides sheep.
| leagues, and taking possession of an old ruined Our next care was to bring this booty home castle, posted their army behind it. . without meeting with the enemy; to secure
This old castle they fortified, and placed a very which Colonel Dubalt immediately dispatched an strong guard there. The king having viewed the express to the king to let him know of our suc place, though it was a very strong post, resolved cess, and to desire a detachment might be made to attack it with the whole right wing. The to secure our retreat, being charged with so much attack was made with a great deal of order and plunder.
resolution, the king leading the first party on with And it is well the colonel did so; for though sword in hand, and the fight was maintained with we had used all the diligence possible to prevent
the utmost gallantry and obstinacy all the day any notice, yet somebody had carried the news to
and the next night too, for the cannon and mus the Imperial army; and their general, upon this, || Ker ne
ket never gave over until the morning ; but the deta
taches Major-general Sparr with a body of six || Imperialists having the advantage of the hill, 0. thousand men to cut off our retreat.
their works and batteries, and being continually The king, who had notice of this detachment, | relieved, and the Swedes naked, without cannon marches ou
les out in person with three thousand men !) or works, the post was maintained; and the king,
finding it would cost him too much blood, drew | come together. The consultation was but short, off in the morning.
for the musketeers were advancing to a third This was the famous fight at Altenberg, where charge with numbers which we were not likely the Imperialist boasted to have shown the world to deal with. the King of Sweden was not invincible. They In short, we resolved to beat a parley, and de. call it the victory at Altenberg. It is true the mand quarter, for that was all we could expect; king failed in his attempt of carrying their works ; // when on a sudden the body of horse I had posted but there was so little of a victory in it, that the in the village, being directed by the noise, had Imperial general thought fit not to venture a ) advanced to relieve me, if they saw occasion, and second attack, but to draw off their army as soon had met the two hundred dragoons, who guided as they could to a safer quarter.
them directly to the spot where they had broke I had no share in this battle, very few of the through, and all together fell upon the horse of horse being in the action ; but my companion, || the enemy who were posted on that side, and, who was always among the Scotch volunteers, | mastering them before they could be relieved, cut was wounded and taken prisoner by the enemy, them all to pieces and brought me off, They used him very civilly; and the king and Under the shelter of this party we made good Wallenstein straining courtesies with one another, | our retreat to the village, but we lost above three the king released Major-General Sparr without | hundred men, and were glad to make off from ransom, and the Imperial general sent home the village too, for the enemy were very much Colonel Tortenson, a Swede, and sixteen volun too strong for us. teer gentlemen who were taken in the heat of the Returning thence towards the camp, we met action, among whom my captain was one. with two hundred Crabats who had been upon
The king lay fourteen days facing the Imperial the plundering account: we made ourselves some army, and using all the stratagems possible to amends upon them for our former loss, for we bring them to a battle, but to no purpose ; during showed them no mercy; but our misfortunes which time we had parties continually out, and were not ended, for we had just dispatched those very often skirmishes with the enemy.
Crabats when we fell in with three thousand I had a command of one of these parties in an | Imperial horse, who, on the expectation of the adventure wherein I got no booty, nor much aforesaid convoy, were sent out to secure them. 1 honour. The king had received advice of a || All I could do could not persuade my men to convoy of provisions which was to come to the stand their ground against this party; so that, enemy's camp from the Upper Palatinate, and | finding they would run away in confusion, I agreed intending to surprise them, he commanded us to to make off, and, facing to the right, we went waylay them with twelve hundred horse and over a large common at full trot, till at last fear, eight hundred dragoons. I had exact directions which always increases in a flight, brought us to given me of the way they were to come, and post. || a gallop, with the enemy at our heels. ing my horse in a village a little out of the road, | I must confess I was never go mortified in my I lay with my dragoons in a wood by which they | life--it was to no purpose to turn-no man would were to pass by break of day.
stand by us we ran for life and a great many The enemy appeared with their convoy, and were left by the way, who were either wounded being very wary, their outscouts discovered us in by the enemy's shot, or else could not keep pace wood, and fired upon the sentinel I had posted in || with us. a tree at the entrance of the wood. Finding my At last, having got over the common, which! self discovered, I would have retreated to the was near two miles, we came to a lane: one of village where my horse were posted, but in a our captains, a Saxon, and a gentleman of good moment the wood was skirted with the enemy's fortune, alighted at the entrance of the lane, and horse, and a thousand musketeers advanced to with a bold heart faced about, shot his own borse, beat me out.
and called his men to stand by him and defend In this dilemma I sent away three messengers the lane. Some of his men halted, and we rallied one after another for the horse, who were within about six hundred men, which we posted as well two miles of me, to advance to my relief; but as we could to defend the pass, but the enemy all my messengers fell into the enemy's hands. | charged us with great fury. Four hundred of my dragoons on foot, whom I The Saxon gentleman, after defending himself had placed at a little distance before me, stood to with exceeding gallantry, and refusing quartet, ! their work, and beat off two charges of the ene was killed upon the spot. A German dragon, my's foot, with some loss on both sides. Mean | as I thought him, gave me a rude blow with the time two hundred of my men faced about, and, stock of his piece on the side of my head, and was rushing out of the wood, broke through a party just going to repeat it, when one of my men shot of the enemy's horse who stood to watch our him dead. I was so stunned with the blow that coming out.
I knew nothing ; but, recovering, I found mysel I confess I was exceedingly surprised at it, in the hands of two of the enemy's officers, who thinking the fellows had done it to make their offered me quarter, which I accepted, and indeed, escape, or else were gone over to the enemy; and to give them their due, they used me very civilly. my men were so discouraged at it, that they be | Thus this whole party was defeated, and not gan to look about which way to run for safety, above five hundred men got safe to the army, and were just upon the point of disbanding to nor would half the number have escaped bad not shift for themselves, when one of the captains the Saxon captain made so bold a stand at the called to me aloud to beat a parley and treat. Ihead of the lane. made no answer, as if I had not heard him, and I Several other parties of the king's army 18 immediately gave the word for all the captains to I venged our quarrel, and paid them home for it;